Degree Celsius
Degree may refer to: As a unit of measurement * Degree (angle), a unit of angle measurement ** Degree of geographical latitude ** Degree of geographical longitude * Degree symbol (°), a notation used in science, engineering, and mathematics * Degree (temperature), any of various units of temperature measurement * Degree API, a measure of density in the petroleum industry * Degree Baumé, a pair of density scales * Degree Brix, a measure of sugar concentration * Degree GayLussac, a measure of the alcohol content of a liquid by volume, ranging from 0° to 100° * Degree proof, or simply proof, the alcohol content of a liquid, ranging from 0° to 175° in the UK, and from 0° to 200° in the U.S. * Degree of curvature, a unit of curvature measurement, used in civil engineering * Degrees of freedom (mechanics), the number of displacements or rotations needed to define the position and orientation of a body * Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), a concept describing depen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree (angle)
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane (mathematics), plane angle in which one Turn (geometry), full rotation is 360 degrees. It is not an SI unit—the SI unit of angular measure is the radian—but it is mentioned in the SI Brochure, SI brochure as an NonSI units mentioned in the SI, accepted unit. Because a full rotation equals 2 radians, one degree is equivalent to radians. History The original motivation for choosing the degree as a unit of rotations and angles is unknown. One theory states that it is related to the fact that 360 is approximately the number of days in a year. Ancient astronomers noticed that the sun, which follows through the ecliptic path over the course of the year, seems to advance in its path by approximately one degree each day. Some ancient calendars, such as the Iranian calendar, Persian calendar and the Babylonian calendar, used 360 days for a year. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Carbonate Hardness
Carbonate hardness, is a measure of the water hardness caused by the presence of carbonate () and bicarbonate () anions. Carbonate hardness is usually expressed either in degrees KH (dKH) (from the German ''"Karbonathärte"''), or in ''parts per million calcium carbonate'' ( ppm or grams per litre, mg/L). One dKH is equal to 17.848 mg/L (ppm) , e.g. one dKH corresponds to the carbonate and bicarbonate ions found in a solution of approximately 17.848 milligrams of calcium carbonate() per litre of water (17.848 ppm). Both measurements (mg/L or KH) are usually expressed as mg/L – meaning the concentration of carbonate expressed as if calcium carbonate were the sole source of carbonate ions. An aqueous solution containing 120 mg NaHCO3 (baking soda) per litre of water will contain 1.4285 mmol/l of bicarbonate, since the molar mass of baking soda is 84.007 g/mol. This is equivalent in carbonate hardness to a solution containing 0.71423 mmol/L of (calcium) carb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nth Root
In mathematics, a radicand, also known as an nth root, of a number ''x'' is a number ''r'' which, when raised to the power ''n'', yields ''x'': :r^n = x, where ''n'' is a positive integer, sometimes called the ''degree'' of the root. A root of degree 2 is called a ''square root'' and a root of degree 3, a ''cube root''. Roots of higher degree are referred by using ordinal numbers, as in ''fourth root'', ''twentieth root'', etc. The computation of an th root is a root extraction. For example, 3 is a square root of 9, since 3 = 9, and −3 is also a square root of 9, since (−3) = 9. Any nonzero number considered as a complex number has different complex th roots, including the real ones (at most two). The th root of 0 is zero for all positive integers , since . In particular, if is even and is a positive real number, one of its th roots is real and positive, one is negative, and the others (when ) are nonreal complex numbers; if is even and is a negative real numbe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of A Differential Equation
Degree may refer to: As a unit of measurement * Degree (angle), a unit of angle measurement ** Degree of geographical latitude ** Degree of geographical longitude * Degree symbol (°), a notation used in science, engineering, and mathematics * Degree (temperature), any of various units of temperature measurement * Degree API, a measure of density in the petroleum industry * Degree Baumé, a pair of density scales * Degree Brix, a measure of sugar concentration * Degree GayLussac, a measure of the alcohol content of a liquid by volume, ranging from 0° to 100° * Degree proof, or simply proof, the alcohol content of a liquid, ranging from 0° to 175° in the UK, and from 0° to 200° in the U.S. * Degree of curvature, a unit of curvature measurement, used in civil engineering * Degrees of freedom (mechanics), the number of displacements or rotations needed to define the position and orientation of a body * Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), a concept describing depen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Permutation Group
In mathematics, a permutation group is a group ''G'' whose elements are permutations of a given set ''M'' and whose group operation is the composition of permutations in ''G'' (which are thought of as bijective functions from the set ''M'' to itself). The group of ''all'' permutations of a set ''M'' is the symmetric group of ''M'', often written as Sym(''M''). The term ''permutation group'' thus means a subgroup of the symmetric group. If then Sym(''M'') is usually denoted by S''n'', and may be called the ''symmetric group on n letters''. By Cayley's theorem, every group is isomorphic to some permutation group. The way in which the elements of a permutation group permute the elements of the set is called its group action. Group actions have applications in the study of symmetries, combinatorics and many other branches of mathematics, physics and chemistry. Basic properties and terminology Being a subgroup of a symmetric group, all that is necessary for a set of permutatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of A Central Simple Algebra
In ring theory and related areas of mathematics a central simple algebra (CSA) over a field ''K'' is a finitedimensional associative ''K''algebra ''A'' which is simple, and for which the center is exactly ''K''. (Note that ''not'' every simple algebra is a central simple algebra over its center: for instance, if ''K'' is a field of characteristic 0, then the Weyl algebra K ,\partial_X/math> is a simple algebra with center ''K'', but is ''not'' a central simple algebra over ''K'' as it has infinite dimension as a ''K''module.) For example, the complex numbers C form a CSA over themselves, but not over the real numbers R (the center of C is all of C, not just R). The quaternions H form a 4dimensional CSA over R, and in fact represent the only nontrivial element of the Brauer group of the reals (see below). Given two central simple algebras ''A'' ~ ''M''(''n'',''S'') and ''B'' ~ ''M''(''m'',''T'') over the same field ''F'', ''A'' and ''B'' are called ''similar'' (or ''Brauer equ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of Unsolvability
