Displacement (vector)
In geometry and mechanics, a displacement is a vector whose length is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point P undergoing motion. It quantifies both the distance and direction of the net or total motion along a straight line from the initial position to the final position of the point trajectory. A displacement may be identified with the translation that maps the initial position to the final position. A displacement may be also described as a '' relative position'' (resulting from the motion), that is, as the final position of a point relative to its initial position . The corresponding displacement vector can be defined as the difference between the final and initial positions: s = x_\textrm  x_\textrm = \Delta In considering motions of objects over time, the instantaneous velocity of the object is the rate of change of the displacement as a function of time. The instantaneous speed, then, is distinct from velocity, or the time rate of chan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rotation
Rotation, or spin, is the circular movement of an object around a '' central axis''. A twodimensional rotating object has only one possible central axis and can rotate in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. A threedimensional object has an infinite number of possible central axes and rotational directions. If the rotation axis passes internally through the body's own center of mass, then the body is said to be ''autorotating'' or '' spinning'', and the surface intersection of the axis can be called a ''pole''. A rotation around a completely external axis, e.g. the planet Earth around the Sun, is called ''revolving'' or ''orbiting'', typically when it is produced by gravity, and the ends of the rotation axis can be called the ''orbital poles''. Mathematics Mathematically, a rotation is a rigid body movement which, unlike a translation, keeps a point fixed. This definition applies to rotations within both two and three dimensions (in a plane and in space, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Length
Length is a measure of distance. In the International System of Quantities, length is a quantity with dimension distance. In most systems of measurement a base unit for length is chosen, from which all other units are derived. In the International System of Units (SI) system the base unit for length is the metre. Length is commonly understood to mean the most extended dimension of a fixed object. However, this is not always the case and may depend on the position the object is in. Various terms for the length of a fixed object are used, and these include height, which is vertical length or vertical extent, and width, breadth or depth. Height is used when there is a base from which vertical measurements can be taken. Width or breadth usually refer to a shorter dimension when length is the longest one. Depth is used for the third dimension of a three dimensional object. Length is the measure of one spatial dimension, whereas area is a measure of two dimensions (length square ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Motion (physics)
In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position with respect to time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, speed and frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame with change in time. The branch of physics describing the motion of objects without reference to its cause is called kinematics, while the branch studying forces and their effect on motion is called dynamics. If an object is not changing relative to a given frame of reference, the object is said to be ''at rest'', ''motionless'', ''immobile'', '' stationary'', or to have a constant or timeinvariant position with reference to its surroundings. Modern physics holds that, as there is no absolute frame of reference, Newton's concept of '' absolute motion'' cannot be determined. As such, everything in the universe can be considered to be in motion. Motion applies to various p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Position Vector
In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a point ''P'' in space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin ''O''. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight line segment from ''O'' to ''P''. In other words, it is the displacement or translation that maps the origin to ''P'': :\mathbf=\overrightarrow The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus. Frequently this is used in twodimensional or threedimensional space, but can be easily generalized to Euclidean spaces and affine spaces of any dimension.Keller, F. J, Gettys, W. E. et al. (1993), p 28–29 Relative position The relative position of a point ''Q'' with respect to point ''P'' is the Euclidean vector resulting from the subtraction of the two absolute position vectors (each with respect to the origin): :\Delta \mathbf=\ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Motion Vector
Motion estimation is the process of determining ''motion vectors'' that describe the transformation from one 2D image to another; usually from adjacent frames in a video sequence. It is an illposed problem as the motion is in three dimensions but the images are a projection of the 3D scene onto a 2D plane. The motion vectors may relate to the whole image (global motion estimation) or specific parts, such as rectangular blocks, arbitrary shaped patches or even per pixel. The motion vectors may be represented by a translational model or many other models that can approximate the motion of a real video camera, such as rotation and translation in all three dimensions and zoom. Related terms More often than not, the term motion estimation and the term ''optical flow'' are used interchangeably. It is also related in concept to ''image registration'' and '' stereo correspondence''. In fact all of these terms refer to the process of finding corresponding points between two images or vi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equipollence (geometry)
