The Info List - Amsterdam

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(/ˈæmstərdæm/;[9][10][11] Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands,[12] although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague.[13] Amsterdam
has a population of 851,373 within the city proper, 1,351,587 in the urban area,[14] and 2,410,960 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area.[8] The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million.[15] Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme,[16] indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam
became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
(17th century), a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds.[17] In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam
and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam
are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of municipality Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten (9th century). As the commercial capital of the Netherlands
and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam
is considered an alpha world city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) study group. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands.[18] Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the world's 500 largest companies, including Philips
and ING, are based in the city.[19] Also, many leading technology companies have their European headquarters in Amsterdam, such as Uber, Netflix
and Tesla.[20] In 2012, Amsterdam
was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)[21] and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer.[22] The city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.[23] The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, and the fifth largest seaport in Europe.[24] Famous Amsterdam
residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt
van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam
Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. Amsterdam's main attractions, including its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank
Anne Frank
House, the Amsterdam
Museum, its red-light district, and its many cannabis coffee shops draw more than 5 million international visitors annually.[25] It is also one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented.[26]


1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Founding and Middle Ages 2.2 Conflict with Spain 2.3 Centre of the Dutch Golden Age 2.4 Decline and modernisation 2.5 20th century–present

3 Geography

3.1 Water 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Historical population 4.2 Immigration 4.3 Religions 4.4 Diversity and immigration

5 Cityscape and architecture

5.1 Canals 5.2 Expansion 5.3 Architecture 5.4 Parks and recreational areas

6 Economy

6.1 Port of Amsterdam 6.2 Tourism

6.2.1 Red light district

6.3 Retail 6.4 Fashion

7 Culture

7.1 Museums 7.2 Music 7.3 Performing arts 7.4 Nightlife 7.5 Festivals 7.6 Sports

8 Government

8.1 City government 8.2 Metropolitan area 8.3 National capital 8.4 Symbols

9 Transport

9.1 Metro, tram and bus 9.2 Car 9.3 National rail 9.4 Airport 9.5 Cycling

10 Education 11 Notable people

11.1 Entertainment 11.2 Sport 11.3 Originating from elsewhere

12 Media 13 Housing 14 See also 15 Notes and references

15.1 Literature

16 See also 17 External links

Etymology[edit] See also Other names of Amsterdam After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel
built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme". The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27, 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.[27][28] This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, locks and dams. The certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme (people residing near Amestelledamme).[29] By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam.[27][30] History[edit] Main articles: History of Amsterdam
History of Amsterdam
and Timeline of Amsterdam Founding and Middle Ages[edit]

The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306

is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam
was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean that there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel.[31] Amsterdam
was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306.[32] From the 14th century on, Amsterdam
flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat
rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith. The Miracle devotion went underground but was kept alive. In the 19th century, especially after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics. The Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands
since the late 19th century.[33] In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. Conflict with Spain[edit]

A woodcut depicting Amsterdam
as of 1538; the famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established

Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
by Emanuel de Witte, 1653; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century

In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
and his successors. The main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, and the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which ultimately led to Dutch independence.[34] Strongly pushed by Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews
from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, and economic and religious refugees from the Spanish-controlled parts of the Low Countries found safety in Amsterdam. The influx of Flemish printers and the city's intellectual tolerance made Amsterdam
a centre for the European free press.[35] Centre of the Dutch Golden Age[edit]

The Royal Palace, Nieuwe Kerk, and now demolished weigh house on Dam Square in 1814

The 17th century is considered Amsterdam's Golden Age, during which it became the wealthiest city in the western world.[36] Ships sailed from Amsterdam
to the Baltic Sea, North America, and Africa, as well as present-day Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and Brazil, forming the basis of a worldwide trading network. Amsterdam's merchants had the largest share in both the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
and the Dutch West India Company. These companies acquired overseas possessions that later became Dutch colonies. Amsterdam
was Europe's most important point for the shipment of goods and was the leading Financial centre
Financial centre
of the western world.[37] In 1602, the Amsterdam
office of the international trading Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
became the world's first stock exchange by trading in its own shares.[38] The Bank of Amsterdam started operations in 1609, acting as a full service bank for Dutch merchant bankers and as a reserve bank. Decline and modernisation[edit] Amsterdam's prosperity declined during the 18th and early 19th centuries. The wars of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
with England and France
took their toll on Amsterdam. During the Napoleonic Wars, Amsterdam's significance reached its lowest point, with Holland being absorbed into the French Empire. However, the later establishment of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
in 1815 marked a turning point.

Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein in 1891

The end of the 19th century is sometimes called Amsterdam's second Golden Age.[39] New museums, a railway station, and the Concertgebouw were built; in this same time, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
reached the city. The Amsterdam–Rhine Canal
Amsterdam–Rhine Canal
was dug to give Amsterdam
a direct connection to the Rhine, and the North Sea Canal
North Sea Canal
was dug to give the port a shorter connection to the North Sea. Both projects dramatically improved commerce with the rest of Europe
and the world. In 1906, Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad
gave a brief description of Amsterdam
as seen from the seaside, in The Mirror of the Sea. 20th century–present[edit]

Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square
Dam Square
at the beginning of the 20th century

Shortly before the First World War, the city started to expand again, and new suburbs were built. Even though the Netherlands
remained neutral in this war, Amsterdam
suffered a food shortage, and heating fuel became scarce. The shortages sparked riots in which several people were killed. These riots are known as the Aardappeloproer (Potato rebellion). People started looting stores and warehouses in order to get supplies, mainly food.[40] On 1 January 1921, after a flood in 1916, the depleted municipalities of Durgerdam, Holysloot, Zunderdorp
and Schellingwoude, all lying north of Amsterdam, were, at their own request, annexed to the city.[41][42] Between the wars, the city continued to expand, most notably to the west of the Jordaan
district in the Frederik Hendrikbuurt and surrounding neighbourhoods. Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
invaded the Netherlands
on 10 May 1940 and took control of the country. Some Amsterdam
citizens sheltered Jews, thereby exposing themselves and their families to a high risk of being imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. More than 100,000 Dutch Jews
were deported to Nazi concentration camps, of whom some 60,000 lived in Amsterdam. In response, the Dutch Communist Party organised the February strike
February strike
attended by 300,000 people to protest against the raids. Perhaps the most famous deportee was the young Jewish girl Anne Frank, who died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.[43] At the end of the Second World War, communication with the rest of the country broke down, and food and fuel became scarce. Many citizens travelled to the countryside to forage. Dogs, cats, raw sugar beets, and Tulip
bulbs—cooked to a pulp—were consumed to stay alive.[44] Most of the trees in Amsterdam
were cut down for fuel, and all the wood was taken from the apartments of deported Jews.

People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands
at the end of World War II
World War II
on 8 May 1945

Many new suburbs, such as Osdorp, Slotervaart, Slotermeer and Geuzenveld, were built in the years after the Second World War.[45] These suburbs contained many public parks and wide open spaces, and the new buildings provided improved housing conditions with larger and brighter rooms, gardens, and balconies. Because of the war and other events of the 20th century, almost the entire city centre had fallen into disrepair. As society was changing,[clarification needed] politicians and other influential figures made plans to redesign large parts of it. There was an increasing demand for office buildings, and also for new roads, as the automobile became available to most people.[46] A metro started operating in 1977 between the new suburb of Bijlmer and the centre of Amsterdam. Further plans were to build a new highway above the metro to connect Amsterdam
Centraal and city centre with other parts of the city. The required large-scale demolitions began in Amsterdam's former Jewish neighbourhood. Smaller streets, such as the Jodenbreestraat, were widened and almost all of their houses were demolished. At the peak of the demolition, the Nieuwmarktrellen ( Nieuwmarkt
Riots) broke out;[47] the rioters expressed their fury about the demolition caused by the restructuring of the city. As a result, the demolition was stopped, and the highway was never built; only the metro was completed. Only a few streets remained widened. The new city hall was built on the almost completely demolished Waterlooplein. Meanwhile, large private organisations, such as Stadsherstel Amsterdam, were founded with the aim of restoring the entire city centre. Although the success of this struggle is visible today, efforts for further restoration are still ongoing.[46] The entire city centre has reattained its former splendour and, as a whole, is now a protected area. Many of its buildings have become monuments, and in July 2010 the Grachtengordel (the three concentric canals: Herengracht, Keizersgracht, and Prinsengracht) was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.[48]

Amsterdam Gay Pride
Amsterdam Gay Pride

In the early years of the 21st century, the Amsterdam
city centre has attracted large numbers of tourists: between 2012 and 2015, the annual number of visitors rose from 10 million to 17 million. Real estate prices have surged, and local shops are making way for tourist-oriented ones, making the centre unaffordable for the city's inhabitants.[49] These developments have evoked comparisons with Venice, a city thought to be overwhelmed by the tourist influx.[50] Construction of a metro line connecting the part of the city north of the river (or lake) IJ to the centre was started in 2003. The project is controversial because its cost had exceeded its budget by a factor three by 2008,[51] because of fears of damage to buildings in the centre, and because construction had to be halted and restarted multiple times.[52] Since 2014, renewed focus has been given to urban regeneration and renewal, especially in areas directly bordering the city centre, such as Frederik Hendrikbuurt. This urban renewal and expansion of the traditional centre of the city—with the construction on artificial islands of the new eastern IJburg
neighbourhood—is part of the Structural Vision Amsterdam
2040 initiative.[53][54] Geography[edit]

Topographic map of Amsterdam
and its surrounding municipalities, 2014

Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers, as of April 2017

is located in the Western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, although it is not its capital which is Haarlem. The river Amstel
ends in the city centre and connects to a large number of canals that eventually terminate in the IJ. Amsterdam
is about 2 metres (6.6 feet) below sea level.[55] The surrounding land is flat as it is formed of large polders. A man-made forest, Amsterdamse Bos, is in the southwest. Amsterdam
is connected to the North Sea
North Sea
through the long North Sea
North Sea
Canal. Amsterdam
is intensely urbanised, as is the Amsterdam
metropolitan area surrounding the city. Comprising 219.4 square kilometres (84.7 square miles) of land, the city proper has 4,457 inhabitants per km2 and 2,275 houses per km2.[56] Parks and nature reserves make up 12% of Amsterdam's land area.[57] Water[edit]

Reguliersgracht, Autumn 2010

has more than 100 kilometres (60 miles) of canals, most of which are navigable by boat. The city's three main canals are the Prinsengracht, Herengracht, and Keizersgracht. In the Middle Ages, Amsterdam
was surrounded by a moat, called the Singel, which now forms the innermost ring in the city, and makes the city centre a horseshoe shape. The city is also served by a seaport. It has been compared with Venice, due to its division into about 90 islands, which are linked by more than 1,200 bridges.[58] Climate[edit]

Winter 2010 in Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord

has an oceanic climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Cfb) strongly influenced by its proximity to the North Sea
North Sea
to the west, with prevailing westerly winds. Both winters and summers are considered mild, although winters can get quite cold, while summers are quite warm occasionally. Amsterdam, as well as most of the North Holland
North Holland
province, lies in USDA Hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
8b. Frosts mainly occur during spells of easterly or northeasterly winds from the inner European continent. Even then, because Amsterdam
is surrounded on three sides by large bodies of water, as well as having a significant heat-island effect, nights rarely fall below −5 °C (23 °F), while it could easily be −12 °C (10 °F) in Hilversum, 25 kilometres (16 miles) southeast. Summers are moderately warm with a number of hot days every month. The average daily high in August is 22.1 °C (71.8 °F), and 30 °C (86 °F) or higher is only measured on average on 2.5 days, placing Amsterdam
in AHS Heat Zone 2. The record extremes range from −15.4 °C (4.3 °F) to 34.5 °C (94.1 °F).[59] Days with more than 1 millimetre (0.04 in) of precipitation are common, on average 133 days per year. Amsterdam's average annual precipitation is 838 millimetres (33 in),[60] more than what is measured at Amsterdam
Schiphol Airport. A large part of this precipitation falls as light rain or brief showers. Cloudy and damp days are common during the cooler months of October through March.

