Quotient Type
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Quotient Type
In type theory, a kind of foundation of mathematics, a quotient type is an algebraic data type that represents a type whose equality relation has been redefined by a given equivalence relation such that the elements of the type are partitioned into a set of equivalence classes whose cardinality is less than or equal to that of the base type. Just as product types and sum types are analogous to the cartesian product and disjoint sum of abstract algebraic structures, quotient types reflect the concept of set-theoretic quotients, sets whose elements are surjectively partitioned into equivalence classes by a given equivalence relation on the set. Algebraic structures whose underlying set is a quotient are also termed quotients. Examples of such quotient structures include quotient sets, groups, rings, categories and, in topology, quotient spaces. In type theories that lack quotient types, setoids – sets explicitly equipped with an equivalence relation – are often used inst ...
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Type Theory
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is the formal presentation of a specific type system, and in general type theory is the academic study of type systems. Some type theories serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation of mathematics. Two influential type theories that were proposed as foundations are Alonzo Church's typed λ-calculus and Per Martin-Löf's intuitionistic type theory. Most computerized proof-writing systems use a type theory for their foundation. A common one is Thierry Coquand's Calculus of Inductive Constructions. History Type theory was created to avoid a paradox in a mathematical foundation based on naive set theory and formal logic. Russell's paradox, which was discovered by Bertrand Russell, existed because a set could be defined using "all possible sets", which included itself. Between 1902 and 1908, Bertrand Russell proposed various "theories of type" to fix the problem. By 1908 Russell arrived at a "ramified" ...
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Quotient Ring
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring and a two-sided ideal in , a new ring, the quotient ring , is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of in subject to special and operations. (Only the fraction slash "/" is used in quotient ring notation, not a horizontal fraction bar.) Quotient rings are distinct from the so-called "quotient field", or field of fractions, of an integral domain as well as from the more general "rings of quotients" obtained by localization. Formal quotient ring construction Given a ring and a two-sided ideal in , we may define an equivalence relation on as follows: : if and only if is in . Using the ideal properties, ...
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Data Types
In computer science and computer programming, a data type (or simply type) is a set of possible values and a set of allowed operations on it. A data type tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data. Most programming languages support basic data types of integer numbers (of varying sizes), floating-point numbers (which approximate real numbers), characters and Booleans. A data type constrains the possible values that an expression, such as a variable or a function, might take. This data type defines the operations that can be done on the data, the meaning of the data, and the way values of that type can be stored. Concept A data type is a collection or grouping of data values. Such a grouping may be defined for many reasons: similarity, convenience, or to focus the attention. It is frequently a matter of good organization that aids the understanding of complex definitions. Almost all programming languages explicitly include the notion of da ...
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Setoid
In mathematics, a setoid (''X'', ~) is a set (or type) ''X'' equipped with an equivalence relation ~. A setoid may also be called E-set, Bishop set, or extensional set. Setoids are studied especially in proof theory and in type-theoretic foundations of mathematics. Often in mathematics, when one defines an equivalence relation on a set, one immediately forms the quotient set (turning equivalence into equality). In contrast, setoids may be used when a difference between identity and equivalence must be maintained, often with an interpretation of intensional equality (the equality on the original set) and extensional equality (the equivalence relation, or the equality on the quotient set). Proof theory In proof theory, particularly the proof theory of constructive mathematics based on the Curry–Howard correspondence, one often identifies a mathematical proposition with its set of proofs (if any). A given proposition may have many proofs, of course; according to the princip ...
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Sum Type
In computer science, a tagged union, also called a variant, variant record, choice type, discriminated union, disjoint union, sum type or coproduct, is a data structure used to hold a value that could take on several different, but fixed, types. Only one of the types can be in use at any one time, and a tag field explicitly indicates which one is in use. It can be thought of as a type that has several "cases", each of which should be handled correctly when that type is manipulated. This is critical in defining recursive datatypes, in which some component of a value may have the same type as the value itself, for example in defining a type for representing trees, where it is necessary to distinguish multi-node subtrees and leaves. Like ordinary unions, tagged unions can save storage by overlapping storage areas for each type, since only one is in use at a time. Description Tagged unions are most important in functional languages such as ML and Haskell, where they are called datat ...
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Product Type
In programming languages and type theory, a product of ''types'' is another, compounded, type in a structure. The "operands" of the product are types, and the structure of a product type is determined by the fixed order of the operands in the product. An instance of a product type retains the fixed order, but otherwise may contain all possible instances of its primitive data types. The expression of an instance of a product type will be a tuple, and is called a "tuple type" of expression. A product of types is a direct product of two or more types. If there are only two component types, it can be called a "pair type". For example, if two component types A and B are the set of all possible values of that type, the product type written A × B contains elements that are pairs (a,b), where "a" and "b" are instances of A and B respectively. The pair type is a special case of the dependent pair type, where the type B may depend on the instance picked from A. In many languages, product ...
