T1 Space
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 T1 Space In topology and related branches of mathematics, a T1 space is a topological space in which, for every pair of distinct points, each has a neighborhood not containing the other point. An R0 space is one in which this holds for every pair of topologically distinguishable points. The properties T1 and R0 are examples of separation axioms. Definitions Let ''X'' be a topological space and let ''x'' and ''y'' be points in ''X''. We say that ''x'' and ''y'' are if each lies in a neighbourhood that does not contain the other point. * ''X'' is called a T1 space if any two distinct points in ''X'' are separated. * ''X'' is called an R0 space if any two topologically distinguishable points in ''X'' are separated. A T1 space is also called an accessible space or a space with Fréchet topology and an R0 space is also called a symmetric space. (The term also has an entirely different meaning in functional analysis. For this reason, the term ''T1 space'' is preferred. There is also a no ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Topology In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a ''topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; connected ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Fixed Ultrafilter In the mathematical field of order theory, an ultrafilter on a given partially ordered set (or "poset") P is a certain subset of P, namely a maximal filter on P; that is, a proper filter on P that cannot be enlarged to a bigger proper filter on P. If X is an arbitrary set, its power set \wp(X), ordered by set inclusion, is always a Boolean algebra and hence a poset, and ultrafilters on \wp(X) are usually called X.If X happens to be partially ordered, too, particular care is needed to understand from the context whether an (ultra)filter on \wp(X) or an (ultra)filter just on X is meant; both kinds of (ultra)filters are quite different. Some authors use "(ultra)filter" ''of'' a partial ordered set" vs. "''on'' an arbitrary set"; i.e. they write "(ultra)filter on X" to abbreviate "(ultra)filter of \wp(X)". An ultrafilter on a set X may be considered as a finitely additive measure on X. In this view, every subset of X is either considered " almost everything" (has measure 1) or "alm ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info T0 Space T, or t, is the twentieth letter in the Latin alphabet, used in the modern English alphabet, the alphabets of other western European languages and others worldwide. Its name in English is ''tee'' (pronounced ), plural ''tees''. It is derived from the Semitic Taw 𐤕 of the Phoenician and Paleo-Hebrew script ( Aramaic and Hebrew Taw ת/𐡕/, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic ت Tāʼ) via the Greek letter τ (tau). In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most commonly used letter in English-language texts. History ''Taw'' was the last letter of the Western Semitic and Hebrew alphabets. The sound value of Semitic ''Taw'', Greek alphabet Tαυ (''Tau''), Old Italic and Latin T has remained fairly constant, representing in each of these; and it has also kept its original basic shape in most of these alphabets. Use in ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Closed Sets In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set. In a topological space, a closed set can be defined as a set which contains all its limit points. In a complete metric space, a closed set is a set which is closed under the limit operation. This should not be confused with a closed manifold. Equivalent definitions By definition, a subset A of a topological space (X, \tau) is called if its complement X \setminus A is an open subset of (X, \tau); that is, if X \setminus A \in \tau. A set is closed in X if and only if it is equal to its closure in X. Equivalently, a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its limit points. Yet another equivalent definition is that a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its boundary points. Every subset A \subseteq X is always contained in its (topological) closure in X, which is denoted by \operatorname_X A; that is, if A \subseteq X then A \subseteq \ope ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Open Set In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are sufficiently near to (that is, all points whose distance to is less than some value depending on ). More generally, one defines open sets as the members of a given collection of subsets of a given set, a collection that has the property of containing every union of its members, every finite intersection of its members, the empty set, and the whole set itself. A set in which such a collection is given is called a topological space, and the collection is called a topology. These conditions are very loose, and allow enormous flexibility in the choice of open sets. For example, ''every'' subset can be open (the discrete topology), or no set can be open except the space itself and the empty set (the indiscrete topology). In practice, howev ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Partition (set Theory) In mathematics, a partition of a set is a grouping of its elements into non-empty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in exactly one subset. Every equivalence relation on a set defines a partition of this set, and every partition defines an equivalence relation. A set equipped with an equivalence relation or a partition is sometimes called a