Climate data for Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.0 (57.2) 16.6 (61.9) 24.1 (75.4) 28.0 (82.4) 31.5 (88.7) 33.2 (91.8) 33.7 (92.7) 34.5 (94.1) 31.0 (87.8) 25.3 (77.5) 18.2 (64.8) 15.5 (59.9) 34.5 (94.1)

Average high °C (°F) 5.8 (42.4) 6.3 (43.3) 9.6 (49.3) 13.5 (56.3) 17.4 (63.3) 19.7 (67.5) 22.0 (71.6) 22.1 (71.8) 18.8 (65.8) 14.5 (58.1) 9.7 (49.5) 6.4 (43.5) 13.82 (56.87)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 3.5 (38.3) 6.1 (43) 9.1 (48.4) 12.9 (55.2) 15.4 (59.7) 17.6 (63.7) 17.5 (63.5) 14.7 (58.5) 11.0 (51.8) 7.1 (44.8) 4.0 (39.2) 10.19 (50.35)

Average low °C (°F) 0.8 (33.4) 0.5 (32.9) 2.6 (36.7) 4.6 (40.3) 8.2 (46.8) 10.8 (51.4) 13.0 (55.4) 12.8 (55) 10.6 (51.1) 7.5 (45.5) 4.2 (39.6) 1.5 (34.7) 6.43 (43.57)

Record low °C (°F) −15.4 (4.3) −15.0 (5) −11.1 (12) −4.7 (23.5) −1.1 (30) 2.3 (36.1) 5.0 (41) 5.0 (41) 2.0 (35.6) −3.4 (25.9) −6.9 (19.6) −14.8 (5.4) −15.4 (4.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.6 (2.622) 50.6 (1.992) 60.6 (2.386) 40.9 (1.61) 55.6 (2.189) 66.0 (2.598) 76.5 (3.012) 85.9 (3.382) 82.4 (3.244) 89.6 (3.528) 87.2 (3.433) 76.3 (3.004) 838.2 (33)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 10 11 9 10 10 10 10 12 13 13 13 132

Average snowy days 6 6 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 26

Average relative humidity (%) 88 86 83 78 76 78 79 80 83 86 89 90 83

Mean monthly sunshine hours 63.2 87.5 126.3 182.7 221.9 205.7 217.0 197.0 139.4 109.1 61.7 50.5 1,662

Source #1: Royal Netherlands
Meteorological Institute (1981–2010 normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)[61]

Source #2: Royal Netherlands
Meteorological Institute (1971–2000 extremes)[62]

Demographics[edit] Historical population[edit]

Estimated population, 1300–1564

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1300 1,000 —    

1400 4,700 +1.56%

1514 11,000 +0.75%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1546 13,200 +0.57%

1557 22,200 +4.84%

1564 30,900 +4.84%

Source: Bureau Monumentenzorg en Archeologie (1300)[63] Ramaer 1921, pp. 11–12, 181 (1400 and 1564) Van Dillen 1929, pp. xxv–xxvi (1514, 1546 and 1557)

Historical population in 10-year intervals, 1590–present

Year Pop. ±%

1590 41,362 —    

1600 59,551 +44.0%

1610 82,742 +38.9%

1620 106,500 +28.7%

1630 135,439 +27.2%

1640 162,388 +19.9%

1650 176,873 +8.9%

1660 192,767 +9.0%

1670 206,188 +7.0%

1680 219,098 +6.3%

1690 224,393 +2.4%

1700 235,224 +4.8%

1710 239,149 +1.7%

1720 241,447 +1.0%

1730 239,866 −0.7%

1740 237,582 −1.0%

1750 233,952 −1.5%

1760 240,862 +3.0%

1770 239,056 −0.7%

1780 228,938 −4.2%

1790 214,473 −6.3%

1800 203,485 −5.1%

Year Pop. ±%

1810 201,347 −1.1%

1820 197,831 −1.7%

1830 206,383 +4.3%

1840 214,367 +3.9%

1850 223,700 +4.4%

1860 244,050 +9.1%

1870 279,221 +14.4%

1880 323,784 +16.0%

1890 417,539 +29.0%

1900 520,602 +24.7%

1910 573,983 +10.3%

1920 647,427 +12.8%

1930 757,386 +17.0%

1940 800,594 +5.7%

1950 835,834 +4.4%

1960 869,602 +4.0%

1970 831,463 −4.4%

1980 716,967 −13.8%

1990 695,221 −3.0%

2000 731,289 +5.2%

2010 767,773 +5.0%

Source: Nusteling 1985, p. 240 (1590–1670) Van Leeuwen & Oeppen 1993, p. 87 (1680–1880) Department for Research, Information and Statistics (1890–present)

Compared to other important towns in the County of Holland, such as Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft
and Alkmaar, Amsterdam
is a relatively young city. In stark contrast to the relative decline of those other towns, Amsterdam's population grew in the 15th and 16th centuries, mainly due to the rise of the profitable Baltic maritime trade after the Burgundian victory in the Dutch–Hanseatic War. Still, the population of Amsterdam
and other towns in Holland was only modest compared to the towns and cities of Flanders
and Brabant, which comprised the most urbanised area of the Low Countries. This changed when, during the Dutch Revolt, many people from the Southern Netherlands
fled to the North, especially after Antwerp
fell to Spanish forces in 1585. In thirty years, Amsterdam's population more than doubled from 41,362 inhabitants in 1590 to 106,500 inhabitants in 1620. During the 1660s, Amsterdam's population reached 200,000. The city's growth levelled off and the population stabilised around 240,000 for most of the 18th century. At the turn of the 18th century, Amsterdam
was the fourth largest city in Europe, behind Constantinople
(about 700,000), London
(550,000) and Paris
(530,000). This was all the more remarkable as Amsterdam
was neither the capital city nor the seat of government of the Dutch Republic, which itself was a much smaller state than England, France or the Ottoman Empire. In contrast to those other metropolises, Amsterdam
was also surrounded by large towns such as Leiden
(about 67,000), Rotterdam
(45,000), Haarlem
(38,000), and Utrecht (30,000).[64] The city's population declined in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, dipping under 200,000 in 1820. By the second half of the 19th century, industrialisation spurred renewed growth. Amsterdam's population hit an all-time high of 872,000 in 1959, before declining in the following decades due to government-sponsored suburbanisation to so-called groeikernen (growth centres) such as Purmerend
and Almere. Between 1970 and 1980, Amsterdam
experienced its sharpest population decline ever, and by 1985 the city had only 675,570 residents. This was soon followed by reurbanisation and gentrification, however, leading to renewed population growth in the 2010s. The municipal department for Research, Information and Statistics expects a new record population to be set in 2020.[65] Immigration[edit]

City of Amsterdam
(2017) population by country of origin[66]

or territory Population

Netherlands 401,260 (47.49%)

Morocco 75,758 (8.97%)

Suriname 65,468 (7.75%)

Turkey 43,168 (5.11%)

Indonesia 25,522 (3.02%)

Former Yugoslavia 23,488 (2.93%)

Germany 18,445 (2.18%)

United Kingdom 12,670 (1.50%)

Dutch Caribbean 12,288 (1.45%)

Ghana 12,133 (1.44%)

Hungary 11,607 (1.43%)

Greece 10,911 (1.42%)

United States 9,108 (1.08%)

Italy 8,553 (1.01%)

Other 160,574 (19.00%)

In the 16th and 17th century non-Dutch immigrants to Amsterdam
were mostly Huguenots, Flemings, Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
and Westphalians. Huguenots came after the Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau
in 1685, while the Flemish Protestants came during the Eighty Years' War. The Westphalians came to Amsterdam
mostly for economic reasons – their influx continued through the 18th and 19th centuries. Before the Second World War, 10% of the city population was Jewish. Just twenty per cent of them survived the Shoah.[citation needed] The first mass immigration in the 20th century were by people from Indonesia, who came to Amsterdam
after the independence of the Dutch East Indies in the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1960s guest workers from Turkey, Morocco, Italy
and Spain
emigrated to Amsterdam. After the independence of Suriname
in 1975, a large wave of Surinamese settled in Amsterdam, mostly in the Bijlmer area. Other immigrants, including refugees asylum seekers and illegal immigrants, came from Europe, America, Asia, and Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, many 'old' Amsterdammers moved to 'new' cities like Almere
and Purmerend, prompted by the third planological bill of the Dutch government. This bill promoted suburbanisation and arranged for new developments in so-called "groeikernen", literally cores of growth. Young professionals and artists moved into neighbourhoods de Pijp and the Jordaan
abandoned by these Amsterdammers. The non-Western immigrants settled mostly in the social housing projects in Amsterdam-West
and the Bijlmer. Today, people of non-Western origin make up approximately one-third of the population of Amsterdam, and more than 50% of the city' s children.[67][68][69] Segregation along ethnic lines is clearly visible, with people of non-Western origin, considered a separate group by Statistics Netherlands, concentrating in specific neighbourhoods especially in Nieuw-West, Zeeburg, Bijlmer and in certain areas of Amsterdam-Noord.[70][71] In 2000, Christians formed the largest religious group in the city (27% of the population). The next largest religion was Islam (14%), most of whose followers were Sunni.[72][73] There is a Japanese population resident in Amsterdam. The Japanese School of Amsterdam
serves elementary and junior high school students. As of 2014[update] 8% of the student body of the International School Amsterdam
in nearby Amstelveen
was Japanese;[74] this figure was 40% in 1997. As of 1997 most Japanese children who lived in the Netherlands
attended high schools and universities located in Japan.[75] Religions[edit] In 1578 the previously Roman Catholic city of Amsterdam
joined the revolt against Spanish rule, late in comparison to other major northern Dutch cities. In line with Protestant procedure of that time, all churches were converted to Protestant worship. Calvinism
became the dominant religion, and although Catholicism was not forbidden and priests allowed to serve, the Catholic hierarchy was prohibited. This led to the establishment of schuilkerken, covert churches, behind seemingly ordinary canal side house fronts. One example is the current debate centre de Rode Hoed. A large influx of foreigners of many religions came to 17th-century Amsterdam, in particular Sefardic Jews from Spain
and Portugal, Huguenots from France, and Protestants from the Southern Netherlands. This led to the establishment of many non-Dutch-speaking religious churches. In 1603, the first notification was made of Jewish religious service. In 1639, the first synagogue was consecrated. The Jews
came to call the town Jerusalem of the West, a reference to their sense of belonging there.