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Algebraic Data Type
In computer programming, especially functional programming and type theory, an algebraic data type (ADT) is a kind of composite type, i.e., a type formed by combining other types. Two common classes of algebraic types are product types (i.e., tuples and records) and sum types (i.e., tagged or disjoint unions, coproduct types or ''variant types''). The values of a product type typically contain several values, called ''fields''. All values of that type have the same combination of field types. The set of all possible values of a product type is the set-theoretic product, i.e., the Cartesian product, of the sets of all possible values of its field types. The values of a sum type are typically grouped into several classes, called ''variants''. A value of a variant type is usually created with a quasi-functional entity called a ''constructor''. Each variant has its own constructor, which takes a specified number of arguments with specified types. The set of all possibl ...
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Setoid
In mathematics, a setoid (''X'', ~) is a set (or type) ''X'' equipped with an equivalence relation ~. A setoid may also be called E-set, Bishop set, or extensional set. Setoids are studied especially in proof theory and in type-theoretic foundations of mathematics. Often in mathematics, when one defines an equivalence relation on a set, one immediately forms the quotient set (turning equivalence into equality). In contrast, setoids may be used when a difference between identity and equivalence must be maintained, often with an interpretation of intensional equality (the equality on the original set) and extensional equality (the equivalence relation, or the equality on the quotient set). Proof theory In proof theory, particularly the proof theory of constructive mathematics based on the Curry–Howard correspondence, one often identifies a mathematical proposition with its set of proofs (if any). A given proposition may have many proofs, of course; according to the princip ...
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Quotient Space (topology)
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the quotient space of a topological space under a given equivalence relation is a new topological space constructed by endowing the quotient set of the original topological space with the quotient topology, that is, with the finest topology that makes continuous the canonical projection map (the function that maps points to their equivalence classes). In other words, a subset of a quotient space is open if and only if its preimage under the canonical projection map is open in the original topological space. Intuitively speaking, the points of each equivalence class are or "glued together" for forming a new topological space. For example, identifying the points of a sphere that belong to the same diameter produces the projective plane as a quotient space. Definition Let \left(X, \tau_X\right) be a topological space, and let \,\sim\, be an equivalence relation on X. The quotient set, Y = X / \sim\, is the set of equivalence clas ...
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Quotient Category
In mathematics, a quotient category is a category obtained from another one by identifying sets of morphisms. Formally, it is a quotient object in the category of (locally small) categories, analogous to a quotient group or quotient space, but in the categorical setting. Definition Let ''C'' be a category. A '' congruence relation'' ''R'' on ''C'' is given by: for each pair of objects ''X'', ''Y'' in ''C'', an equivalence relation ''R''''X'',''Y'' on Hom(''X'',''Y''), such that the equivalence relations respect composition of morphisms. That is, if :f_1,f_2 : X \to Y\, are related in Hom(''X'', ''Y'') and :g_1,g_2 : Y \to Z\, are related in Hom(''Y'', ''Z''), then ''g''1''f''1 and ''g''2''f''2 are related in Hom(''X'', ''Z''). Given a congruence relation ''R'' on ''C'' we can define the quotient category ''C''/''R'' as the category whose objects are those of ''C'' and whose morphisms are equivalence classes of morphisms in ''C''. That is, :\mathrm_(X,Y) = \mathrm_(X,Y)/R_ ...
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Quotient Group
A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves some of the group structure (the rest of the structure is "factored" out). For example, the cyclic group of addition modulo ''n'' can be obtained from the group of integers under addition by identifying elements that differ by a multiple of n and defining a group structure that operates on each such class (known as a congruence class) as a single entity. It is part of the mathematical field known as group theory. For a congruence relation on a group, the equivalence class of the identity element is always a normal subgroup of the original group, and the other equivalence classes are precisely the cosets of that normal subgroup. The resulting quotient is written G\,/\,N, where G is the original group and N is the normal subgroup. (This is pronounced G\bmod N, where \mbox is short for modulo.) Much of the importa ...
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Algebraic Data Type
In computer programming, especially functional programming and type theory, an algebraic data type (ADT) is a kind of composite type, i.e., a type formed by combining other types. Two common classes of algebraic types are product types (i.e., tuples and records) and sum types (i.e., tagged or disjoint unions, coproduct types or ''variant types''). The values of a product type typically contain several values, called ''fields''. All values of that type have the same combination of field types. The set of all possible values of a product type is the set-theoretic product, i.e., the Cartesian product, of the sets of all possible values of its field types. The values of a sum type are typically grouped into several classes, called ''variants''. A value of a variant type is usually created with a quasi-functional entity called a ''constructor''. Each variant has its own constructor, which takes a specified number of arguments with specified types. The set of all possibl ...
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