In Euclidean geometry, equipollence is a binary relation between directed line segments. Two parallel line segments are equipollent when they have the same length and direction. Parallelogram property A definitive feature of Euclidean space is the parallelogram property of vectors: If two segments are equipollent, then they form two sides of a parallelogram: History The concept of equipollent line segments was advanced by Giusto Bellavitis in 1835. Subsequently the term vector was adopted for a class of equipollent line segments. Bellavitis's use of the idea of a relation to compare different but similar objects has become a common mathematical technique, particularly in the use of equivalence relations. Bellavitis used a special notation for the equipollence of segments ''AB'' and ''CD'': :AB \bumpeq CD . The following passages, translated by Michael J. Crowe, show the anticipation that Bellavitis had of vector concepts: :Equipollences continue to hold when one substitute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Displacement Field (mechanics)
A displacement field is an assignment of displacement vectors for all points in a region or body that is displaced from one state to another. A displacement vector specifies the position of a point or a particle in reference to an origin or to a previous position. For example, a displacement field may be used to describe the effects of deformation on a solid body. Before considering displacement, the state before deformation must be defined. It is a state in which the coordinates of all points are known and described by the function: \vec_0: \Omega \to P where *\vec_0 is a placement vector *\Omega are all the points of the body *P are all the points in the space in which the body is present Most often it is a state of the body in which no forces are applied. Then given any other state of this body in which coordinates of all its points are described as \vec_1 the displacement field is the difference between two body states: \vec = \vec_1  \vec_0 where \vec is a displacement fiel ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jounce
In physics, the fourth, fifth and sixth derivatives of position are defined as derivatives of the position vector with respect to time – with the first, second, and third derivatives being velocity, acceleration, and jerk, respectively. Unlike the first three derivatives, the higherorder derivatives are less common, thus their names are not as standardized, though the concept of a minimum snap trajectory has been used in robotics and is implemented in MATLAB. The fourth derivative is often referred to as snap or jounce. The name "snap" for the fourth derivative led to crackle and pop for the fifth and sixth derivatives respectively, inspired by the Rice Krispies mascots Snap, Crackle, and Pop. These terms are occasionally used, though "sometimes somewhat facetiously". (snap/jounce) Snap, or jounce, is the fourth derivative of the position vector with respect to time, or the rate of change of the jerk with respect to time. Equivalently, it is the second derivative of acc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Taylor Series
In mathematics, the Taylor series or Taylor expansion of a function is an infinite sum of terms that are expressed in terms of the function's derivatives at a single point. For most common functions, the function and the sum of its Taylor series are equal near this point. Taylor series are named after Brook Taylor, who introduced them in 1715. A Taylor series is also called a Maclaurin series, when 0 is the point where the derivatives are considered, after Colin Maclaurin, who made extensive use of this special case of Taylor series in the mid18th century. The partial sum formed by the first terms of a Taylor series is a polynomial of degree that is called the th Taylor polynomial of the function. Taylor polynomials are approximations of a function, which become generally better as increases. Taylor's theorem gives quantitative estimates on the error introduced by the use of such approximations. If the Taylor series of a function is convergent, its sum is the limit of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous Rate of change (mathematics), rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence (mathematics), convergence of infinite sequences and Series (mathematics), infinite series to a welldefined limit (mathematics), limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including (ε, δ)definition of limit, codify ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jerk (physics)
In physics, jerk or jolt is the rate at which an object's acceleration changes with respect to time. It is a vector quantity (having both magnitude and direction). Jerk is most commonly denoted by the symbol and expressed in m/s3 (SI units) or standard gravities per second (''g''0/s). Expressions As a vector, jerk can be expressed as the first time derivative of acceleration, second time derivative of velocity, and third time derivative of position: \mathbf j(t) = \frac = \frac = \frac where * is acceleration * is velocity * is position * is time Thirdorder differential equations of the form J\left(\overset, \ddot, \dot, x\right) = 0 are sometimes called ''jerk equations''. When converted to an equivalent system of three ordinary firstorder nonlinear differential equations, jerk equations are the minimal setting for solutions showing chaotic behaviour. This condition generates mathematical interest in ''jerk systems''. Systems involving fourthorder derivatives or h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 