Religions in Amsterdam
(2013)[76]    Irreligion (63.1%)   Roman Catholic (11.1%)   Protestant Church in the Netherlands
(5.6%)   Other Christian denominations (6.1%)   Islam (11.3%)    Hinduism
(1.2%)    Buddhism
(0.9%)    Judaism

The Westerkerk
in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best known churches

As they became established in the city, other Christian denominations used converted Catholic chapels to conduct their own services. The oldest English-language church congregation in the world outside the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is found at the Begijnhof. Regular services there are still offered in English under the auspices of the Church of Scotland.[77] The Huguenots accounted for nearly 20% of Amsterdam's inhabitants in 1700. Being Calvinists, they soon integrated into the Dutch Reformed Church, though often retaining their own congregations. Some, commonly referred by the moniker 'Walloon', are recognisable today as they offer occasional services in French. In the second half of the 17th century, Amsterdam
experienced an influx of Ashkenazim, Jews
from Central and Eastern Europe, which continued into the 19th century. Jews
often fled the pogroms in those areas. The first Ashkenazi who arrived in Amsterdam
were refugees from the Chmielnicki Uprising in Poland
and the Thirty Years' War. They not only founded their own synagogues, but had a strong influence on the ' Amsterdam
dialect' adding a large Yiddish local vocabulary. Despite an absence of an official Jewish ghetto, most Jews
preferred to live in the eastern part of the old medieval heart of the city. The main street of this Jewish neighbourhood was the Jodenbreestraat. The neighbourhood comprised the Waterlooplein
and the Nieuwmarkt.[78] Buildings in this neighbourhood fell into disrepair after the Second World War, and a large section of the neighbourhood was demolished during the construction of the subway. This led to riots, and as a result the original plans for large-scale reconstruction were abandoned and the neighbourhood was rebuilt with smaller-scale residence buildings on the basis of its original layout. Catholic churches in Amsterdam
have been constructed since the restoration of the episcopal hierarchy in 1853. One of the principal architects behind the city's Catholic churches, Cuypers, was also responsible for the Amsterdam
Central station and the Rijksmuseum, which led to a refusal of Protestant King William III to open 'that monastery'. In 1924, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of the Netherlands
hosted the International Eucharistic Congress
Eucharistic Congress
in Amsterdam, and numerous Catholic prelates visited the city, where festivities were held in churches and stadiums. Catholic processions on the public streets, however, were still forbidden under law at the time. Only in the 20th century was Amsterdam's relation to Catholicism normalised, but despite its far larger population size, the Catholic clergy chose to place its episcopal see of the city in the nearby provincial town of Haarlem.[79] In recent times, religious demographics in Amsterdam
have been changed by immigration from former colonies. Hinduism
has been introduced from the Hindu diaspora from Suriname
and several distinct branches of Islam have been brought from various parts of the world. Islam is now the largest non-Christian religion in Amsterdam. The large community of Ghanaian and Nigerian immigrants have established African churches, often in parking garages in the Bijlmer area, where many have settled. In addition, a broad array of other religious movements have established congregations, including Hinduism, and Buddhism. Jews
make up about 2% of the city's total population. Diversity and immigration[edit] Amsterdam
experienced an influx of religions and cultures after the Second World War. With 180 different nationalities,[80] Amsterdam
is home to one of the widest varieties of nationalities of any city in the world.[81] The proportion of the population of immigrant origin in the city proper is about 50%[82] and 88% of the population are Dutch citizens.[83] Amsterdam
has been one of the municipalities in the Netherlands
which provided immigrants with extensive and free Dutch-language courses, which have benefited many immigrants.[84] Cityscape and architecture[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Amsterdam

View of the city centre looking southwest from the Oosterdokskade

fans out south from the Amsterdam
Centraal railway station and Damrak, the main street off the station. The oldest area of the town is known as De Wallen
De Wallen
(English: "The Quays"). It lies to the east of Damrak
and contains the city's famous red light district. To the south of de Wallen is the old Jewish quarter of Waterlooplein. The medieval and colonial age canals of Amsterdam, known as grachten, embraces the heart of the city where homes have interesting gables. Beyond the Grachtengordel are the former working class areas of Jordaan
and de Pijp. The Museumplein
with the city's major museums, the Vondelpark, a 19th-century park named after the Dutch writer Joost van den Vondel, and the Plantage neighbourhood, with the zoo, are also located outside the Grachtengordel. Several parts of the city and the surrounding urban area are polders. This can be recognised by the suffix -meer which means lake, as in Aalsmeer, Bijlmermeer, Haarlemmermeer, and Watergraafsmeer. Canals[edit] Main article: Canals of Amsterdam


Gardens behind canal houses, Grachtengordel

The Amsterdam
canal system is the result of conscious city planning.[85] In the early 17th century, when immigration was at a peak, a comprehensive plan was developed that was based on four concentric half-circles of canals with their ends emerging at the IJ bay. Known as the Grachtengordel, three of the canals were mostly for residential development: the Herengracht (where "Heren" refers to Heren Regeerders van de stad Amsterdam
(ruling lords of Amsterdam), and gracht means canal, so the name can be roughly translated as "Canal of the lords"), Keizersgracht (Emperor's Canal), and Prinsengracht (Prince's Canal).[86] The fourth and outermost canal is the Singelgracht, which is often not mentioned on maps, because it is a collective name for all canals in the outer ring. The Singelgracht should not be confused with the oldest and most inner canal Singel.


The canals served for defence, water management and transport. The defences took the form of a moat and earthen dikes, with gates at transit points, but otherwise no masonry superstructures.[87] The original plans have been lost, so historians, such as Ed Taverne, need to speculate on the original intentions: it is thought that the considerations of the layout were purely practical and defensive rather than ornamental.[88]

Bridge over a canal

Construction started in 1613 and proceeded from west to east, across the breadth of the layout, like a gigantic windshield wiper as the historian Geert Mak
Geert Mak
calls it – and not from the centre outwards, as a popular myth has it. The canal construction in the southern sector was completed by 1656. Subsequently, the construction of residential buildings proceeded slowly. The eastern part of the concentric canal plan, covering the area between the Amstel
river and the IJ bay, has never been implemented. In the following centuries, the land was used for parks, senior citizens' homes, theatres, other public facilities, and waterways without much planning.[89] Over the years, several canals have been filled in, becoming streets or squares, such as the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal
Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal
and the Spui.[90] Expansion[edit] Main article: Expansion of Amsterdam
Expansion of Amsterdam
since the 19th century


After the development of Amsterdam's canals in the 17th century, the city did not grow beyond its borders for two centuries. During the 19th century, Samuel Sarphati
Samuel Sarphati
devised a plan based on the grandeur of Paris
and London
at that time. The plan envisaged the construction of new houses, public buildings and streets just outside the Grachtengordel. The main aim of the plan, however, was to improve public health. Although the plan did not expand the city, it did produce some of the largest public buildings to date, like the Paleis voor Volksvlijt.[91][92][93] Following Sarphati, Van Niftrik and Kalff designed an entire ring of 19th-century neighbourhoods surrounding the city's centre, with the city preserving the ownership of all land outside the 17th-century limit, thus firmly controlling development.[94] Most of these neighbourhoods became home to the working class.[95] In response to overcrowding, two plans were designed at the beginning of the 20th century which were very different from anything Amsterdam had ever seen before: Plan Zuid, designed by the architect Berlage, and West. These plans involved the development of new neighbourhoods consisting of housing blocks for all social classes.[96][97] After the Second World War, large new neighbourhoods were built in the western, southeastern, and northern parts of the city. These new neighbourhoods were built to relieve the city's shortage of living space and give people affordable houses with modern conveniences. The neighbourhoods consisted mainly of large housing blocks situated among green spaces, connected to wide roads, making the neighbourhoods easily accessible by motor car. The western suburbs which were built in that period are collectively called the Westelijke Tuinsteden. The area to the southeast of the city built during the same period is known as the Bijlmer.[98][99] Architecture[edit]

The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer
Piet Kramer
is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School

The Begijnhof, Amsterdam

The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam
Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam
and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st century architecture in the centre of the city

has a rich architectural history. The oldest building in Amsterdam
is the Oude Kerk (Old Church), at the heart of the Wallen, consecrated in 1306.[100] The oldest wooden building is Het Houten Huys[101] at the Begijnhof. It was constructed around 1425 and is one of only two existing wooden buildings. It is also one of the few examples of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
in Amsterdam. In the 16th century, wooden buildings were razed and replaced with brick ones. During this period, many buildings were constructed in the architectural style of the Renaissance. Buildings of this period are very recognisable with their stepped gable façades, which is the common Dutch Renaissance style. Amsterdam
quickly developed its own Renaissance architecture. These buildings were built according to the principles of the architect Hendrick de Keyser.[102] One of the most striking buildings designed by Hendrick de Keyer is the Westerkerk. In the 17th century baroque architecture became very popular, as it was elsewhere in Europe. This roughly coincided with Amsterdam's Golden Age. The leading architects of this style in Amsterdam
were Jacob van Campen, Philips
Vingboons and Daniel Stalpaert.[103] Philip Vingboons designed splendid merchants' houses throughout the city. A famous building in baroque style in Amsterdam
is the Royal Palace on Dam Square. Throughout the 18th century, Amsterdam
was heavily influenced by French culture. This is reflected in the architecture of that period. Around 1815, architects broke with the baroque style and started building in different neo-styles.[104] Most Gothic style buildings date from that era and are therefore said to be built in a neo-gothic style. At the end of the 19th century, the Jugendstil or Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style became popular and many new buildings were constructed in this architectural style. Since Amsterdam
expanded rapidly during this period, new buildings adjacent to the city centre were also built in this style. The houses in the vicinity of the Museum Square in Amsterdam Oud-Zuid
Amsterdam Oud-Zuid
are an example of Jugendstil. The last style that was popular in Amsterdam
before the modern era was Art Deco. Amsterdam
had its own version of the style, which was called the Amsterdamse School. Whole districts were built this style, such as the Rivierenbuurt.[105] A notable feature of the façades of buildings designed in Amsterdamse School is that they are highly decorated and ornate, with oddly shaped windows and doors. The old city centre is the focal point of all the architectural styles before the end of the 19th century. Jugendstil and Georgian are mostly found outside the city's centre in the neighbourhoods built in the early 20th century, although there are also some striking examples of these styles in the city centre. Most historic buildings in the city centre and nearby are houses, such as the famous merchants' houses lining the canals. Parks and recreational areas[edit] Main articles: List of parks in Amsterdam
List of parks in Amsterdam
and List of squares in Amsterdam

