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Lycoperdonosis
Lycoperdonosis
Lycoperdonosis
is a respiratory disease caused by the inhalation of large amounts of spores from mature puffballs. It is classified as a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis)—an inflammation of the alveoli within the lung caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled natural dusts.[1] It is one of several types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by different agents that have similar clinical features.[2] Typical progression of the disease includes symptoms of a cold hours after spore inhalation, followed by nausea, rapid pulse, crepitant rales (a sound like that made by rubbing hairs between the fingers, heard at the end of inhalation), and dyspnea
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Scanning Electron Microscopy
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, and at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments.[1] The most common SEM mode is detection of secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons that can be detected depends, among other things, on specimen topography
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Liver Damage
Toxin induced liver disease Drug induced liver disease Drug induced liver damage Drug induced liver injury Hepatogenous poisoningSubordinate termsToxic hepatitis Toxin induced hepatitis Drug induced hepatitis Drug-induced hepatic necrosis Drug induced hepatic fibrosis Drug induced hepatic granuloma Toxic liver disease with hepatitis Toxic liver disease with cholestasis Hepatotoxicity
Hepatotoxicity
(from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. The liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing chemicals and is susceptible to the toxicity from these agents. Certain medicinal agents, when taken in overdoses and sometimes even when introduced within therapeutic ranges, may injure the organ. Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal remedies can also induce hepatotoxicity
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Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(/wɪˈskɒnsɪn/ ( listen)) is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota
Minnesota
to the west, Iowa
Iowa
to the southwest, Illinois
Illinois
to the south, Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior
Lake Superior
to the north. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, which is located on the western shore of Lake Michigan
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Fever
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response,[6] is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.[4][5] There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C (99.5 and 100.9 °F).[6][7] The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold.[1] This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat.[2] When the set-point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat.[2] Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure.[3] This is more common in young children.[3] Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C (105.8 to 107.6 °F).[5] A fever can be caused by many medical conditions ranging from non serious to life threatening.[11] This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections
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Shortness Of Breath
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, and air hunger (the feeling of not enough oxygen).[1] Dyspnea is a normal symptom of heavy exertion but becomes pathological if it occurs in unexpected situations[2] or light exertion
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Myalgia
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. The most common causes are the overuse or over-stretching of a muscle or group of muscles. Myalgia without a traumatic history is often due to viral infections. Longer-term myalgias may be indicative of a metabolic myopathy, some nutritional deficiencies or chronic fatigue syndrome.Contents1 Causes1.1 Overuse 1.2 Injury 1.3 Autoimmune 1.4 Metabolic defect 1.5 Other 1.6 Withdrawal syndrome from certain drugs2 Treatment 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksCauses[edit] The most common causes of myalgia are overuse, injury or strain. However, myalgia can also be caused by diseases, disorders, medications, or as a response to a vaccination
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Intubation
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body. Patients are generally anesthetized beforehand. Examples include tracheal intubation, and the balloon tamponade with a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube
(a tube into the gastrointestinal tract).[1] See also[edit]Catheterization Nasogastric intubationReferences[edit]^ Goodman, RS (1986). "True vocal cord paralysis following entubation". The Laryngoscope. 96 (10): 1170. doi:10.1288/00005537-198610000-00021
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Etiology
Etiology (/iːtiˈɒlədʒi/; alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, aitiología, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, aitía, "cause"; and -λογία, -logía).[1] More completely, etiology the study of the causes, origins, or reasons behind the way that things are, or the way they function, or it can refer to the causes themselves.[2] The word is commonly used in medicine, (where it is a branch of medicine studying causes of diease) and in philosophy, but also in physics, psychology, government, geography, spatial analysis, theology, and biology, in reference to the causes or origins of various phenomena. In the past, when many physical phenomena were not well understood, and/or when histories were not recorded, myths often arose to provide etiologies
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Calvatia Gigantea
Langermannia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Rostk. Calvatia
Calvatia
giganteaMycological characteristicsglebal hymeniumno distinct caphymenium attachment is not applicablelacks a stipespore print is brownecology is mycorrhizaledibility: edible or inedible Calvatia
Calvatia
gigantea, commonly known as the giant puffball, is a puffball mushroom commonly found in meadows, fields, and deciduous forests usually in late summer and autumn. It is found in temperate areas throughout the world.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Conservation status 3 Cooking 4 Medical uses 5 Similar fungi 6 Images 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksDescription[edit] Most giant puffballs grow to be 10 to 50 centimetres (3.9 to 19.7 in), sometimes to be 90 centimetres (35 in) in diameter; although occasionally some can reach diameters up to 150 centimetres (59 in) and weights of 20 kilograms (44 lb)
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Lycoperdaceae
85; See textSynonyms[3][4]Battarraceae Corda (1842) Lepiotaceae Roze (1876) Lycoperdaceae
Lycoperdaceae
Chevall. (1826) Mycenastraceae Zeller (1948) Tulostomataceae
Tulostomataceae
E.Fisch. (1900)The Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
are a family of basidiomycete fungi and include the genus Agaricus, as well as basidiomycetes previously classified in the families Tulostomataceae, Lepiotaceae, and Lycoperdaceae.Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Genera 4 Ecology 5 Economic significance 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTaxonomy[edit] The family Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
was published by French botanist François Fulgis Chevallier in 1826.[5] It is named after the type genus Agaricus, originally circumscribed by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in his 1753 work Species Plantarum
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Haemostatic
An antihemorrhagic (antihæmorrhagic) agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis (stops bleeding).[1] It may also be known as a hemostatic (also spelled hæmostatic) agent.[2] A styptic (also spelled stiptic) is a specific type of antihemorrhagic agent that works by contracting tissue to seal injured blood vessels. Styptic pencils contain astringents.[3] Antihemorrhagic
Antihemorrhagic
agents used in medicine have various mechanisms of action:Systemic drugs work by inhibiting fibrinolysis or promoting coagulation. Locally-acting hemostatic agents work by causing vasoconstriction or promoting p
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval.[1] From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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