In computer science and mathematical logic the Turing degree (named after Alan Turing) or degree of unsolvability of a set of natural numbers measures the level of algorithmic unsolvability of the set. Overview The concept of Turing degree is fundamental in computability theory, where sets of natural numbers are often regarded as decision problems. The Turing degree of a set is a measure of how difficult it is to solve the decision problem associated with the set, that is, to determine whether an arbitrary number is in the given set. Two sets are Turing equivalent if they have the same level of unsolvability; each Turing degree is a collection of Turing equivalent sets, so that two sets are in different Turing degrees exactly when they are not Turing equivalent. Furthermore, the Turing degrees are partially ordered, so that if the Turing degree of a set ''X'' is less than the Turing degree of a set ''Y'', then any (noncomputable) procedure that correctly decides whether numbers a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of A Character
In mathematics, more specifically in group theory, the character of a group representation is a function on the group that associates to each group element the trace of the corresponding matrix. The character carries the essential information about the representation in a more condensed form. Georg Frobenius initially developed representation theory of finite groups entirely based on the characters, and without any explicit matrix realization of representations themselves. This is possible because a complex representation of a finite group is determined (up to isomorphism) by its character. The situation with representations over a field of positive characteristic, socalled "modular representations", is more delicate, but Richard Brauer developed a powerful theory of characters in this case as well. Many deep theorems on the structure of finite groups use characters of modular representations. Applications Characters of irreducible representations encode many important properti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degrees Of Freedom (statistics)
In statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary. Estimates of statistical parameters can be based upon different amounts of information or data. The number of independent pieces of information that go into the estimate of a parameter is called the degrees of freedom. In general, the degrees of freedom of an estimate of a parameter are equal to the number of independent scores that go into the estimate minus the number of parameters used as intermediate steps in the estimation of the parameter itself. For example, if the variance is to be estimated from a random sample of ''N'' independent scores, then the degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent scores (''N'') minus the number of parameters estimated as intermediate steps (one, namely, the sample mean) and is therefore equal to ''N'' − 1. Mathematically, degrees of freedom is the number of dimensions of the domain o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of A Continuous Mapping
In topology, the degree of a continuous mapping between two compact oriented manifolds of the same dimension is a number that represents the number of times that the domain manifold wraps around the range manifold under the mapping. The degree is always an integer, but may be positive or negative depending on the orientations. The degree of a map was first defined by Brouwer, who showed that the degree is homotopy invariant (invariant among homotopies), and used it to prove the Brouwer fixed point theorem. In modern mathematics, the degree of a map plays an important role in topology and geometry. In physics, the degree of a continuous map (for instance a map from space to some order parameter set) is one example of a topological quantum number. Definitions of the degree From ''S''''n'' to ''S''''n'' The simplest and most important case is the degree of a continuous map from the nsphere S^n to itself (in the case n=1, this is called the winding number): Let f\colon S^n\t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree (graph Theory)
In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges that are incident to the vertex; in a multigraph, a loop contributes 2 to a vertex's degree, for the two ends of the edge. The degree of a vertex v is denoted \deg(v) or \deg v. The maximum degree of a graph G, denoted by \Delta(G), and the minimum degree of a graph, denoted by \delta(G), are the maximum and minimum of its vertices' degrees. In the multigraph shown on the right, the maximum degree is 5 and the minimum degree is 0. In a regular graph, every vertex has the same degree, and so we can speak of ''the'' degree of the graph. A complete graph (denoted K_n, where n is the number of vertices in the graph) is a special kind of regular graph where all vertices have the maximum possible degree, n1. In a signed graph, the number of positive edges connected to the vertex v is called positive deg(v) and the number of connected negative edges is entitled negative deg(v). Handshaking lemma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of An Algebraic Variety
In mathematics, the degree of an affine or projective variety of dimension is the number of intersection points of the variety with hyperplanes in general position.In the affine case, the generalposition hypothesis implies that there is no intersection point at infinity. For an algebraic set, the intersection points must be counted with their intersection multiplicity, because of the possibility of multiple components. For (irreducible) varieties, if one takes into account the multiplicities and, in the affine case, the points at infinity, the hypothesis of ''general position'' may be replaced by the much weaker condition that the intersection of the variety has the dimension zero (that is, consists of a finite number of points). This is a generalization of Bézout's theorem (For a proof, see ). The degree is not an intrinsic property of the variety, as it depends on a specific embedding of the variety in an affine or projective space. The degree of a hypersurface is equal to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 