Cosets
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Cosets
In mathematics, specifically group theory, a subgroup of a group may be used to decompose the underlying set of into disjoint, equal-size subsets called cosets. There are ''left cosets'' and ''right cosets''. Cosets (both left and right) have the same number of elements ( cardinality) as does . Furthermore, itself is both a left coset and a right coset. The number of left cosets of in is equal to the number of right cosets of in . This common value is called the index of in and is usually denoted by . Cosets are a basic tool in the study of groups; for example, they play a central role in Lagrange's theorem that states that for any finite group , the number of elements of every subgroup of divides the number of elements of . Cosets of a particular type of subgroup (a normal subgroup) can be used as the elements of another group called a quotient group or factor group. Cosets also appear in other areas of mathematics such as vector spaces and error-correcting ...
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Quotient Group
A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves some of the group structure (the rest of the structure is "factored" out). For example, the cyclic group of addition modulo ''n'' can be obtained from the group of integers under addition by identifying elements that differ by a multiple of n and defining a group structure that operates on each such class (known as a congruence class) as a single entity. It is part of the mathematical field known as group theory. For a congruence relation on a group, the equivalence class of the identity element is always a normal subgroup of the original group, and the other equivalence classes are precisely the cosets of that normal subgroup. The resulting quotient is written G\,/\,N, where G is the original group and N is the normal subgroup. (This is pronounced G\bmod N, where \mbox is short for modulo.) Much of the importa ...
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Index Of A Subgroup
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the index of a subgroup ''H'' in a group ''G'' is the number of left cosets of ''H'' in ''G'', or equivalently, the number of right cosets of ''H'' in ''G''. The index is denoted , G:H, or :H/math> or (G:H). Because ''G'' is the disjoint union of the left cosets and because each left coset has the same size as ''H'', the index is related to the orders of the two groups by the formula :, G, = , G:H, , H, (interpret the quantities as cardinal numbers if some of them are infinite). Thus the index , G:H, measures the "relative sizes" of ''G'' and ''H''. For example, let G = \Z be the group of integers under addition, and let H = 2\Z be the subgroup consisting of the even integers. Then 2\Z has two cosets in \Z, namely the set of even integers and the set of odd integers, so the index , \Z:2\Z, is 2. More generally, , \Z:n\Z, = n for any positive integer ''n''. When ''G'' is finite, the formula may be written as , G:H, = , G, /, ...
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Lagrange's Theorem (group Theory)
In the mathematical field of group theory, Lagrange's theorem is a theorem that states that for any finite group , the order (number of elements) of every subgroup of divides the order of . The theorem is named after Joseph-Louis Lagrange. The following variant states that for a subgroup H of a finite group G, not only is , G, /, H, an integer, but its value is the index :H/math>, defined as the number of left cosets of H in G. This variant holds even if G is infinite, provided that , G, , , H, , and :H/math> are interpreted as cardinal numbers. Proof The left cosets of in are the equivalence classes of a certain equivalence relation on : specifically, call and in equivalent if there exists in such that . Therefore, the left cosets form a partition of . Each left coset has the same cardinality as because x \mapsto ax defines a bijection H \to aH (the inverse is y \mapsto a^y). The number of left cosets is the index . By the previous three sentences, :\le ...
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Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ...
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Subgroup
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group ''G'' under a binary operation ∗, a subset ''H'' of ''G'' is called a subgroup of ''G'' if ''H'' also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'' if the restriction of ∗ to is a group operation on ''H''. This is often denoted , read as "''H'' is a subgroup of ''G''". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group ''G'' is a subgroup ''H'' which is a proper subset of ''G'' (that is, ). This is often represented notationally by , read as "''H'' is a proper subgroup of ''G''". Some authors also exclude the trivial group from being proper (that is, ). If ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'', then ''G'' is sometimes called an overgroup of ''H''. The same definitions apply more generally when ''G'' is an arbitrary semigroup, but this article will only deal with subgroups of groups. Subgroup tests Suppose ...
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Normal Subgroup
In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or self-conjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup N of the group G is normal in G if and only if gng^ \in N for all g \in G and n \in N. The usual notation for this relation is N \triangleleft G. Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group. Furthermore, the normal subgroups of G are precisely the kernels of group homomorphisms with domain G, which means that they can be used to internally classify those homomorphisms. Évariste Galois was the first to realize the importance of the existence of normal subgroups. Definitions A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup of G if it is invariant under conjugation; that is, the conjugation of an element of N by an element of G is always in N. The usual notation for thi ...