Amsterdam's busiest park, the Vondelpark

Part of Dam Square. Left: Royal Palace, Right: Nieuwe Kerk

A: Vondelpark B: Beatrixpark C: Sarphatipark D: Oosterpark E: Park Frankendael F: Rembrandtpark G: Westerpark H: Flevopark I: Amsterdamse Bos J: Amstelpark K: Hortus Botanicus L: Wertheimerpark M: Martin Luther Kingpark N: Sloterpark

has many parks, open spaces, and squares throughout the city. Vondelpark, the largest park in the city, is located in the Oud-Zuid borough and is named after the 17th century Amsterdam
author, Joost van den Vondel. Yearly, the park has around 10 million visitors. In the park is an open-air theatre, a playground and several horeca facilities. In the Zuid borough, is Beatrixpark, named after Queen Beatrix. Between Amsterdam
and Amstelveen
is the Amsterdamse Bos (" Amsterdam
Forest"), the largest recreational area in Amsterdam. Annually, almost 4.5 million people visit the park, which has a size of 1.000 hectares and is approximately three times the size of Central Park.[106] Amstelpark
in the Zuid borough houses the Rieker windmill, which dates to 1636. Other parks include Sarphatipark
in the De Pijp
De Pijp
neighbourhood, Oosterpark in the Oost borough, and Westerpark in the Westerpark neighbourhood. The city has three beaches: Nemo Beach, Citybeach "Het stenen hoofd" (Silodam) and Blijburg, all located in the Centrum borough. The city has many open squares (plein in Dutch). The namesake of the city as the site of the original dam, Dam Square, is the main town square and has the Royal Palace and National Monument. Museumplein hosts various museums, including the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh Museum, and Stedelijk Museum. Other squares include Rembrandtplein, Muntplein, Nieuwmarkt, Leidseplein, Spui, and Waterlooplein. Also, near to Amsterdam
is the Nekkeveld estate
Nekkeveld estate
conservation project. Economy[edit]

The Amsterdam
Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world


is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.[107] Amsterdam
is ranked fifth best of European cities in which to locate an international business, surpassed by London, Paris, Frankfurt
and Barcelona.[108] Many large corporations and banks have their headquarters in Amsterdam, including Akzo Nobel, Heineken International, ING Group, ABN AMRO, TomTom, Delta Lloyd Group, Booking.com
and Philips. KPMG
International's global headquarters is located in nearby Amstelveen, where many non-Dutch companies have settled as well, because surrounding communities allow full land ownership, contrary to Amsterdam's land-lease system. Though many small offices are still located on the old canals, companies are increasingly relocating outside the city centre. The Zuidas
(English: South Axis) has become the new financial and legal hub.[109] The five largest law firms of the Netherlands, a number of Dutch subsidiaries of large consulting firms like Boston Consulting Group and Accenture, and the World Trade Center Amsterdam
are also located in Zuidas. There are three other smaller financial districts in Amsterdam. The first is the area surrounding Amsterdam
Sloterdijk railway station, where several newspapers like De Telegraaf
De Telegraaf
have their offices. Also, Deloitte, the Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf
Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf
(municipal public transport company) and the Dutch tax offices (Belastingdienst) are located there. The second Financial District is the area surrounding the Amsterdam
Arena. The third is the area surrounding Amsterdam
Amstel railway station. The tallest building in Amsterdam, the Rembrandt Tower, is situated there, as is the headquarters of Philips.[110][111] Port of Amsterdam[edit] The Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam
is the fourth largest port in Europe, the 38th largest port in the world and the second largest port in the Netherlands
by metric tons of cargo. In 2014 the Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam
had a cargo throughput of 97,4 million tons of cargo, which was mostly bulk cargo. Amsterdam
has the biggest cruise port in the Netherlands
with more than 150 cruise ships every year. In 2019 the new lock in IJmuiden will open; the port will then be able to grow to 125 million tonnes in capacity. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
(AEX), now part of Euronext, is the world's oldest stock exchange and is one of Europe's largest bourses. It is near Dam Square
Dam Square
in the city centre. Together with Eindhoven
(Brainport) and Rotterdam
(Seaport), Amsterdam (Airport) forms the foundation of the Dutch economy.[112] Tourism[edit] Main article: List of tourist attractions in Amsterdam

Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands


is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, receiving more than 4.63 million international visitors annually, this is excluding the 16 million day trippers visiting the city every year.[113] The number of visitors has been growing steadily over the past decade. This can be attributed to an increasing number of European visitors. Two-thirds of the hotels are located in the city's centre. Hotels with 4 or 5 stars contribute 42% of the total beds available and 41% of the overnight stays in Amsterdam. The room occupation rate was 78% in 2006, up from 70% in 2005.[114] The majority of tourists (74%) originate from Europe. The largest group of non-European visitors come from the United States, accounting for 14% of the total.[114] Certain years have a theme in Amsterdam
to attract extra tourists. For example, the year 2006 was designated "Rembrandt 400", to celebrate the 400th birthday of Rembrandt
van Rijn. Some hotels offer special arrangements or activities during these years. The average number of guests per year staying at the four campsites around the city range from 12,000 to 65,000.[114]

The red-light district is a main tourist attraction.

Red light district[edit] Main article: De Wallen De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is a designated area for legalised prostitution and is Amsterdam's largest and most well known red-light district. This neighbourhood has become a famous attraction for tourists. It consists of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights. Retail[edit] Shops in Amsterdam
range from large high end department stores such as De Bijenkorf
De Bijenkorf
founded in 1870 to small specialty shops. Amsterdam's high-end shops are found in the streets P.C. Hooftstraat
P.C. Hooftstraat
and Cornelis Schuytstraat, which are located in the vicinity of the Vondelpark. One of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval Kalverstraat
in the heart of the city. Other shopping areas include the Negen Straatjes
Negen Straatjes
and Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat. Negen Straatjes are nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel, the concentric canal system of Amsterdam. The Negen Straatjes
Negen Straatjes
differ from other shopping districts with the presence of a large diversity of privately owned shops. The Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk were voted best shopping street in the Netherlands
in 2011. These streets have as the Negen Straatjes
Negen Straatjes
a large diversity of privately owned shops. But as the Negen Straatjes
Negen Straatjes
are dominated by fashion stores the Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk offer a very wide variety of all kinds of stores, just to name some specialties: candy and other food related stores, lingerie, sneakers, wedding clothing, interior shops, books, Italian deli's, racing and mountain bikes, skatewear, etc. The city also features a large number of open-air markets such as the Albert Cuyp Market, Westerstraat-markt, Ten Katemarkt, and Dappermarkt. Some of these markets are held on a daily basis, like the Albert Cuypmarkt and the Dappermarkt. Others, like the Westerstraatmarkt, are held on a weekly basis. Fashion[edit] Fashion brands like G-star, Gsus, BlueBlood, PICHICHI, Iris van Herpen, fair trade denim brand MUD Jeans, 10 feet and Warmenhoven & Venderbos, and fashion designers like Mart Visser, Viktor & Rolf, Sheila de Vries, Marlies Dekkers
Marlies Dekkers
and Frans Molenaar
Frans Molenaar
are based in Amsterdam. Modelling agencies Elite Models, Touche models and Tony Jones have opened branches in Amsterdam. Fashion models like Yfke Sturm, Doutzen Kroes
Doutzen Kroes
and Kim Noorda
Kim Noorda
started their careers in Amsterdam. Amsterdam
has its garment centre in the World Fashion Center. Buildings which formerly housed brothels in the red light district have been converted to ateliers for young fashion designers, AKA eagle fuel.[citation needed] Fashion photographers Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin were born in Amsterdam(Netherland). Culture[edit]

The Rijksmuseum
houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.

The Van Gogh Museum
Van Gogh Museum
houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.

The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.

During the later part of the 16th-century Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer (Chamber of rhetoric) organised contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama. In 1638, Amsterdam
opened its first theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as 1642. In the 18th century, French theatre became popular. While Amsterdam
was under the influence of German music in the 19th century there were few national opera productions; the Hollandse Opera of Amsterdam
was built in 1888 for the specific purpose of promoting Dutch opera.[115] In the 19th century, popular culture was centred on the Nes area in Amsterdam
(mainly vaudeville and music-hall).[citation needed] The metronome, one of the most important advances in European classical music, was invented here in 1812 by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel. At the end of this century, the Rijksmuseum
and Stedelijk Museum were built.[citation needed] In 1888, the Concertgebouworkest was established. With the 20th century came cinema, radio and television.[citation needed] Though most studios are located in Hilversum
and Aalsmeer, Amsterdam's influence on programming is very strong. Many people who work in the television industry live in Amsterdam. Also, the headquarters of the Dutch SBS Broadcasting Group is located in Amsterdam.[116] Museums[edit] The most important museums of Amsterdam
are located on the Museumplein (Museum Square), located at the southwestern side of the Rijksmuseum. It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds of the former World's fair. The northeastern part of the square is bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum. In front of the Rijksmuseum
on the square itself is a long, rectangular pond. This is transformed into an ice rink in winter.[117] The northwestern part of the square is bordered by the Van Gogh Museum, Stedelijk Museum, House of Bols Cocktail & Genever Experience and Coster Diamonds. The southwestern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat, which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam. The Concertgebouw
is situated across this street from the square. To the southeast of the square are situated a number of large houses, one of which contains the American consulate. A parking garage can be found underneath the square, as well as a supermarket. The Museumplein
is covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northeastern part of the square which is covered with gravel. The current appearance of the square was realised in 1999, when the square was remodelled. The square itself is the most prominent site in Amsterdam
for festivals and outdoor concerts, especially in the summer. Plans were made in 2008 to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of Amsterdam
are not happy with its current appearance.[118]

monument on Rembrandtplein

The Rijksmuseum
possesses the largest and most important collection of classical Dutch art.[119] It opened in 1885. Its collection consists of nearly one million objects.[120] The artist most associated with Amsterdam
is Rembrandt, whose work, and the work of his pupils, is displayed in the Rijksmuseum. Rembrandt's masterpiece The Night Watch is one of top pieces of art of the museum. It also houses paintings from artists like Van der Helst, Vermeer, Frans Hals, Ferdinand Bol, Albert Cuyp, Jacob van Ruisdael
Jacob van Ruisdael
and Paulus Potter. Aside from paintings, the collection consists of a large variety of decorative art. This ranges from Delftware
to giant doll-houses from the 17th century. The architect of the gothic revival building was P.J.H. Cuypers. The museum underwent a 10-year, 375 million euro renovation starting in 2003. The full collection was reopened to the public on 13 April 2013 and the Rijksmuseum
has established itself as the most visited museum in Amsterdam
with 2.2 million visitors in 2013.[121] Van Gogh lived in Amsterdam
for a short while and there is a museum dedicated to his work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern buildings in this area of Amsterdam. The building was designed by Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is displayed. A new building was added to the museum in 1999. This building, known as the performance wing, was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. Its purpose is to house temporary exhibitions of the museum.[122][123] Some of Van Gogh's most famous paintings, like The Potato Eaters
The Potato Eaters
and Sunflowers, are in the collection.[124] The Van Gogh museum is the second most visited museum in Amsterdam, with 1.4 million annual visitors.[125] Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum. This is Amsterdam's most important museum of modern art. The museum is as old as the square it borders and was opened in 1895. The permanent collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan, Karel Appel, and Kazimir Malevich. After renovations lasting several years the museum opened in September 2012 with a new composite extension that has been called 'The Bathtub' due to its resemblance to one. Amsterdam
contains many other museums throughout the city. They range from small museums such as the Verzetsmuseum
(Resistance Museum), the Anne Frank
Anne Frank
House, and the Rembrandt
House Museum, to the very large, like the Tropenmuseum
(Museum of the Tropics), Amsterdam
Museum (formerly known as Amsterdam
Historical Museum), Hermitage Amsterdam (a dependency of the Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
in Saint Petersburg) and the Joods Historisch Museum
Joods Historisch Museum
(Jewish Historical Museum). The modern-styled Nemo is dedicated to child-friendly science exhibitions. Music[edit] Main article: List of songs about Amsterdam

