Compactness
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Compactness
In mathematics, specifically general topology, compactness is a property that seeks to generalize the notion of a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space by making precise the idea of a space having no "punctures" or "missing endpoints", i.e. that the space not exclude any ''limiting values'' of points. For example, the open interval (0,1) would not be compact because it excludes the limiting values of 0 and 1, whereas the closed interval ,1would be compact. Similarly, the space of rational numbers \mathbb is not compact, because it has infinitely many "punctures" corresponding to the irrational numbers, and the space of real numbers \mathbb is not compact either, because it excludes the two limiting values +\infty and -\infty. However, the ''extended'' real number line ''would'' be compact, since it contains both infinities. There are many ways to make this heuristic notion precise. These ways usually agree in a metric space, but may not be equivalent in other topolog ...
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Limit Point Compact
In mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is said to be limit point compact or weakly countably compact if every infinite subset of ''X'' has a limit point in ''X''. This property generalizes a property of compact spaces. In a metric space, limit point compactness, compactness, and sequential compactness are all equivalent. For general topological spaces, however, these three notions of compactness are not equivalent. Properties and examples * In a topological space, subsets without limit point are exactly those that are closed and discrete in the subspace topology. So a space is limit point compact if and only if all its closed discrete subsets are finite. * A space ''X'' is ''not'' limit point compact if and only if it has an infinite closed discrete subspace. Since any subset of a closed discrete subset of ''X'' is itself closed in ''X'' and discrete, this is equivalent to require that ''X'' has a countably infinite closed discrete subspace. * Some examples of spaces that a ...
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Sequentially Compact
In mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is sequentially compact if every sequence of points in ''X'' has a convergent subsequence converging to a point in X. Every metric space is naturally a topological space, and for metric spaces, the notions of compactness and sequential compactness are equivalent (if one assumes countable choice). However, there exist sequentially compact topological spaces that are not compact, and compact topological spaces that are not sequentially compact. Examples and properties The space of all real numbers with the standard topology is not sequentially compact; the sequence (s_n) given by s_n = n for all natural numbers ''n'' is a sequence that has no convergent subsequence. If a space is a metric space, then it is sequentially compact if and only if it is compact. The first uncountable ordinal with the order topology is an example of a sequentially compact topological space that is not compact. The product of 2^=\mathfrak c copies of the closed ...
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Sequentially Compact Space
In mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is sequentially compact if every sequence of points in ''X'' has a convergent subsequence converging to a point in X. Every metric space is naturally a topological space, and for metric spaces, the notions of compactness and sequential compactness are equivalent (if one assumes countable choice). However, there exist sequentially compact topological spaces that are not compact, and compact topological spaces that are not sequentially compact. Examples and properties The space of all real numbers with the standard topology is not sequentially compact; the sequence (s_n) given by s_n = n for all natural numbers ''n'' is a sequence that has no convergent subsequence. If a space is a metric space, then it is sequentially compact if and only if it is compact. The first uncountable ordinal with the order topology is an example of a sequentially compact topological space that is not compact. The product of 2^=\mathfrak c copies of the clo ...
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Metric Space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of '' distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3-dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other well-known examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100-character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance an ...
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Pavel Alexandrov
Pavel Sergeyevich Alexandrov (russian: Па́вел Серге́евич Алекса́ндров), sometimes romanized ''Paul Alexandroff'' (7 May 1896 – 16 November 1982), was a Soviet mathematician. He wrote about three hundred papers, making important contributions to set theory and topology. In topology, the Alexandroff compactification and the Alexandrov topology are named after him. Biography Alexandrov attended Moscow State University where he was a student of Dmitri Egorov and Nikolai Luzin. Together with Pavel Urysohn, he visited the University of Göttingen in 1923 and 1924. After getting his Ph.D. in 1927, he continued to work at Moscow State University and also joined the Steklov Institute of Mathematics. He was made a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1953. Personal life Luzin challenged Alexandrov to determine if the continuum hypothesis is true. This still unsolved problem was too much for Alexandrov and he had a creative crisis at the end of ...
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General Topology
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geometric topology, and algebraic topology. Another name for general topology is point-set topology. The fundamental concepts in point-set topology are ''continuity'', ''compactness'', and ''connectedness'': * Continuous functions, intuitively, take nearby points to nearby points. * Compact sets are those that can be covered by finitely many sets of arbitrarily small size. * Connected sets are sets that cannot be divided into two pieces that are far apart. The terms 'nearby', 'arbitrarily small', and 'far apart' can all be made precise by using the concept of open sets. If we change the definition of 'open set', we change what continuous functions, compact sets, and connected sets are. Each choice of definition for 'open set' is called a ''top ...