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Dihedral Group Of Order 6
In mathematics, D3 (sometimes alternatively denoted by D6) is the dihedral group of degree 3, or, in other words, the dihedral group of order 6. It is isomorphic to the symmetric group S3 of degree 3. It is also the smallest possible non-abelian group.. For the identification of D3 with S3, and the observation that this group is the smallest possible non-abelian group, sep. 49 This page illustrates many group concepts using this group as example. Symmetry groups The dihedral group D3 is the symmetry group of an equilateral triangle, that is, it is the set of all transformations such as reflection, rotation, and combinations of these, that leave the shape and position of this triangle fixed. In the case of D3, every possible permutation of the triangle's vertices constitutes such a transformation, so that the group of these symmetries is isomorphic to the symmetric group S3 of all permutations of three distinct elements. This is not the case for dihedral groups of higher o ...
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Transversal (combinatorics)
In mathematics, particularly in combinatorics, given a family of sets, here called a collection ''C'', a transversal (also called a cross-section) is a set containing exactly one element from each member of the collection. When the sets of the collection are mutually disjoint, each element of the transversal corresponds to exactly one member of ''C'' (the set it is a member of). If the original sets are not disjoint, there are two possibilities for the definition of a transversal: * One variation is that there is a bijection ''f'' from the transversal to ''C'' such that ''x'' is an element of ''f''(''x'') for each ''x'' in the transversal. In this case, the transversal is also called a system of distinct representatives (SDR). * The other, less commonly used, does not require a one-to-one relation between the elements of the transversal and the sets of ''C''. In this situation, the members of the system of representatives are not necessarily distinct. In computer science, comp ...
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Representative (mathematics)
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation), then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes. These equivalence classes are constructed so that elements a and b belong to the same equivalence class if, and only if, they are equivalent. Formally, given a set S and an equivalence relation \,\sim\, on S, the of an element a in S, denoted by is the set \ of elements which are equivalent to a. It may be proven, from the defining properties of equivalence relations, that the equivalence classes form a partition of S. This partition—the set of equivalence classes—is sometimes called the quotient set or the quotient space of S by \,\sim\,, and is denoted by S / \sim. When the set S has some structure (such as a group operation or a topology) and the equivalence relation \,\sim\, is compatible with this structure, the quotient set often inherits a similar structure from its parent set. Exa ...
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Equivalence Relation
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class. Notation Various notations are used in the literature to denote that two elements a and b of a set are equivalent with respect to an equivalence relation R; the most common are "a \sim b" and "", which are used when R is implicit, and variations of "a \sim_R b", "", or "" to specify R explicitly. Non-equivalence may be written "" or "a \not\equiv b". Definition A binary relation \,\sim\, on a set X is said to be an equivalence relation, if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. That is, for all a, b, and c in X: * a \sim a ( ...
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Equivalence Classes
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation), then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes. These equivalence classes are constructed so that elements a and b belong to the same equivalence class if, and only if, they are equivalent. Formally, given a set S and an equivalence relation \,\sim\, on S, the of an element a in S, denoted by is the set \ of elements which are equivalent to a. It may be proven, from the defining properties of equivalence relations, that the equivalence classes form a partition of S. This partition—the set of equivalence classes—is sometimes called the quotient set or the quotient space of S by \,\sim\,, and is denoted by S / \sim. When the set S has some structure (such as a group operation or a topology) and the equivalence relation \,\sim\, is compatible with this structure, the quotient set often inherits a similar structure from its parent set. Exa ...
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Center (group Theory)
In abstract algebra, the center of a group, , is the set of elements that commute with every element of . It is denoted , from German '' Zentrum,'' meaning ''center''. In set-builder notation, :. The center is a normal subgroup, . As a subgroup, it is always characteristic, but is not necessarily fully characteristic. The quotient group, , is isomorphic to the inner automorphism group, . A group is abelian if and only if . At the other extreme, a group is said to be centerless if is trivial; i.e., consists only of the identity element. The elements of the center are sometimes called central. As a subgroup The center of ''G'' is always a subgroup of . In particular: # contains the identity element of , because it commutes with every element of , by definition: , where is the identity; # If and are in , then so is , by associativity: for each ; i.e., is closed; # If is in , then so is as, for all in , commutes with : . Furthermore, the center of is alw ...
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