performing at the Amsterdam
Arena, 2016

Amsterdam's musical culture includes a large collection of songs which treat the city nostalgically and lovingly. The 1949 song "Aan de Amsterdamse grachten" ("On the canals of Amsterdam") was performed and recorded by many artists, including John Kraaijkamp Sr.; the best-known version is probably that by Wim Sonneveld
Wim Sonneveld
(1962). In the 1950s Johnny Jordaan
rose to fame with "Geef mij maar Amsterdam" ("I prefer Amsterdam"), which praises the city above all others (explicitly Paris); Jordaan
sang especially about his own neighbourhood, the Jordaan
("Bij ons in de Jordaan"). Colleagues and contemporaries of Johnny include Tante Leen
Tante Leen
and Manke Nelis. Other notable Amsterdam
songs are "Amsterdam" by Jacques Brel
Jacques Brel
(1964) and "Deze Stad" by De Dijk
De Dijk
(1989).[126] A 2011 poll by Amsterdam
newspaper Het Parool
Het Parool
that Trio Bier's "Oude Wolf" was voted "Amsterdams lijflied".[127] Notable Amsterdam
bands from the modern era include the Osdorp
Posse and The Ex. AFAS Live
(formerly known as the Heineken Music Hall) is a concert hall located near the Johan Cruyff Arena
Johan Cruyff Arena
(known as the Amsterdam
Arena until 2017). Its main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts for big audiences. Many famous international artists have performed there. Two other notable venues, Paradiso and the Melkweg
are located near the Leidseplein. Both focus on broad programming, ranging from indie rock to hip hop, R&B, and other popular genres. Other more subcultural music venues are OCCII, OT301, De Nieuwe Anita, Winston Kingdom and Zaal 100. Jazz
has a strong following in Amsterdam, with the Bimhuis
being the premier venue. In 2012, Ziggo Dome
Ziggo Dome
was opened, also near Amsterdam
Arena, a state-of-the-art indoor music arena. AFAS Live
is also host to many electronic dance music festivals, alongside many other venues. Armin van Buuren
Armin van Buuren
and Tiesto, some of the world's leading Trance DJ's hail from the Netherlands
and perform frequently in Amsterdam. Each year in October, the city hosts the Amsterdam
Dance Event (ADE) which is one of the leading electronic music conferences and one of the biggest club festivals for electronic music in the world, attracting over 350,000 visitors each year.[128] Another popular dance festival is 5daysoff, which takes place in the venues Paradiso and Melkweg. In summer time there are several big outdoor dance parties in or nearby Amsterdam, such as Awakenings, Dance Valley, Mystery Land, Loveland, A Day at the Park, Welcome to the Future, and Valtifest.

The Concertgebouw
or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw
Orchestra and other musical events

has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal Concertgebouw
Orchestra. Their home is the Concertgebouw, which is across the Van Baerlestraat from the Museum Square. It is considered by critics to be a concert hall with some of the best acoustics in the world. The building contains three halls, Grote Zaal, Kleine Zaal, and Spiegelzaal. Some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over 700,000, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world.[129] The opera house of Amsterdam
is situated adjacent to the city hall. Therefore, the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera, (a word originally coined by protesters against it very construction: Stop the Opera[-house]). This huge modern complex, opened in 1986, lies in the former Jewish neighbourhood at Waterlooplein
next to the river Amstel. The Stopera
is the homebase of Dutch National Opera, Dutch National Ballet and the Holland Symfonia. Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ
Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ
is a concert hall, which is situated in the IJ near the central station. Its concerts perform mostly modern classical music. Located adjacent to it, is the Bimhuis, a concert hall for improvised and Jazz
music. Performing arts[edit]

Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best known theatre

has three main theatre buildings. The Stadsschouwburg
at the Leidseplein
is the home base of Toneelgroep Amsterdam. The current building dates from 1894. Most plays are performed in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall). The normal programme of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms. The Stadsschouwburg is currently being renovated and expanded. The third theatre space, to be operated jointly with next door Melkweg, will open in late 2009 or early 2010. The Dutch National Opera
Dutch National Opera
and Ballet (formerly known as Het Muziektheater), dating from 1986, is the principal opera house and home to Dutch National Opera
Dutch National Opera
and Dutch National Ballet. Royal Theatre Carré was built as a permanent circus theatre in 1887 and is currently mainly used for musicals, cabaret performances and pop concerts. The recently re-opened DeLaMar Theater houses the more commercial plays and musicals. A new theatre has also moved into Amsterdam
scene in 2014, joining other established venues: Theater Amsterdam
is situated in the west part of Amsterdam, on the Danzigerkade. It is housed in a modern building with a panoramic view over the harbour. The theatre is the first ever purpose-built venue to showcase a single play entitled ANNE, the play based on Anne Frank's life. On the east side of town there is a small theatre in a converted bath house, the Badhuistheater. The theatre often has English programming. The Netherlands
has a tradition of cabaret or kleinkunst, which combines music, storytelling, commentary, theatre and comedy. Cabaret dates back to the 1930s and artists like Wim Kan, Wim Sonneveld
Wim Sonneveld
and Toon Hermans
Toon Hermans
were pioneers of this form of art in the Netherlands. In Amsterdam
is the Kleinkunstacademie (English: Cabaret
Academy). Contemporary popular artists are Youp van 't Hek, Freek de Jonge, Herman Finkers, Hans Teeuwen, Theo Maassen, Herman van Veen, Najib Amhali, Raoul Heertje, Jörgen Raymann, Brigitte Kaandorp
Brigitte Kaandorp
and Comedytrain. The English spoken comedy scene was established with the founding of Boom Chicago
Boom Chicago
in 1993. They have their own theatre at Leidseplein. Nightlife[edit]

DeWolff performing at Paradiso

The Magere Brug
Magere Brug
or "Skinny Bridge" over the Amstel
at night

is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. Amsterdam has many cafés (bars). They range from large and modern to small and cozy. The typical Bruine Kroeg (brown café) breathe a more old fashioned atmosphere with dimmed lights, candles, and somewhat older clientele. Most cafés have terraces in summertime. A common sight on the Leidseplein
during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine. Many restaurants can be found in Amsterdam
as well. Since Amsterdam
is a multicultural city, a lot of different ethnic restaurants can be found. Restaurants range from being rather luxurious and expensive to being ordinary and affordable. Amsterdam
also possesses many discothèques. The two main nightlife areas for tourists are the Leidseplein
and the Rembrandtplein. The Paradiso, Melkweg
and Sugar
Factory are cultural centres, which turn into discothèques on some nights. Examples of discothèques near the Rembrandtplein
are the Escape, Air, John Doe and Club Abe. Also noteworthy are Panama, Hotel Arena (East), Trouw Amsterdam
and Studio 80. Bimhuis
located near the Central Station, with its rich programming hosting the best in the field is considered one of the best jazz clubs in the world. The Reguliersdwarsstraat is the main street for the LGBT
community and nightlife. Festivals[edit]

Queen's Day in Amsterdam, 2013

In 2008, there were 140 festivals and events in Amsterdam.[130] Famous festivals and events in Amsterdam
include: Koningsdag
(which was named Koninginnedag
until the crowning of King Willem-Alexander in 2013) (King's Day – Queen's Day); the Holland Festival
Holland Festival
for the performing arts; the yearly Prinsengrachtconcert
(classical concerto on the Prinsen canal) in August; the 'Stille Omgang' (a silent Roman Catholic evening procession held every March); Amsterdam
Gay Pride; The Cannabis Cup; and the Uitmarkt. On Koninginnedag—that was held each year on 30 April—hundreds of thousands of people travel to Amsterdam
to celebrate with the city's residents and Koningsdag
is held on 27 April. The entire city becomes overcrowded with people buying products from the freemarket, or visiting one of the many music concerts. The yearly Holland Festival
Holland Festival
attracts international artists and visitors from all over Europe. Amsterdam Gay Pride
Amsterdam Gay Pride
is a yearly local LGBT
parade of boats in Amsterdam's canals, held on the first Saturday in August.[131] The annual Uitmarkt
is a three-day cultural event at the start of the cultural season in late August. It offers previews of many different artists, such as musicians and poets, who perform on podia.[132] Sports[edit]

AFC Ajax
AFC Ajax
player Johan Cruyff, 1967

is home of the Eredivisie
football club AFC Ajax. The stadium Johan Cruyff Arena
Johan Cruyff Arena
is the home of Ajax. It is located in the south-east of the city next to the new Amsterdam
Bijlmer ArenA railway station. Before moving to their current location in 1996, Ajax played their regular matches in De Meer Stadion.[133] In 1928, Amsterdam hosted the Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events, such as the Amsterdam
Marathon.[134] In 1920, Amsterdam assisted in hosting some of the sailing events for the Summer Olympics held in neighbouring Antwerp, Belgium
by hosting events at Buiten Y. The city holds the Dam to Dam Run, a 16-kilometre (10 mi) race from Amsterdam
to Zaandam, as well as the Amsterdam
Marathon. The ice hockey team Amstel
Tijgers play in the Jaap Eden ice rink. The team competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league. Speed skating championships have been held on the 400-metre lane of this ice rink. Amsterdam
holds two American football
American football
franchises: the Amsterdam Crusaders and the Amsterdam
Panthers. The Amsterdam Pirates
Amsterdam Pirates
baseball team competes in the Dutch Major League. There are three field hockey teams: Amsterdam, Pinoké and Hurley, who play their matches around the Wagener Stadium in the nearby city of Amstelveen. The basketball team MyGuide Amsterdam
MyGuide Amsterdam
competes in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid.[135] There is one rugbyclub in Amsterdam, which also hosts sports training classes such as RTC(Rugby Talenten Centrum or Rugby Talent Centre) and the National Rugby stadium. Since 1999 the city of Amsterdam
honours the best sportsmen and women at the Amsterdam
Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards, in 1999. Government[edit] Main article: Government of Amsterdam

