Epidermis
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Epidermis
The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that comprise the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biolo ..., the inner layers being the dermis The dermis or corium is a layer of skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such a ... and hypodermis The subcutaneous tissue (), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (), subcutis, superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the layer are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrop .... The epidermis layer provides a barrier to infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body ...
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Skin
Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton Arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,Reference showing that Euarthropoda is ..., have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition{{Unreferenced, date=December 2017 Chemical composition refers to identity and nine number of the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, T ...
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Skin
Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton Arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,Reference showing that Euarthropoda is ..., have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition{{Unreferenced, date=December 2017 Chemical composition refers to identity and nine number of the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, T ...
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Integumentary System
The integumentary system is the set of organs forming the outermost layer of an animal's body. It comprises the skin and its appendages, acting as a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that it serves to protect and maintain. The integumentary system includes hair, Scale (zoology), scales, feathers, Hoof, hooves, and Nail (anatomy), nails. It has a variety of additional functions; it may serve to maintain water balance, protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate Core temperature, body temperature, and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. Structure Skin The skin is one of the largest organs of the body. In humans, it accounts for about 12 to 15 percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m2 of surface area. The skin (integument) is a composite organ, made up of at least two major layers of tissue: the Epidermis (skin), epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis i ...
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Dermal Papillae
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have differe ... between the epidermis The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that comprise the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Oth ... (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. It is divided into two layers, the superficial area adjacent to the epidermis called the papillary region and a deep thicker area known as the reticular dermis.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). ''Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Der ...
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Dermis
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have differe ... between the epidermis The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and Subcutaneous tissue, hypodermis. The epidermis layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the am ... (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissue The subcutaneous tissue (), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (), subcutis, superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system The integumentary system is the set of organs forming the outermost layer of an animal's body. ...s, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue Dense irregular connective tissue has fibers that ...
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Subcutaneous Tissue
The subcutaneous tissue (), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (), subcutis, superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system The integumentary system is the set of organs forming the outermost layer of an animal's body. It comprises the skin and its appendages, acting as a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that it serves to p ... in vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ...s. The types of cells found in the layer are fibroblast A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical proces ...s, adipose cells ...
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Stratum Basale
The ''stratum basale'' (basal layer, sometimes referred to as ''stratum germinativum'') is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and Subcutaneous tissue, hypodermis. The epidermis layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the am ..., the external covering of skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have differe ... in mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female#Mammalian female, females produce milk ...s. The ''stratum basale'' is a single layer of c ...
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Keratinocytes
Keratinocytes are the primary type of found in the , the outermost layer of the . In humans, they constitute 90% of epidermal skin cells. Basal cells in the of the skin are sometimes referred to as basal keratinocytes. Keratinocytes form a barrier against environmental damage by , , , , , , and . A number of structural , , , and contribute to maintain the important barrier function of the skin. Keratinocytes differentiate from epidermal in the lower part of the epidermis and migrate towards the surface, finally becoming and eventually be shed off, which happens every 40-56 days in humans. Function The primary function of keratinocytes is the formation of a barrier against environmental damage by , , , , , , and . Pathogens invading the upper layers of the epidermis can cause keratinocytes to produce mediators, particularly such as and (MCP-1) which attract s, s, , and s to the site of pathogen invasion. Structure A number of structural (, ), (), , and () contr ...
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Merkel Cell
Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are oval-shaped mechanoreceptors essential for light touch sensation and found in the skin of vertebrates. They are abundant in highly sensitive skin like that of the fingertips in humans, and make synaptic contacts with somatosensory The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. The somatosensory system is a complex system of sensory neurons and neural pathways that responds to changes at the surface or inside the body. The axons (as afferent nerve fi ... afferent nerve fiber Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that ''arrive'' at a particular Brain regions, brain region, as opposed to efferent nerve fiber, efferent projections that ''exit'' the region. These terms have a slightly different meaning in t ...s. Though it has been reported that Merkel cells are derived from neural crest Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to vertebrate V ...
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Langerhans Cell
Langerhans cells (LC) are tissue-resident macrophages Macrophages (abbreviated as MPhi, φ, MΦ or MP) ( el, large eaters, from Greek ''μακρός'' (') = large, ''φαγεῖν'' (') = to eat) are a type of white blood cell of the immune system that engulfs and digests anything that does not hav ... of the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biolo ..., and contain organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, M ...s called Birbeck granules. They are present in all layers of the epidermis and are most prominent in the stratum spinosum The stratum spinosum (o ...
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