Direct Sum Of Modules
In abstract algebra, the direct sum is a construction which combines several modules into a new, larger module. The direct sum of modules is the smallest module which contains the given modules as submodules with no "unnecessary" constraints, making it an example of a coproduct. Contrast with the direct product, which is the dual notion. The most familiar examples of this construction occur when considering vector spaces (modules over a field) and abelian groups (modules over the ring Z of integers). The construction may also be extended to cover Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces. See the article decomposition of a module for a way to write a module as a direct sum of submodules. Construction for vector spaces and abelian groups We give the construction first in these two cases, under the assumption that we have only two objects. Then we generalize to an arbitrary family of arbitrary modules. The key elements of the general construction are more clearly identified by conside ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the ''variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, algebra meant ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Sum Of Modules
In abstract algebra, the direct sum is a construction which combines several modules into a new, larger module. The direct sum of modules is the smallest module which contains the given modules as submodules with no "unnecessary" constraints, making it an example of a coproduct. Contrast with the direct product, which is the dual notion. The most familiar examples of this construction occur when considering vector spaces (modules over a field) and abelian groups (modules over the ring Z of integers). The construction may also be extended to cover Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces. See the article decomposition of a module for a way to write a module as a direct sum of submodules. Construction for vector spaces and abelian groups We give the construction first in these two cases, under the assumption that we have only two objects. Then we generalize to an arbitrary family of arbitrary modules. The key elements of the general construction are more clearly identified by conside ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associative
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any real ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutative
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result. It is a fundamental property of many binary operations, and many mathematical proofs depend on it. Most familiar as the name of the property that says something like or , the property can also be used in more advanced settings. The name is needed because there are operations, such as division and subtraction, that do not have it (for example, ); such operations are ''not'' commutative, and so are referred to as ''noncommutative operations''. The idea that simple operations, such as the multiplication and addition of numbers, are commutative was for many years implicitly assumed. Thus, this property was not named until the 19th century, when mathematics started to become formalized. A similar property exists for binary relations; a binary relation is said to be symmetric if the relation applies regardless of the order of its operands; for example, equality is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tensor Product
In mathematics, the tensor product V \otimes W of two vector spaces and (over the same field) is a vector space to which is associated a bilinear map V\times W \to V\otimes W that maps a pair (v,w),\ v\in V, w\in W to an element of V \otimes W denoted v \otimes w. An element of the form v \otimes w is called the tensor product of and . An element of V \otimes W is a tensor, and the tensor product of two vectors is sometimes called an ''elementary tensor'' or a ''decomposable tensor''. The elementary tensors span V \otimes W in the sense that every element of V \otimes W is a sum of elementary tensors. If bases are given for and , a basis of V \otimes W is formed by all tensor products of a basis element of and a basis element of . The tensor product of two vector spaces captures the properties of all bilinear maps in the sense that a bilinear map from V\times W into another vector space factors uniquely through a linear map V\otimes W\to Z (see Universal property). Tenso ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Length Of A Module
In abstract algebra, the length of a module is a generalization of the dimension of a vector space which measures its size. page 153 In particular, as in the case of vector spaces, the only modules of finite length are finitely generated modules. It is defined to be the length of the longest chain of submodules. Modules with ''finite'' length share many important properties with finitedimensional vector spaces. Other concepts used to 'count' in ring and module theory are depth and height; these are both somewhat more subtle to define. Moreover, their use is more aligned with dimension theory whereas length is used to analyze finite modules. There are also various ideas of ''dimension'' that are useful. Finite length commutative rings play an essential role in functorial treatments of formal algebraic geometry and deformation theory where Artin rings are used extensively. Definition Length of a module Let M be a (left or right) module over some ring R. Given a chain of submo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Submodule
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the module conce ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fiber Bundle
In mathematics, and particularly topology, a fiber bundle (or, in Commonwealth English: fibre bundle) is a space that is a product space, but may have a different topological structure. Specifically, the similarity between a space E and a product space B \times F is defined using a continuous surjective map, \pi : E \to B, that in small regions of E behaves just like a projection from corresponding regions of B \times F to B. The map \pi, called the projection or submersion of the bundle, is regarded as part of the structure of the bundle. The space E is known as the total space of the fiber bundle, B as the base space, and F the fiber. In the ''trivial'' case, E is just B \times F, and the map \pi is just the projection from the product space to the first factor. This is called a trivial bundle. Examples of nontrivial fiber bundles include the MÃ¶bius strip and Klein bottle, as well as nontrivial covering spaces. Fiber bundles, such as the tangent bundle of a mani ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Compact Support
In mathematics, the support of a realvalued function f is the subset of the function domain containing the elements which are not mapped to zero. If the domain of f is a topological space, then the support of f is instead defined as the smallest closed set containing all points not mapped to zero. This concept is used very widely in mathematical analysis. Formulation Suppose that f : X \to \R is a realvalued function whose domain is an arbitrary set X. The of f, written \operatorname(f), is the set of points in X where f is nonzero: \operatorname(f) = \. The support of f is the smallest subset of X with the property that f is zero on the subset's complement. If f(x) = 0 for all but a finite number of points x \in X, then f is said to have . If the set X has an additional structure (for example, a topology), then the support of f is defined in an analogous way as the smallest subset of X of an appropriate type such that f vanishes in an appropriate sense on its complement. T ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Union
In mathematics, a disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets (A_i : i\in I) is a set A, often denoted by \bigsqcup_ A_i, with an injection of each A_i into A, such that the images of these injections form a partition of A (that is, each element of A belongs to exactly one of these images). A disjoint union of a family of pairwise disjoint sets is their union. In category theory, the disjoint union is the coproduct of the category of sets, and thus defined up to a bijection. In this context, the notation \coprod_ A_i is often used. The disjoint union of two sets A and B is written with infix notation as A \sqcup B. Some authors use the alternative notation A \uplus B or A \operatorname B (along with the corresponding \biguplus_ A_i or \operatorname_ A_i). A standard way for building the disjoint union is to define A as the set of ordered pairs (x, i) such that x \in A_i, and the injection A_i \to A as x \mapsto (x, i). Example Consider the sets A_0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cofinitely Many
In mathematics, a cofinite subset of a set X is a subset A whose complement in X is a finite set. In other words, A contains all but finitely many elements of X. If the complement is not finite, but it is countable, then one says the set is cocountable. These arise naturally when generalizing structures on finite sets to infinite sets, particularly on infinite products, as in the product topology or direct sum. This use of the prefix "" to describe a property possessed by a set's mplement is consistent with its use in other terms such as " meagre set". Boolean algebras The set of all subsets of X that are either finite or cofinite forms a Boolean algebra, which means that it is closed under the operations of union, intersection, and complementation. This Boolean algebra is the on X. A Boolean algebra A has a unique nonprincipal ultrafilter (that is, a maximal filter not generated by a single element of the algebra) if and only if there exists an infinite set X such that A i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 