Jozias van Aartsen, the Acting Mayor of Amsterdam
since 2017

The city of Amsterdam
is a municipality under the Dutch Municipalities Act. It is governed by a directly elected municipal council, a municipal executive board and a mayor. Since 1981, the municipality of Amsterdam
has gradually been divided into semi-autonomous boroughs, called stadsdelen or 'districts'. Over time, a total of 15 boroughs were created. In May 2010, under a major reform, the number of Amsterdam
boroughs was reduced to eight: Amsterdam-Centrum
covering the city centre including the canal belt, Amsterdam-Noord
consisting of the neighbourhoods north of the IJ lake, Amsterdam-Oost
in the east, Amsterdam-Zuid
in the south, Amsterdam-West
in the west, Amsterdam Nieuw-West
Amsterdam Nieuw-West
in the far west, Amsterdam Zuidoost
Amsterdam Zuidoost
in the southeast, and Westpoort
covering the Port of Amsterdam
Port of Amsterdam
area.[136] City government[edit] Main articles: Boroughs of Amsterdam
Boroughs of Amsterdam
and Municipal council (Netherlands) As with all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam
is governed by a directly elected municipal council, a municipal executive board and a mayor (burgemeester). The mayor is a member of the municipal executive board, but also has individual responsibilies in maintaining public order. In July 2010, Eberhard van der Laan
Eberhard van der Laan
(Labour Party) was appointed Mayor of Amsterdam
by the King's Commissioner
King's Commissioner
of North Holland for a six-year term after being nominated by the Amsterdam municipal council. After the 2014 municipal council elections, a governing majority of D66, VVD and SP was formed – the first coalition without the Labour Party since World War II.[137] Next to the Mayor, the municipal executive board consists of eight wethouders ('alderpersons') appointed by the municipal council: four D66 alderpersons, two VVD alderpersons and two SP alderpersons.[138] On 18 September 2017 it was announced by Eberhard van der Laan
Eberhard van der Laan
in an open letter to Amsterdam
citizens that Kajsa Ollongren
Kajsa Ollongren
would take up his office as acting Mayor of Amsterdam
with immediate effect due to ill health.[139] Ollongren was succeeded as acting Mayor by Eric van der Burg on 26 October 2017 and by Jozias van Aartsen
Jozias van Aartsen
on 4 December 2017.

Boroughs of Amsterdam

Unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam
is subdivided into eight boroughs, called stadsdelen or 'districts', a system that was implemented gradually in the 1980s to improve local governance. The boroughs are responsible for many activities that had previously been run by the central city. In 2010, the number of Amsterdam
boroughs reached fifteen. Fourteen of those had their own district council (deelraad), elected by a popular vote. The fifteenth, Westpoort, covers the harbour of Amsterdam
and had very few residents. Therefore, it was governed by the central municipal council. Under the borough system, municipal decisions are made at borough level, except for those affairs pertaining to the whole city such as major infrastructure projects, which are the jurisdiction of the central municipal authorities. In 2010, the borough system was restructured, in which many smaller boroughs merged into larger boroughs. In 2014, under a reform of the Dutch Municipalities Act, the Amsterdam
boroughs lost much of their autonomous status, as their district councils were abolished. The municipal council of Amsterdam
voted to maintain the borough system by replacing the district councils with smaller, but still directly elected district committees (bestuurscommissies). Under a municipal ordinance, the new district committees were granted responsibilities through delegation of regulatory and executive powers by the central municipal council.

View of the Stopera
(left, behind the blue bridge), where the Amsterdam
city hall and opera house are located, and the Hermitage Museum (right) on the Amstel

Metropolitan area[edit] "Amsterdam" is usually understood to refer to the municipality of Amsterdam. Colloquially, some areas within the municipality, such as the town of Durgerdam, may not be considered part of Amsterdam. Statistics Netherlands
uses three other definitions of Amsterdam: metropolitan agglomeration Amsterdam
(Grootstedelijke Agglomeratie Amsterdam, not to be confused with Grootstedelijk Gebied Amsterdam, a synonym of Groot Amsterdam), Greater Amsterdam
(Groot Amsterdam, a COROP
region) and the urban region Amsterdam
(Stadsgewest Amsterdam).[7] The Amsterdam
Department for Research and Statistics uses a fourth conurbation, namely the Stadsregio Amsterdam
('City Region of Amsterdam'). The city region is similar to Greater Amsterdam but includes the municipalities of Zaanstad
and Wormerland. It excludes Graft-De Rijp. The smallest of these areas is the municipality of Amsterdam
with a population of 802,938 in 2013.[7] The conurbation had a population of 1,096,042 in 2013.[7] It includes the municipalities of Zaanstad, Wormerland, Oostzaan, Diemen
and Amstelveen
only, as well as the municipality of Amsterdam.[7] Greater Amsterdam
includes 15 municipalities,[7] and had a population of 1,293,208 in 2013.[7] Though much larger in area, the population of this area is only slightly larger, because the definition excludes the relatively populous municipality of Zaanstad. The largest area by population, the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area
Amsterdam Metropolitan Area
(Dutch: Metropoolregio Amsterdam), has a population of 2,33 million.[140] It includes for instance Zaanstad, Wormerveer, Muiden, Abcoude, Haarlem, Almere
and Lelystad
but excludes Graft-De Rijp. Amsterdam
is part of the conglomerate metropolitan area Randstad, with a total population of 6,659,300 inhabitants.[141] Of these various metropolitan area configurations, only the Stadsregio Amsterdam
(City Region of Amsterdam) has a formal governmental status. Its responsibities include regional spatial planning and the metropolitan public transport concessions.[142] National capital[edit] Main article: Capital of the Netherlands

King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam
Royal Palace of Amsterdam
during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013

Under the Dutch Constitution, Amsterdam
is the capital of the Netherlands. Since the 1983 constitutional revision, the constitution mentions "Amsterdam" and "capital" in chapter 2, article 32: The king's confirmation by oath and his coronation take place in "the capital Amsterdam" ("de hoofdstad Amsterdam").[12] Previous versions of the constitution only mentioned "the city of Amsterdam" ("de stad Amsterdam").[143] For a royal investiture, therefore, the States General of the Netherlands
(the Dutch Parliament) meets for a ceremonial joint session in Amsterdam. The ceremony traditionally takes place at the Nieuwe Kerk on Dam Square, immediately after the former monarch has signed the act of abdication at the nearby Royal Palace of Amsterdam. Normally, however, the Parliament sits in The Hague, the city which has historically been the seat of the Dutch government, the Dutch monarchy, and the Dutch supreme court. Foreign embassies are also located in The Hague. Symbols[edit] Main articles: Coat of arms of Amsterdam
Coat of arms of Amsterdam
and Flag of Amsterdam The coat of arms of Amsterdam
is composed of several historical elements. First and centre are three St Andrew's crosses, aligned in a vertical band on the city's shield (although Amsterdam's patron saint was Saint Nicholas). These St Andrew's crosses can also be found on the cityshields of neighbours Amstelveen
and Ouder-Amstel. This part of the coat of arms is the basis of the flag of Amsterdam, flown by the city government, but also as civil ensign for ships registered in Amsterdam. Second is the Imperial Crown of Austria. In 1489, out of gratitude for services and loans, Maximilian I awarded Amsterdam
the right to adorn its coat of arms with the king's crown. Then, in 1508, this was replaced with Maximilian's imperial crown when he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In the early years of the 17th century, Maximilian's crown in Amsterdam's coat of arms was again replaced, this time with the crown of Emperor Rudolph II, a crown that became the Imperial Crown of Austria. The lions date from the late 16th century, when city and province became part of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Last came the city's official motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig ("Heroic, Determined, Merciful"), bestowed on the city in 1947 by Queen Wilhelmina, in recognition of the city's bravery during the Second World War. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Amsterdam Metro, tram and bus[edit] Main articles: Amsterdam Metro
Amsterdam Metro
and Trams in Amsterdam

A tram crossing the Keizersgracht

The Amsterdam Metro
Amsterdam Metro
is a mixed subway and above ground commuter rail with various lines

Currently, there are sixteen tram routes and four metro routes, with a fifth route to be added when completed (due in July 2018). All are operated by municipal public transport operator GVB, which also runs the city bus network. Four fare-free GVB ferries carry pedestrians and cyclists across the IJ lake to the borough of Amsterdam-Noord, and two fare-charging ferries run east and west along the harbour. There are also privately operated water taxis, a water bus, a boat sharing operation, electric rental boats (Boaty) and canal cruises, that transport people along Amsterdam's waterways. Regional buses, and some suburban buses, are operated by Connexxion and EBS. International coach services are provided by Eurolines
from Amsterdam
railway station, IDBUS
from Amsterdam
Sloterdijk railway station, and Megabus from the Zuiderzeeweg in the east of the city. In order to facilitate easier transport to the center of Amsterdam, the city has various P+R Locations where people can park their car at an affordable price and transfer to one of the numerous public transport lines.[144] Car[edit] Amsterdam
was intended in 1932 to be the hub, a kind of Kilometre Zero, of the highway system of the Netherlands,[145] with freeways numbered One to Eight planned to originate from the city.[145] The outbreak of the Second World War and shifting priorities led to the current situation, where only roads A1, A2, and A4 originate from Amsterdam
according to the original plan. The A3 to Rotterdam
was cancelled in 1970 in order to conserve the Groene Hart. Road A8, leading north to Zaandam
and the A10 Ringroad were opened between 1968 and 1974.[146] Besides the A1, A2, A4 and A8, several freeways, such as the A7 and A6, carry traffic mainly bound for Amsterdam. The A10 ringroad surrounding the city connects Amsterdam
with the Dutch national network of freeways. Interchanges on the A10 allow cars to enter the city by transferring to one of the 18 city roads, numbered S101 through to S118. These city roads are regional roads without grade separation, and sometimes without a central reservation. Most are accessible by cyclists. The S100 Centrumring is a smaller ringroad circumnavigating the city's centre. In the city centre, driving a car is discouraged. Parking fees are expensive, and many streets are closed to cars or are one-way.[147] The local government sponsors carsharing and carpooling initiatives such as Autodelen and Meerijden.nu.[148] National rail[edit]

Centraal station, the city's main train station

is served by ten stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways).[149] Five are intercity stops: Sloterdijk, Zuid, Amstel, Bijlmer ArenA and Amsterdam
Centraal. The stations for local services are: Lelylaan, RAI, Holendrecht, Muiderpoort and Science Park. Amsterdam
Centraal is also an international railway station. From the station there are regular services to destinations such as Austria, Belarus, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Among these trains are international trains of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Amsterdam-Berlin) and the Eurostar (Amsterdam-Brussels-London), Thalys
(Amsterdam-Brussels-Paris/Lille), CityNightLine, and InterCityExpress (Amsterdam–Cologne–Frankfurt).[150][151][152] Airport[edit]

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
is less than 20 minutes by train from Amsterdam Centraal station
Amsterdam Centraal station
and is served by domestic and international intercity trains, such as Thalys
and Intercity Brussel. Schiphol is the largest airport in the Netherlands, the third largest in Europe, and the 14th-largest in the world in terms of passengers. It handles over 60 million passengers per year and is the home base of four airlines, KLM, Transavia, Martinair
and Arkefly
.[153] As of 2014[update], Schiphol was the fifth busiest airport in the world measured by international passenger numbers.[154] Cycling[edit] Main article: Cycling in Amsterdam

Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht

is one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the world and is a centre of bicycle culture with good facilities for cyclists such as bike paths and bike racks, and several guarded bike storage garages (fietsenstalling) which can be used. In 2013, there were about 1,200,000 bicycles in Amsterdam
outnumbering the amount of citizens in the city.[155] Theft is widespread—in 2011, about 83,000 bicycles were stolen in Amsterdam.[156] Bicycles are used by all socio-economic groups because of their convenience, Amsterdam's small size, the 400 kilometres (249 miles) of bike paths,[157] the flat terrain, and the inconvenience of driving an automobile.[158] Education[edit]

The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre

has two universities: the University of Amsterdam (Universiteit van Amsterdam, UvA), and the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
(VU). Other institutions for higher education include an art school – Gerrit Rietveld
Gerrit Rietveld
Academie, a university of applied sciences – the Hogeschool
van Amsterdam, and the Amsterdamse Hogeschool
voor de Kunsten. Amsterdam's International Institute of Social History
International Institute of Social History
is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions concerning social history, and especially the history of the labour movement. Amsterdam's Hortus Botanicus, founded in the early 17th century, is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world,[159] with many old and rare specimens, among them the coffee plant that served as the parent for the entire coffee culture in Central and South America.[160] There are over 200 primary schools in Amsterdam.[161] Some of these primary schools base their teachings on particular pedagogic theories like the various Montessori schools. The biggest Montessori high school in Amsterdam
is the Montessori Lyceum Amsterdam. Many schools, however, are based on religion. This used to be primarily Roman Catholicism and various Protestant denominations, but with the influx of Muslim immigrants there has been a rise in the number of Islamic schools. Jewish schools can be found in the southern suburbs of Amsterdam. Amsterdam
is noted for having five independent grammar schools (Dutch: gymnasia), the Vossius Gymnasium, Barlaeus Gymnasium, St. Ignatius Gymnasium, Het 4e Gymnasium
Het 4e Gymnasium
and the Cygnus Gymnasium where a classical curriculum including Latin
and classical Greek is taught. Though believed until recently by many to be an anachronistic and elitist concept that would soon die out, the gymnasia have recently experienced a revival, leading to the formation of a fourth and fifth grammar school in which the three aforementioned schools participate. Most secondary schools in Amsterdam
offer a variety of different levels of education in the same school. The city also has various colleges ranging from art and design to politics and economics which are mostly also available for students coming from other countries. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Amsterdam

Frits Bolkestein
Frits Bolkestein
(born 1933), politician Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken (born 1954), businesswoman Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
(born 1933), atmospheric chemist Willem Drees
Willem Drees
Sr. (1886–1988), politician Floris Adriaan van Hall
Floris Adriaan van Hall
(1791–1866), Minister of Justice, Prime Minister of the Netherlands Freddy Heineken
Freddy Heineken
(1923–2002), businessman Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
(born 1948), politician André Kuipers
André Kuipers
(born 1958), astronaut Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
(1632–1677), philosopher Hans Wiegel
Hans Wiegel
(born 1941), politician


Karel Appel
Karel Appel
(1921–2006), painter Jan Akkerman
Jan Akkerman
(born 1946), musician Willeke van Ammelrooy
Willeke van Ammelrooy
(born 1944), actress Willem Breuker
Willem Breuker
(1944–2010), musician Frans Brüggen
Frans Brüggen
(1934–2014), musician Rudi van Dantzig
Rudi van Dantzig
(1933–2012), ballet Joop van den Ende
Joop van den Ende
(born 1942), film, television and theatric producer Bernard Haitink
Bernard Haitink
(born 1929), orchestra conductor John Kraaijkamp, Sr.
John Kraaijkamp, Sr.
(1925–2011), actor, comedian, singer Andre Hazes
Andre Hazes
(1951–2004), one of the most famous singers in the Netherlands


Alistair Overeem
Alistair Overeem
(born 1980), mixed martial artist and kickboxer Co Adriaanse
Co Adriaanse
(born 1947), football trainer Dennis Bergkamp
Dennis Bergkamp
(born 1969), football player Jan van Beveren
Jan van Beveren
(1948–2011) football goalkeeper and coach Michael Bleekemolen
Michael Bleekemolen
(born 1949) racing driver Daley Blind
Daley Blind
(born 1990), football player Geraldo Boldewijn (born 1991), American football
American football
player Cor Brom
Cor Brom
(1932–2008), football player and football trainer Ellie van den Brom
Ellie van den Brom
(born 1949) long-track speed skater Daniel Sprong
Daniel Sprong
(born 1997) hockey player Johan Cruyff
Johan Cruyff
(1947–2016), football player and football trainer Ellen van Dijk
Ellen van Dijk
(born 1987), cyclist Max Euwe
Max Euwe
(1901–1981), Chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author Louis van Gaal
Louis van Gaal
(born 1951), football trainer Ruud Gullit
Ruud Gullit
(born 1962), football player Bobby Haarms
Bobby Haarms
(1934–2009), football player and football trainer Cor van der Hart
Cor van der Hart
(1928–2006), football player and football trainer Rinus Israël
Rinus Israël
(born 1942), football player and football trainer Nigel de Jong
Nigel de Jong
(born 1984), football player Jan Jongbloed
Jan Jongbloed
(born 1940), football player (goalkeeper) Piet Keizer
Piet Keizer
(1943-2017), football player Patrick Kluivert
Patrick Kluivert
(born 1976), football player Gerrie Knetemann
Gerrie Knetemann
(1951–2004), cyclist Ada Kok
Ada Kok
(born 1947), swimmer Ruud Krol
Ruud Krol
(born 1949), football player and football coach Edward Metgod (born 1959), football player (goalkeeper) and football trainer John Metgod
John Metgod
(born 1958), football player and football trainer Rinus Michels
Rinus Michels
(1928–2005), football player and football trainer Lion van Minden (1880–1944), Olympic fencer who was killed in the Auschwitz concentration camp Bennie Muller
Bennie Muller
(born 1938), football player (47 caps) Simon Okker (1881–1944), Olympic fencer killed in the Auschwitz concentration camp Tom Okker
Tom Okker
(born 1944), tennis player Eddy Pieters Graafland
Eddy Pieters Graafland
(born 1934), football player (goalkeeper) Peter Post
Peter Post
(1933–2011), cyclist Quincy Promes
Quincy Promes
(born 1992), football player Anton Pronk
Anton Pronk
(born 1941), football player (19 caps) Rob Rensenbrink
Rob Rensenbrink
(born 1947), football player Frank Rijkaard
Frank Rijkaard
(born 1962), football player and football coach Wim Ruska
Wim Ruska
(born 1940), judoka Ton Sijbrands
Ton Sijbrands
(born 1949), international draughts player Sjaak Swart
Sjaak Swart
(born 1938), football player Marko Vejinovic (born 1990), football player

Originating from elsewhere[edit]

Fanny Blankers-Koen
Fanny Blankers-Koen
(1918–2004), athlete Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn
(born 1973), swimmer René Descartes, philosopher Ryan ten Doeschate
Ryan ten Doeschate
(born 1980), cricketer Jan Hein Donner
Jan Hein Donner
(1927–1988), chess grandmaster Anne Frank
Anne Frank
(1929–1945), diarist and Holocaust victim Theo van Gogh (1957–2004), film director Carice van Houten
Carice van Houten
(born 1976), actress Søren Lerby
Søren Lerby
(born 1958), football player Satyendra Pakhale
Satyendra Pakhale
(born 1967), designer Rembrandt
van Rijn (1606/7–1669), painter Jan van Speyk
Jan van Speyk
(1802–1831), lieutenant-commander Dutch Royal Navy Joop den Uyl
Joop den Uyl
(1919–1987), politics Joost van den Vondel
Joost van den Vondel
(1597–1679), poet, playwright Gerardus Vossius
Gerardus Vossius
(1577–1649), theologist, historian Vijce (born 1988), fine art photographer

Media[edit] Amsterdam
is a prominent centre for national and international media. Some locally based newspapers include Het Parool, a national daily paper; De Telegraaf, the largest Dutch daily newspaper; the daily newspapers Trouw, de Volkskrant and NRC Handelsblad; De Groene Amsterdammer, a weekly newspaper; the free newspapers Sp!ts, Metro, and The Holland Times
The Holland Times
(printed in English). Amsterdam
is home to the second-largest Dutch commercial TV group SBS Broadcasting Group, consisting of TV-stations SBS 6, Net 5
Net 5
and Veronica. However, Amsterdam
is not considered 'the media city of the Netherlands'. The town of Hilversum, 30 kilometres (19 miles) south-east of Amsterdam, has been crowned with this unofficial title. Hilversum
is the principal centre for radio and television broadcasting in the Netherlands. Radio Netherlands, heard worldwide via shortwave radio since the 1920s, is also based there. Hilversum
is home to an extensive complex of audio and television studios belonging to the national broadcast production company NOS, as well as to the studios and offices of all the Dutch public broadcasting organisations and many commercial TV production companies. In 2012, the music video of Far East Movement, 'Live My Life', was filmed in various parts of Amsterdam. Amsterdam
is also featured in John Green's book The Fault in Our Stars, which has also been made into a film, and part of the film takes place in Amsterdam. Housing[edit] The housing market is heavily regulated. In Amsterdam, 55% of existing housing and 30% of new housing is owned by Housing Associations, which are Government sponsored entities. Squat properties are common throughout Amsterdam, due to property law strongly favouring tenants. A number of these squats have become well known, such as OT301, Paradiso, Vrankrijk (closed down by city government), and the Binnenpret, and several are now businesses, such as health clubs and licensed restaurants. See also[edit]

portal Amsterdam


Notes and references[edit]

