Closure (topology)
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Closure (topology)
In topology, the closure of a subset of points in a topological space consists of all points in together with all limit points of . The closure of may equivalently be defined as the union of and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing . Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in or "near" . A point which is in the closure of is a point of closure of . The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior. Definitions Point of closure For S as a subset of a Euclidean space, x is a point of closure of S if every open ball centered at x contains a point of S (this point can be x itself). This definition generalizes to any subset S of a metric space X. Fully expressed, for X as a metric space with metric d, x is a point of closure of S if for every r > 0 there exists some s \in S such that the distance d(x, s) < r (x = s is allowed). Another way to express this i ...
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Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; co ...
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Derived Set (mathematics)
In mathematics, more specifically in point-set topology, the derived set of a subset S of a topological space is the set of all limit points of S. It is usually denoted by S'. The concept was first introduced by Georg Cantor in 1872 and he developed set theory in large part to study derived sets on the real line. Examples If \mathbb is endowed with its usual Euclidean topology then the derived set of the half-open interval , 1) is the closed interval [0,1 Consider \mathbb with the Topology (structure)">topology (open sets) consisting of the empty set and any subset of \mathbb that contains 1. The derived set of A := \ is A' = \mathbb \setminus \. Properties If A and B are subsets of the topological space \left(X, \mathcal\right), then the derived set has the following properties: * \varnothing' = \varnothing * a \in A' \implies a \in (A \setminus \)' * (A \cup B)' = A' \cup B' * A \subseteq B \implies A' \subseteq B' A subset S of a topological space is closed precis ...
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Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real ...
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Standard Topology
In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension , denoted ( ) or is the set of the -tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of real numbers. With component-wise addition and scalar multiplication, it is a real vector space, and its elements are called coordinate vectors. The coordinates over any basis of the elements of a real vector space form a ''real coordinate space'' of the same dimension as that of the vector space. Similarly, the Cartesian coordinates of the points of a Euclidean space of dimension form a ''real coordinate space'' of dimension . These one to one correspondences between vectors, points and coordinate vectors explain the names of ''coordinate space'' and ''coordinate vector''. It allows using geometric terms and methods for studying real coordinate spaces, and, conversely, to use methods of calculus in geometry. This approach of geometry was introduced by René Descartes in the 17th century. It is widely used, as it allows loc ...
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Ball (mathematics)
In mathematics, a ball is the solid figure bounded by a ''sphere''; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defined not only in three-dimensional Euclidean space but also for lower and higher dimensions, and for metric spaces in general. A ''ball'' in dimensions is called a hyperball or -ball and is bounded by a ''hypersphere'' or ()-sphere. Thus, for example, a ball in the Euclidean plane is the same thing as a disk, the area bounded by a circle. In Euclidean 3-space, a ball is taken to be the volume bounded by a 2-dimensional sphere. In a one-dimensional space, a ball is a line segment. In other contexts, such as in Euclidean geometry and informal use, ''sphere'' is sometimes used to mean ''ball''. In the field of topology the closed n-dimensional ball is often denoted as B^n or D^n while the open n-dimensional ball is \operatorname B^n or \o ...
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Sphere
A sphere () is a geometrical object that is a three-dimensional analogue to a two-dimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance from a given point in three-dimensional space.. That given point is the centre of the sphere, and is the sphere's radius. The earliest known mentions of spheres appear in the work of the ancient Greek mathematicians. The sphere is a fundamental object in many fields of mathematics. Spheres and nearly-spherical shapes also appear in nature and industry. Bubbles such as soap bubbles take a spherical shape in equilibrium. The Earth is often approximated as a sphere in geography, and the celestial sphere is an important concept in astronomy. Manufactured items including pressure vessels and most curved mirrors and lenses are based on spheres. Spheres roll smoothly in any direction, so most balls used in sports and toys are spherical, as are ball bearings. Basic terminology As mentioned earlier is th ...