setoid, typically in type theory and proof theory. Definition and Notation A partition of a set ''X'' is a set of non-empty subsets of ''X'' such that every element ''x'' in ''X'' is in exactly one of these subsets (i.e., ''X'' is a disjoint union of the subsets). Equivalently, a family of sets ''P'' is a partition of ''X'' if and only if all of the following conditions hold: *The family ''P'' does not contain the empty set (that is \emptyset \notin P). *The union of the sets in ''P'' is equal to ''X'' (that is \textstyle\bigcup_ A = X). The sets in ''P'' are said to exhaust or cover ''X''. See also collectively exha ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Equivalence Relation In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class. Notation Various notations are used in the literature to denote that two elements a and b of a set are equivalent with respect to an equivalence relation R; the most common are "a \sim b" and "", which are used when R is implicit, and variations of "a \sim_R b", "", or "" to specify R explicitly. Non-equivalence may be written "" or "a \not\equiv b". Definition A binary relation \,\sim\, on a set X is said to be an equivalence relation, if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. That is, for all a, b, and c in X: * a \sim a ( r ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Symmetric Relation A symmetric relation is a type of binary relation. An example is the relation "is equal to", because if ''a'' = ''b'' is true then ''b'' = ''a'' is also true. Formally, a binary relation ''R'' over a set ''X'' is symmetric if: :\forall a, b \in X(a R b \Leftrightarrow b R a) , where the notation aRb means that (a,b)\in R. If ''R''T represents the converse of ''R'', then ''R'' is symmetric if and only if ''R'' = ''R''T. Symmetry, along with reflexivity and transitivity, are the three defining properties of an equivalence relation. Examples In mathematics * "is equal to" ( equality) (whereas "is less than" is not symmetric) * "is comparable to", for elements of a partially ordered set * "... and ... are odd": :::::: Outside mathematics * "is married to" (in most legal systems) * "is a fully biological sibling of" * "is a homophone of" * "is co-worker of" * "is teammate of" Relationship to asymmetric and antisymmetric relations By definition, a nonempty relation cannot be b ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Specialization Preorder In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the specialization (or canonical) preorder is a natural preorder on the set of the points of a topological space. For most spaces that are considered in practice, namely for all those that satisfy the T0 separation axiom, this preorder is even a partial order (called the specialization order). On the other hand, for T1 spaces the order becomes trivial and is of little interest. The specialization order is often considered in applications in computer science, where T0 spaces occur in denotational semantics. The specialization order is also important for identifying suitable topologies on partially ordered sets, as is done in order theory. Definition and motivation Consider any topological space ''X''. The specialization preorder ≤ on ''X'' relates two points of ''X'' when one lies in the closure of the other. However, various authors disagree on which 'direction' the order should go. What is agreed is that if :''x'' is containe ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Closure (topology) In topology, the closure of a subset of points in a topological space consists of all points in together with all limit points of . The closure of may equivalently be defined as the union of and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing . Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in or "near" . A point which is in the closure of is a point of closure of . The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior. Definitions Point of closure For S as a subset of a Euclidean space, x is a point of closure of S if every open ball centered at x contains a point of S (this point can be x itself). This definition generalizes to any subset S of a metric space X. Fully expressed, for X as a metric space with metric d, x is a point of closure of S if for every r > 0 there exists some s \in S such that the distance d(x, s) < r ($x = s$ is allowed). Another way to express this is t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Lifting Property In mathematics, in particular in category theory, the lifting property is a property of a pair of morphisms in a category. It is used in homotopy theory within algebraic topology to define properties of morphisms starting from an explicitly given class of morphisms. It appears in a prominent way in the theory of model categories, an axiomatic framework for homotopy theory introduced by Daniel Quillen. It is also used in the definition of a factorization system, and of a weak factorization system, notions related to but less restrictive than the notion of a model category. Several elementary notions may also be expressed using the lifting property starting from a list of (counter)examples. Formal definition A morphism ''i'' in a category has the ''left lifting property'' with respect to a morphism ''p'', and ''p'' also has the ''right lifting property'' with respect to ''i'', sometimes denoted i\perp p or i\downarrow p, iff the following implication holds for each morphism ''f'' ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]