Duality (order Theory)
In the mathematical area of order theory, every partially ordered set ''P'' gives rise to a dual (or opposite) partially ordered set which is often denoted by ''P''op or ''P''''d''. This dual order ''P''op is defined to be the same set, but with the inverse order, i.e. ''x'' ≤ ''y'' holds in ''P''op if and only if ''y'' ≤ ''x'' holds in ''P''. It is easy to see that this construction, which can be depicted by flipping the Hasse diagram for ''P'' upside down, will indeed yield a partially ordered set. In a broader sense, two partially ordered sets are also said to be duals if they are dually isomorphic, i.e. if one poset is order isomorphic to the dual of the other. The importance of this simple definition stems from the fact that every definition and theorem of order theory can readily be transferred to the dual order. Formally, this is captured by the Duality Principle for ordered sets: : If a given statement is valid for all partially ordered sets, then its dual statement, o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Lattice
In mathematics, a complete lattice is a partially ordered set in which ''all'' subsets have both a supremum (join) and an infimum (meet). A lattice which satisfies at least one of these properties is known as a ''conditionally complete lattice.'' Specifically, every nonempty finite lattice is complete. Complete lattices appear in many applications in mathematics and computer science. Being a special instance of lattices, they are studied both in order theory and universal algebra. Complete lattices must not be confused with complete partial orders (''cpo''s), which constitute a strictly more general class of partially ordered sets. More specific complete lattices are complete Boolean algebras and complete Heyting algebras (''locales''). Formal definition A partially ordered set (''L'', ≤) is a ''complete lattice'' if every subset ''A'' of ''L'' has both a greatest lower bound (the infimum, also called the ''meet'') and a least upper bound (the supremum, also called the ''j ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit organizations and an integral component of a large research university. They publish work that has been reviewed by schola ... in the world. It is also the King's Printer. Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. It became part of Cambridge University Press & Assessment, following a merger with Cambridge Assessment in 2021. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 Country, countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. Its publishing includes more than 380 academic journals, monographs, reference works, school and uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dual (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, duality is a correspondence between the properties of a category ''C'' and the dual properties of the opposite category ''C''op. Given a statement regarding the category ''C'', by interchanging the source and target of each morphism as well as interchanging the order of composing two morphisms, a corresponding dual statement is obtained regarding the opposite category ''C''op. Duality, as such, is the assertion that truth is invariant under this operation on statements. In other words, if a statement is true about ''C'', then its dual statement is true about ''C''op. Also, if a statement is false about ''C'', then its dual has to be false about ''C''op. Given a concrete category ''C'', it is often the case that the opposite category ''C''op per se is abstract. ''C''op need not be a category that arises from mathematical practice. In this case, another category ''D'' is also termed to be in duality with ''C'' if ''D'' and ''C''op are e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transpose Graph
In the mathematical and algorithmic study of graph theory, the converse, transpose or reverse, entry 2.24 of a directed graph is another directed graph on the same set of vertices with all of the edges reversed compared to the orientation of the corresponding edges in . That is, if contains an edge then the converse/transpose/reverse of contains an edge and vice versa. Notation The name arises because the reversal of arrows corresponds to taking the converse of an implication in logic. The name is because the adjacency matrix of the transpose directed graph is the transpose of the adjacency matrix of the original directed graph. There is no general agreement on preferred terminology. The converse is denoted symbolically as , , , or other notations, depending on which terminology is used and which book or article is the source for the notation. Applications Although there is little difference mathematically between a graph and its transpose, the difference may be lar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Boolean Algebra Topics
This is a list of topics around Boolean algebra and propositional logic. Articles with a wide scope and introductions * Algebra of sets * Boolean algebra (structure) * Boolean algebra * Field of sets * Logical connective * Propositional calculus Boolean functions and connectives * Ampheck * Analysis of Boolean functions * Balanced boolean function * Bent function * Boolean algebras canonically defined * Boolean function * Boolean matrix * Booleanvalued function * Conditioned disjunction * Evasive Boolean function * Exclusive or * Functional completeness * Logical biconditional * Logical conjunction * Logical disjunction * Logical equality * Logical implication * Logical negation * Logical NOR * Lupanov representation * Majority function * Material conditional * Minimal axioms for Boolean algebra * Peirce arrow * Readonce function * Sheffer stroke * Sole sufficient operator ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Converse Relation
