Dunham Classification
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Dunham Classification
The Dunham classification system for Carbonate minerals, carbonate sedimentary rocks was originally devised by Robert J. Dunham in 1962, and subsequently modified by Embry and Klovan in 1971 to include coarse-grained limestones and sediments that had been organically bound at the time of Deposition (geology), deposition. The ''modified Dunham Classification'' has subsequently become the most widely employed system for the classification of carbonate sedimentary rocks with 89% of workers currently adopting this system over the alternative Folk classification, Folk classification scheme History Original classification Robert J. Dunham published his classification system for limestone in 1962. The original Dunham classification system was developed in order to provide convenient depositional-texture based class names that focus attention on the textural properties that are most significant for interpreting the depositional environment of the rocks. The three criteria used to defin ...
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Wackestone
Under the Dunham classification The Dunham classification system for Carbonate minerals, carbonate sedimentary rocks was originally devised by Robert J. Dunham in 1962, and subsequently modified by Embry and Klovan in 1971 to include coarse-grained limestones and sediments that ... (Dunham, 1962Dunham, R.J., 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: W.E. Ham (Ed.), Classification of Carbonate Rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp. 108–121.) system of limestone Limestone (calcium carbonate ) is a type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock which is the main source of the material Lime_(material), lime. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different Polymorphis ...s, a wackestone is defined as a mud-supported carbonate rock Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate min ...
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Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology), cementation. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause these particles to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock are called sediment, and may be composed of detritus (geology), geological detritus (minerals) or detritus, biological detritus (organic matter). The geological detritus originated from weathering and erosion of existing rocks, or from the solidification of molten lava blobs erupted by volcanoes. The geological detritus is transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice or Mass wasting, mass movement, which are called agents of denudation. Biological detritus was formed by bodies and parts (mainly shells) of dead aquatic organisms, as well as their fecal mass, suspended in water and slowly piling up on ...
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Framestone
A framestone is a special type of carbonate rock in the Dunham classification. Description The term "framestone" was not used in the original Dunham classification by Dunham (1962). It first appeared in the modified Dunham classification by Embry and Klovan (1971) where it is described as an autochthonous limestone having "in situ massive fossils which constructed a rigid three-dimensional framework during deposition. The in situ fossils therefore form the supporting framework of the rock, with matrix material occurring in the interstices between the fossils." Lokier and Al Junaibi(2016) define a framestone as "an autochthonous carbonate-dominated rock supported by a rigid organic framework developed at the time of deposition." Interpretive problems One possible problem in the interpretation of framestones is that the framework can be of different sizes from millimeters to meters, so they might not be present on the thin section. Some organisms can also be binding and build ...
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