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Closure (topology)
In topology, the closure of a subset of points in a topological space consists of all points in together with all limit points of . The closure of may equivalently be defined as the union of and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing . Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in or "near" . A point which is in the closure of is a point of closure of . The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior. Definitions Point of closure For S as a subset of a Euclidean space, x is a point of closure of S if every open ball centered at x contains a point of S (this point can be x itself). This definition generalizes to any subset S of a metric space X. Fully expressed, for X as a metric space with metric d, x is a point of closure of S if for every r > 0 there exists some s \in S such that the distance d(x, s) < r (x = s is allowed). Another way to express this i ...
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Filters In Topology
Filters in topology, a subfield of mathematics, can be used to study topological spaces and define all basic topological notions such a convergence, continuity, compactness, and more. Filters, which are special families of subsets of some given set, also provide a common framework for defining various types of limits of functions such as limits from the left/right, to infinity, to a point or a set, and many others. Special types of filters called have many useful technical properties and they may often be used in place of arbitrary filters. Filters have generalizations called (also known as ) and , all of which appear naturally and repeatedly throughout topology. Examples include neighborhood filters/ bases/subbases and uniformities. Every filter is a prefilter and both are filter subbases. Every prefilter and filter subbase is contained in a unique smallest filter, which they are said to . This establishes a relationship between filters and prefilters that may often be ex ...
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Filter (set Theory)
In mathematics, a filter on a set X is a Family of sets, family \mathcal of subsets such that: # X \in \mathcal and \emptyset \notin \mathcal # if A\in \mathcal and B \in \mathcal, then A\cap B\in \mathcal # If A,B\subset X,A\in \mathcal, and A\subset B, then B\in \mathcal A filter on a set may be thought of as representing a "collection of large subsets". Filters appear in Order theory, order, model theory, set theory, but can also be found in topology, from which they originate. The dual notion of a filter is an ideal (set theory), ideal. Filters were introduced by Henri Cartan in 1937 and as described in the article dedicated to filters in topology, they were subsequently used by Nicolas Bourbaki in their book ''Topologie Générale'' as an alternative to the related notion of a Net (topology), net developed in 1922 by E. H. Moore and Herman L. Smith. Filter (mathematics), Order filters are generalizations of filters from sets to arbitrary partially ordered sets. Specificall ...
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Sequence
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''infi ...
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Limit Of A Sequence
As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) becomes arbitrarily close to 1. We say that "the limit of the sequence n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) equals 1." In mathematics, the limit of a sequence is the value that the terms of a sequence "tend to", and is often denoted using the \lim symbol (e.g., \lim_a_n).Courant (1961), p. 29. If such a limit exists, the sequence is called convergent. A sequence that does not converge is said to be divergent. The limit of a sequence is said to be the fundamental notion on which the whole of mathematical analysis ultimately rests. Limits can be defined in any metric or topological space, but are usually first encountered in the real numbers. History The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea is famous for formulating paradoxes that involve limiting processes. Leucippus, Democritus, Antiphon, Eudoxus, and Archimedes developed the method of exhaustion, which uses an infinite sequence o ...
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First-countable Space
In topology, a branch of mathematics, a first-countable space is a topological space satisfying the "first axiom of countability". Specifically, a space X is said to be first-countable if each point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base). That is, for each point x in X there exists a sequence N_1, N_2, \ldots of neighbourhoods of x such that for any neighbourhood N of x there exists an integer i with N_i contained in N. Since every neighborhood of any point contains an open neighborhood of that point, the neighbourhood basis can be chosen without loss of generality to consist of open neighborhoods. Examples and counterexamples The majority of 'everyday' spaces in mathematics are first-countable. In particular, every metric space is first-countable. To see this, note that the set of open balls centered at x with radius 1/n for integers form a countable local base at x. An example of a space which is not first-countable is the cofinite topology on an uncountable se ...
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