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Bolzano–Weierstrass Theorem
In mathematics, specifically in real analysis, the Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, named after Bernard Bolzano and Karl Weierstrass, is a fundamental result about convergence in a finite-dimensional Euclidean space \R^n. The theorem states that each infinite bounded sequence in \R^n has a convergent subsequence. An equivalent formulation is that a subset of \R^n is sequentially compact if and only if it is closed and bounded. The theorem is sometimes called the sequential compactness theorem. History and significance The Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem is named after mathematicians Bernard Bolzano and Karl Weierstrass. It was actually first proved by Bolzano in 1817 as a lemma in the proof of the intermediate value theorem. Some fifty years later the result was identified as significant in its own right, and proved again by Weierstrass. It has since become an essential theorem of analysis. Proof First we prove the theorem for \mathbb^1 (set of all real numbers), in which cas ...
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Arzelà–Ascoli Theorem
The Arzelà–Ascoli theorem is a fundamental result of mathematical analysis giving necessary and sufficient conditions to decide whether every sequence of a given family of real-valued continuous functions defined on a closed and bounded interval has a uniformly convergent subsequence. The main condition is the equicontinuity of the family of functions. The theorem is the basis of many proofs in mathematics, including that of the Peano existence theorem in the theory of ordinary differential equations, Montel's theorem in complex analysis, and the Peter–Weyl theorem in harmonic analysis and various results concerning compactness of integral operators. The notion of equicontinuity was introduced in the late 19th century by the Italian mathematicians Cesare Arzelà and Giulio Ascoli. A weak form of the theorem was proven by , who established the sufficient condition for compactness, and by , who established the necessary condition and gave the first clear presentation of the ...
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Closed Set
In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set. In a topological space, a closed set can be defined as a set which contains all its limit points. In a complete metric space, a closed set is a set which is closed under the limit operation. This should not be confused with a closed manifold. Equivalent definitions By definition, a subset A of a topological space (X, \tau) is called if its complement X \setminus A is an open subset of (X, \tau); that is, if X \setminus A \in \tau. A set is closed in X if and only if it is equal to its closure in X. Equivalently, a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its limit points. Yet another equivalent definition is that a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its boundary points. Every subset A \subseteq X is always contained in its (topological) closure in X, which is denoted by \operatorname_X A; that is, if A \subseteq X then A \subseteq \o ...
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Pavel Urysohn
Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn () (February 3, 1898 – August 17, 1924) was a Soviet mathematician who is best known for his contributions in dimension theory, and for developing Urysohn's metrization theorem and Urysohn's lemma, both of which are fundamental results in topology. His name is also commemorated in the terms Urysohn universal space, Fréchet–Urysohn space, Menger–Urysohn dimension and Urysohn integral equation. He and Pavel Alexandrov formulated the modern definition of compactness in 1923. Biography Born in 1898 in Odessa, Urysohn studied at Moscow University from 1915 to 1921. His advisor was Nikolai Luzin. He then became an assistant professor there. He drowned in 1924 while swimming off the coast of Brittany, France, near Batz-sur-Mer, and is buried there. Urysohn's sister, Lina Neiman, wrote a memoir about his life and childhood. Not being a mathematician, she included in the book memorial articles about his mathematical works by Pavel Alexandro ...
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Cover (topology)
In mathematics, and more particularly in set theory, a cover (or covering) of a set X is a collection of subsets of X whose union is all of X. More formally, if C = \lbrace U_\alpha : \alpha \in A \rbrace is an indexed family of subsets U_\alpha\subset X, then C is a cover of X if \bigcup_U_ = X. Thus the collection \lbrace U_\alpha : \alpha \in A \rbrace is a cover of X if each element of X belongs to at least one of the subsets U_. Cover in topology Covers are commonly used in the context of topology. If the set X is a topological space, then a ''cover'' C of X is a collection of subsets \_ of X whose union is the whole space X. In this case we say that C ''covers'' X, or that the sets U_\alpha ''cover'' X. Also, if Y is a (topological) subspace of X, then a ''cover'' of Y is a collection of subsets C=\_ of X whose union contains Y, i.e., C is a cover of Y if :Y \subseteq \bigcup_U_. That is, we may cover Y with either open sets in Y itself, or cover Y by open sets in the ...
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Open Set
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are sufficiently near to (that is, all points whose distance to is less than some value depending on ). More generally, one defines open sets as the members of a given collection of subsets of a given set, a collection that has the property of containing every union of its members, every finite intersection of its members, the empty set, and the whole set itself. A set in which such a collection is given is called a topological space, and the collection is called a topology. These conditions are very loose, and allow enormous flexibility in the choice of open sets. For example, ''every'' subset can be open (the discrete topology), or no set can be open except the space itself and the empty set (the indiscrete topology). In practice, howe ...
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