Frits Zernike
Frits Zernike (; 16 July 1888 – 10 March 1966) was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953 for his invention of the Phasecontrast microscopy, phasecontrast microscope. Early life and education Frits Zernike was born on 16 July 1888 in Amsterdam, Netherlands to Carl Friedrich August Zernike and Antje Dieperink. Both parents were teachers of mathematics, and he especially shared his father's passion for physics. He studied chemistry (his major), mathematics and physics at the University of Amsterdam. Academic career In 1912, he was awarded a prize for his work on opalescence in gases. In 1913, he became assistant to Jacobus Kapteyn at the astronomical laboratory of Groningen University. In 1914, Zernike and Leonard Ornstein were jointly responsible for the derivation of the Ornstein–Zernike equation in criticalpoint theory. In 1915, he became lector in theoretical mechanics and mathematical physics at the same university and in 1920 he was pro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Amsterdam
Amsterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Amstel'') is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population of 907,976 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban area and 2,480,394 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area, metropolitan area. Located in the Provinces of the Netherlands, Dutch province of North Holland, Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North", for its large number of canals, now designated a World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Site. Amsterdam was founded at the mouth of the Amstel River that was dammed to control flooding; the city's name derives from the Amstel dam. Originally a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became a major world port during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, when the Netherlands was an economic powerhouse. Amsterdam is th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Theoretical Mechanics
Mechanics (from Ancient Greek: μηχανική, ''mēkhanikḗ'', "of machines") is the area of mathematics and physics concerned with the relationships between force, matter, and motion among physical objects. Forces applied to objects result in displacements, or changes of an object's position relative to its environment. Theoretical expositions of this branch of physics has its origins in Ancient Greece, for instance, in the writings of Aristotle and Archimedes (see History of classical mechanics and Timeline of classical mechanics). During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, Huygens, and Newton laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics. As a branch of classical physics, mechanics deals with bodies that are either at rest or are moving with velocities significantly less than the speed of light. It can also be defined as the physical science that deals with the motion of and forces on bodies not in the quantum realm. His ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Optical Design
Optical lens design is the process of designing a lens to meet a set of performance requirements and constraints, including cost and manufacturing limitations. Parameters include surface profile types (spherical, aspheric, holographic, diffractive, etc.), as well as radius of curvature, distance to the next surface, material type and optionally tilt and decenter. The process is computationally intensive, using ray tracing or other techniques to model how the lens affects light that passes through it. Design requirements Performance requirements can include: #Optical performance (image quality): This is quantified by various metrics, including encircled energy, modulation transfer function, Strehl ratio, ghost reflection control, and pupil performance (size, location and aberration control); the choice of the image quality metric is application specific. #Physical requirements such as weight, static volume, dynamic volume, center of gravity and overall configuration requirements. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zernike's Circle Polynomials
In mathematics, the Zernike polynomials are a sequence of polynomials that are orthogonal on the unit disk. Named after optical physicist Frits Zernike, winner of the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physics and the inventor of phasecontrast microscopy, they play important roles in various optics branches such as beam optics and imaging. Definitions There are even and odd Zernike polynomials. The even Zernike polynomials are defined as :Z^_n(\rho,\varphi) = R^m_n(\rho)\,\cos(m\,\varphi) \! (even function over the azimuthal angle \varphi), and the odd Zernike polynomials are defined as :Z^_n(\rho,\varphi) = R^m_n(\rho)\,\sin(m\,\varphi), \! (odd function over the azimuthal angle \varphi) where ''m'' and ''n'' are nonnegative integers with ''n ≥ m ≥ 0'' (''m'' = 0 for even Zernike polynomials), ''\varphi'' is the azimuthal angle, ''ρ'' is the radial distance 0\le\rho\le 1, and R^m_n are the radial polynomials defined below. Zernike polynomials have the property of being li ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zernike's Orthogonal Circle Polynomials
In mathematics, the Zernike polynomials are a sequence of polynomials that are orthogonal on the unit disk. Named after optical physicist Frits Zernike, winner of the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physics and the inventor of phasecontrast microscopy, they play important roles in various optics branches such as beam optics and imaging. Definitions There are even and odd Zernike polynomials. The even Zernike polynomials are defined as :Z^_n(\rho,\varphi) = R^m_n(\rho)\,\cos(m\,\varphi) \! (even function over the azimuthal angle \varphi), and the odd Zernike polynomials are defined as :Z^_n(\rho,\varphi) = R^m_n(\rho)\,\sin(m\,\varphi), \! (odd function over the azimuthal angle \varphi) where ''m'' and ''n'' are nonnegative integers with ''n ≥ m ≥ 0'' (''m'' = 0 for even Zernike polynomials), ''\varphi'' is the azimuthal angle, ''ρ'' is the radial distance 0\le\rho\le 1, and R^m_n are the radial polynomials defined below. Zernike polynomials have the property of being li ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Series