^ "Portfolios: Mayor & Alderpersons". Gemeente Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.  ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ a b Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20 van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011; Randstad
Holland in internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions 1995–2011; Randstad
Holland compared internationally] (PDF) (Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO. Retrieved 25 July 2013.  ^ "Postcodetool for 1012JS (Dam Square)". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g "CBS Amsterdam
Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand".  ^ a b "Economische Verkenningen Metropool Regio Amsterdam" (PDF).  ^ Also /æmstərˈdæm/. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180  ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532  ^ a b Dutch Wikisource. "Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden" [Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands] (in Dutch). Chapter 2, Article 32. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ... de hoofdstad Amsterdam ...  ^ Permanent Mission of the Netherlands
to the UN. "General Information". Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "CBS Statline – Population Development; region per month".  ^ "Randstad2040; Facts & Figures (p.26)" (in Dutch). VROM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-12.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Vol 1, pp. 896–898. ^ Cambridge.org, Capitals of Capital -A History of International Financial Centres – 1780–2005, Youssef Cassis, ISBN 978-0-521-84535-9 ^ After Athens
in 1888 and Florence
in 1986, Amsterdam
was in 1986 chosen as the European Capital of Culture, confirming its eminent position in Europe
and the Netherlands. See EC.europa.eu for an overview of the European cities and capitals of culture over the years. Archived 14 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Forbes.com, Forbes Global 2000 Largest Companies – Dutch rankings. ^ "The Next Global Tech Hotspot? Amsterdam
Stakes Its Claim".  ^ "Best cities ranking and report" (PDF).  ^ "Best cities in the world (Mercer)". City Mayors. 26 May 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ "2thinknow Innovation Cities Global 256 Index – worldwide innovation city rankings". Innovation-cities.com. 30 July 2009. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ "Port Statistics 2015" (PDF) (Press release). Rotterdam
Port Authority. May 2016. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-09. Retrieved 2017-02-09.  ^ " Amsterdam
verwelkomde in 2014 ruim 5 miljoen buitenlandse toeristen – Amsterdam
– PAROOL".  ^ https://www.wantedineurope.com/news/amsterdam-worldc292s-most-multicultural-city.html ^ a b Berns & Daan 1993, p. 91. ^ Mak 1994, p. 19. ^ "The toll privilege of 1275 in the Amsterdam
City Archives". Stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ Mak 1994, pp. 18–20. ^ " Amsterdam
200 jaar ouder dan aangenomen" (in Dutch). Nu.nl. 22 October 2008. Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.  ^ "De geschiedenis van Amsterdam" (in Dutch). Municipality of Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.  ^ "Mirakel van Amsterdam" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 8 August 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2008.  ^ "Eighty Years' War" (in Dutch). Leiden
University. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.  ^ Case in point: After his trial and sentencing in Rome
in 1633, Galileo chose Lodewijk Elzevir
Lodewijk Elzevir
in Amsterdam
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kans op 'evenementenstad'" [ Amsterdam
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- I amsterdam". www.iamsterdam.com.  ^ a b "Autosnelweg.nl – Geschiedenis Autosnelwegen in Nederland" (in Dutch). Autosnelweg.nl. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2007.  ^ "Autosnelweg.nl – Geschiedenis Autosnelwegen in Nederland" (in Dutch). Autosnelweg.nl. Archived from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2007.  ^ " Amsterdam
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undertakes detailed planning for London
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Berns, Jan; Daan, Jo (1993). Hij zeit wat: de Amsterdamse volkstaal. The Hague: BZZTôH. ISBN 9062917569.  Frijhoff, Willem; Prak, Maarten (2005), Geschiedenis van Amsterdam. Zelfbewuste stadsstaat 1650–1813, Amsterdam: SUN, ISBN 9058751384  Mak, Geert (1994), Een kleine geschiedenis van Amsterdam, Amsterdam & Antwerp: Atlas, ISBN 9045019531  Charles Caspers & Peter Jan Margry (2017), Het Mirakel van Amsterdam. Biografie van een betwiste devotie (Amsterdam, Prometheus). Nusteling, Hubert (1985), Welvaart en werkgelegenheid in Amsterdam 1540–1860. Een relaas over demografie, economie en sociale politiek van een wereldstad, Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, ISBN 9067070823  Ramaer, J.C. (1921), "Middelpunten der bewoning in Nederland, voorheen en thans", TAG 2e serie, 38  Van Dillen, J.G. (1929), Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van het bedrijfsleven en het gildewezen van Amsterdam, The Hague  Van Leeuwen, M.; Oeppen, J.E. (1993), "Reconstructing the Demographic Regime of Amsterdam
1681–1920", Economic and Social History in the Netherlands, 5: 61–102 

See also[edit]

Bibliography of Amsterdam

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAmsterdamat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Tourist information about Amsterdam
– Website of the Netherlands Board of Tourism and Conventions (in Dutch) Amsterdam.nl – Official government site I amsterdam – Portal
for international visitors Dutch Amsterdam
Visitors Guide Amsterdam
City Archives Free Amsterdam
audio guide Free English guided walking tour

Places adjacent to Amsterdam

Zaanstad Oostzaan, Landsmeer Waterland

Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude



Haarlemmermeer Amstelveen, Ouder-Amstel Diemen

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Amsterdam-related topics



Canals Parks Squares Expansion Government People


Tourist attractions


Songs Transport

Metro Railway stations Trams Cycling

Walls Coat of arms Flag


Centrum Nieuw-West Noord Oost West Westpoort Zuid Zuidoost

See also: Category:Amsterdam

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Neighbourhoods of Amsterdam


Binnenstad (Oude Zijde - Nieuwe Zijde) Grachtengordel (Negen Straatjes) Haarlemmerbuurt Jodenbuurt Jordaan Kadijken Lastage Oostelijke Eilanden
Oostelijke Eilanden
(Czaar Peterbuurt) Oosterdokseiland Plantage Rapenburg Uilenburg Westelijke Eilanden Weteringschans


Geuzenveld (De Eendracht) Nieuw Sloten Oostoever Osdorp
( De Aker - Middelveldsche Akerpolder) Oud Osdorp Overtoomse Veld Sloten Slotermeer Slotervaart


Banne Buiksloot Buiksloot Buikslotermeer Floradorp Kadoelen Landelijk Noord ( Durgerdam
- Holysloot
- Ransdorp
- Schellingwoude
- Zunderdorp) Molenwijk Nieuwendam Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk Oostzanerwerf Overhoeks Tuindorp Nieuwendam Tuindorp Oostzaan


(Haveneiland - Rieteilanden - Steigereiland - Zeeburgereiland) Indische Buurt Oostelijk Havengebied (Borneo-eiland - Cruquiuseiland
- Java-eiland
- KNSM-eiland - Oostelijke Handelskade
Oostelijke Handelskade
- Sporenburg) Oostpoort Oud-Oost ( Dapperbuurt - Oosterparkbuurt - Transvaalbuurt - Weesperzijde) Watergraafsmeer
( Amsteldorp
- Betondorp - Omval - Science Park)


Admiralenbuurt Bos en Lommer
Bos en Lommer
(Kolenkitbuurt - Landlust) Chassébuurt Frederik Hendrikbuurt Houthaven Oud-West ( Kinkerbuurt
- Overtoombuurt) Postjesbuurt Sloterdijk Spaarndammerbuurt Staatsliedenbuurt Trompbuurt Waterwijk Westerpark Zeeheldenbuurt


Apollobuurt Buitenveldert Hoofddorppleinbuurt Museumkwartier (Duivelseiland) De Pijp
De Pijp
( Oude Pijp
Oude Pijp
- Nieuwe Pijp
Nieuwe Pijp
- Diamantbuurt) Prinses Irenebuurt Rivierenbuurt Schinkelbuurt Stadionbuurt
(Olympisch Kwartier) Vondelparkbuurt Willemspark Zuidas


Bijlmer Bullewijk Driemond Gaasperdam Venserpolder


Teleport Westelijk Havengebied (Ruigoord)

Former boroughs: De Baarsjes
De Baarsjes
- Geuzenveld- Slotermeer - Oost- Watergraafsmeer
- Oud-West - Oud-Zuid - Slotervaart - Westerpark - Zeeburg
- Zuideramstel

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Municipalities of North Holland

Aalsmeer Alkmaar Amstelveen Amsterdam Beemster Bergen Beverwijk Blaricum Bloemendaal Castricum Den Helder Diemen Drechterland Edam-Volendam Enkhuizen Gooise Meren Haarlem Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude Haarlemmermeer Heemskerk Heemstede Heerhugowaard Heiloo Hilversum Hollands Kroon Hoorn Huizen Koggenland Landsmeer Langedijk Laren Medemblik Oostzaan Opmeer Ouder-Amstel Purmerend Schagen Stede Broec Texel Uitgeest Uithoorn Velsen Waterland Weesp Wijdemeren Wormerland Zaanstad Zandvoort

See also Netherlands Provinces Municipalities

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Capital cities of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

National capital: Amsterdam Seat of government: The Hague

Constituent countries Provinces Public bodies

Oranjestad, Aruba Willemstad, Curaçao Amsterdam, Netherlands Philipsburg, Sint Maarten

Assen, Drenthe Lelystad, Flevoland Leeuwarden, Friesland Arnhem, Gelderland Groningen, Groningen Maastricht, Limburg

's-Hertogenbosch, North Brabant Haarlem, North Holland Zwolle, Overijssel The Hague, South Holland Utrecht, Utrecht Middelburg, Zeeland

Kralendijk, Bonaire The Bottom, Saba Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius

See also: List of cities in the Netherlands
by province

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.


Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)


Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)


Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland


Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia


Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

Other topics

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

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Venues of the 1928 Summer Olympics

Amersfoort Amsterdam Buiten Y Hilversum Krachtsportgebouw Monnikenhuize Old Stadion Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium Olympic Stadium Schermzaal Sloten Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel Zeeburg
Shooting Grounds Zuiderzee

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Olympic venues in cycling

1896 Marathon (city), Neo Phaliron Velodrome 1900 Vélodrome de Vincennes 1904 Francis Field 1908 White City Stadium 1912 Liljeholmen, Mälaren 1920 Antwerp, Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg 1924 Stade de Colombes, Vélodrome de Vincennes 1928 Amsterdam, Olympic Stadium 1932 Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Avenue, Pacific Coast Highway, Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Vineyard Avenue 1936 Avus Motor Road, BSV 92 Field & Stadium 1948 Herne Hill Velodrome, Windsor Great Park 1952 Käpylä, Maunula, Pakila, Velodrome 1956 Broadmeadows, Velodrome 1960 Olympic Velodrome, Via Cassia, Via Flaminia, Via Cristoforo Colombo, Via di Grottarossa 1964 Hachioji City, Hachioji Velodrome 1968 Agustín Melgar Olympic Velodrome, Satellite Circuit 1972 Bundesautobahn 96, Grünwald, Radstadion 1976 Mount Royal
Mount Royal
Park, Olympic Velodrome, Quebec Autoroute 40 1980 Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit, Krylatskoye Sports Complex Velodrome, Moscow- Minsk
Highway 1984 Artesia Freeway, Olympic Velodrome, Streets of Mission Viejo 1988 Olympic Velodrome, Tongillo Road Course 1992 A-17 highway, Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, Sant Sadurní Cycling Circuit, Velòdrom d'Horta 1996 Cycling road course, Georgia International Horse Park, Stone Mountain Park Archery Center and Velodrome 2000 Centennial Parklands, Dunc Gray Velodrome, Western Sydney
Parklands 2004 Athens
Olympic Velodrome, Kotzia Square, Parnitha Olympic Mountain Bike Venue, Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre 2008 Laoshan Bicycle Moto Cross (BMX) Venue, Laoshan Mountain Bike Course, Laoshan Velodrome, Urban Road Cycling Course 2012 BMX Circuit, Hadleigh Farm, London
Velodrome, Hampton Court Palace 2016 Fort Copacabana, Mountain Bike Centre, Olympic BMX Centre, Pontal, Rio Olympic Velodrome 2020 Izu Velodrome, Fuji Speedway, Olympic BMX Course 2024 Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Champs-Élysées, Élancourt Hill 2028 VELO Sports Center, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Convention Center, Grand Park, Downtown Long Beach, Frank G. Bonelli Regional Park

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World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

Preceded by Herning, Denmark
(1987) World Gymnaestrada
World Gymnaestrada
host city 1991 Succeeded by Berlin, Germany

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158212776 LCCN: n78095634 GND: 4001783-7 BNF: cb119430472 (d