In mathematics, the converse relation, or transpose, of a binary relation is the relation that occurs when the order of the elements is switched in the relation. For example, the converse of the relation 'child of' is the relation 'parent of'. In formal terms, if X and Y are sets and L \subseteq X \times Y is a relation from X to Y, then L^ is the relation defined so that yL^x if and only if xLy. In setbuilder notation, :L^ = \. The notation is analogous with that for an inverse function. Although many functions do not have an inverse, every relation does have a unique converse. The unary operation that maps a relation to the converse relation is an involution, so it induces the structure of a semigroup with involution on the binary relations on a set, or, more generally, induces a dagger category on the category of relations as detailed below. As a unary operation, taking the converse (sometimes called conversion or transposition) commutes with the orderrelate ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Relations
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class. Notation Various notations are used in the literature to denote that two elements a and b of a set are equivalent with respect to an equivalence relation R; the most common are "a \sim b" and "", which are used when R is implicit, and variations of "a \sim_R b", "", or "" to specify R explicitly. Nonequivalence may be written "" or "a \not\equiv b". Definition A binary relation \,\sim\, on a set X is said to be an equivalence relation, if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. That is, for all a, b, and c in X: * a \sim a ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Antisymmetric Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation R on a set X is antisymmetric if there is no pair of ''distinct'' elements of X each of which is related by R to the other. More formally, R is antisymmetric precisely if for all a, b \in X, \text \,aRb\, \text \,a \neq b\, \text \,bRa\, \text, or equivalently, \text \,aRb\, \text \,bRa\, \text \,a = b. The definition of antisymmetry says nothing about whether aRa actually holds or not for any a. An antisymmetric relation R on a set X may be reflexive (that is, aRa for all a \in X), irreflexive (that is, aRa for no a \in X), or neither reflexive nor irreflexive. A relation is asymmetric if and only if it is both antisymmetric and irreflexive. Examples The divisibility relation on the natural numbers is an important example of an antisymmetric relation. In this context, antisymmetry means that the only way each of two numbers can be divisible by the other is if the two are, in fact, the same number; equivalently, if n and m are distinct and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Algebra (structure)
In abstract algebra, a Boolean algebra or Boolean lattice is a complemented distributive lattice. This type of algebraic structure captures essential properties of both set operations and logic operations. A Boolean algebra can be seen as a generalization of a power set algebra or a field of sets, or its elements can be viewed as generalized truth values. It is also a special case of a De Morgan algebra and a Kleene algebra (with involution). Every Boolean algebra gives rise to a Boolean ring, and vice versa, with ring multiplication corresponding to conjunction or meet ∧, and ring addition to exclusive disjunction or symmetric difference (not disjunction ∨). However, the theory of Boolean rings has an inherent asymmetry between the two operators, while the axioms and theorems of Boolean algebra express the symmetry of the theory described by the duality principle. __TOC__ History The term "Boolean algebra" honors George Boole (1815–1864), a selfeducated English ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Modular Lattice
In the branch of mathematics called order theory, a modular lattice is a lattice (order), lattice that satisfies the following selfduality (order theory), dual condition, ;Modular law: implies where are arbitrary elements in the lattice, ≤ is the partial order, and ∨ and ∧ (called join and meet respectively) are the operations of the lattice. This phrasing emphasizes an interpretation in terms of projection onto the sublattice , a fact known as the diamond isomorphism theorem. An alternative but equivalent condition stated as an equation (see below) emphasizes that modular lattices form a variety (universal algebra), variety in the sense of universal algebra. Modular lattices arise naturally in algebra and in many other areas of mathematics. In these scenarios, modularity is an abstraction of the Second isomorphism theorem, 2nd Isomorphism Theorem. For example, the subspaces of a vector space (and more generally the submodules of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distributive Lattice
In mathematics, a distributive lattice is a lattice in which the operations of join and meet distribute over each other. The prototypical examples of such structures are collections of sets for which the lattice operations can be given by set union and intersection. Indeed, these lattices of sets describe the scenery completely: every distributive lattice is—up to isomorphism—given as such a lattice of sets. Definition As in the case of arbitrary lattices, one can choose to consider a distributive lattice ''L'' either as a structure of order theory or of universal algebra. Both views and their mutual correspondence are discussed in the article on lattices. In the present situation, the algebraic description appears to be more convenient. A lattice (''L'',∨,∧) is distributive if the following additional identity holds for all ''x'', ''y'', and ''z'' in ''L'': : ''x'' ∧ (''y'' ∨ ''z'') = (''x'' ∧ ''y'') ∨ (''x'' ∧ ''z''). Viewing lattices as partially ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 