In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form \sum_^\infty a_n \left(x  c\right)^n = a_0 + a_1 (x  c) + a_2 (x  c)^2 + \dots where ''an'' represents the coefficient of the ''n''th term and ''c'' is a constant. Power series are useful in mathematical analysis, where they arise as Taylor series of infinitely differentiable functions. In fact, Borel's theorem implies that every power series is the Taylor series of some smooth function. In many situations, ''c'' (the ''center'' of the series) is equal to zero, for instance when considering a Maclaurin series. In such cases, the power series takes the simpler form \sum_^\infty a_n x^n = a_0 + a_1 x + a_2 x^2 + \dots. Beyond their role in mathematical analysis, power series also occur in combinatorics as generating functions (a kind of formal power series) and in electronic engineering (under the name of the Ztransform). The familiar decimal notation for real numbers can also be viewed as an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Philipp Ludwig Von Seidel
Philipp Ludwig von Seidel (; 24 October 1821 in Zweibrücken, Germany – 13 August 1896 in Munich, German Empire) was a German mathematician. He was the son of Julie Reinhold and Justus Christian Felix Seidel. Lakatos credits von Seidel with discovering, in 1847, the crucial analytic concept of uniform convergence, while analyzing an incorrect proof of Cauchy's. In 1857, von Seidel decomposed the first order monochromatic aberrations into five constituent aberrations. They are now commonly referred to as the five Seidel Aberrations. The lunar crater Seidel is named after him. His doctoral students include Eduard Study and Hermann Wiener. The Gauss–Seidel method is a useful numerical iterative method for solving linear systems. See also *Seidel triangle References External links Biography University of St. Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Telescope
A telescope is a device used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. Originally meaning only an optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, the word ''telescope'' now refers to a wide range of instruments capable of detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in some cases other types of detectors. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes with glass lenses and were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century. They were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first refracting telescope. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s. Etymology The word ''telescope'' was coin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Microscope
A microscope () is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using a microscope. Microscopic means being invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the method an instrument uses to interact with a sample and produce images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons through a sample in its optical path, by detecting photon emissions from a sample, or by scanning across and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses lenses to refract visible light that passed through a thinly sectioned sample to produce an observable image. Other major types of microscopes are the fluorescence microscope, electron microscope (both the transmi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Optical Aberration
In optics, aberration is a property of optical systems, such as lenses, that causes light to be spread out over some region of space rather than focused to a point. Aberrations cause the image formed by a lens to be blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration. Aberration can be defined as a departure of the performance of an optical system from the predictions of paraxial optics. In an imaging system, it occurs when light from one point of an object does not converge into (or does not diverge from) a single point after transmission through the system. Aberrations occur because the simple paraxial theory is not a completely accurate model of the effect of an optical system on light, rather than due to flaws in the optical elements. An imageforming optical system with aberration will produce an image which is not sharp. Makers of optical instruments need to correct optical systems to compensate for aberration. Aberration can be anal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wageningen
Wageningen () is a municipality and a historic city in the central Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland. It is famous for Wageningen University, which specialises in life sciences. The municipality had a population of in , of which many thousands are students from over 150 countries. Demograpics Inhabitants by nationality 71,68% is Dutch, 28,32% has a migration background. Geography Wageningen is situated on the north bank of the Nederrijn (the Dutch portion of the Lower Rhine) part of the Gelderse valley (Dutch: Gelderse Vallei) and the Veluwe, of which the southwest hill is called the ''Wageningse Berg''. Wageningen can be reached by car from highways A12 via the N781, A15 via the N233 and N225, and A50 via the N225, and from the EdeWageningen railway station via a 20minute bus drive to the Wageningen central terminal (see below)., ''Topographic map of the municipality of Wageningen, July 2013 (click to enlarge)'' History The oldest known settlements in the Wa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diffraction Grating
In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions (i.e., different diffraction angles). The emerging coloration is a form of structural coloration. The directions or diffraction angles of these beams depend on the wave (light) incident angle to the diffraction grating, the spacing or distance between adjacent diffracting elements (e.g., parallel slits for a transmission grating) on the grating, and the wavelength of the incident light. The grating acts as a dispersive element. Because of this, diffraction gratings are commonly used in monochromators and spectrometers, but other applications are also possible such as optical encoders for high precision motion control and wavefront measurement. For typical applications, a reflective grating has ridges or ''rulings'' on its surface while a transmissive grating has transmissive or hollow slits on its surface. Such a grating ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 