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Disaccharide
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or biose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides). The most common types of disaccharides—sucrose, lactose, and maltose—have twelve carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11. The differences in these disaccharides are due to atomic arrangements within the molecule.[3] The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called a disaccharidase
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Reducing Agent
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction. Since the reducing agent is losing electrons, it is said to have been oxidized. If any chemical is an electron donor (reducing agent), another must be an electron recipient (oxidizing agent). A reducing agent is oxidized because it loses electrons in the redox reaction. Thus, reducers (reducing agents) "reduce" (or, seen another way, are "oxidized" by) oxidizers (oxidizing agents), and oxidizers "oxidize" (that is, are "reduced" by) reducers. In their pre-reaction states, reducers have more electrons (that is, they are by themselves reduced) and oxidizers have fewer electrons (that is, they are by themselves oxidized). A reducing agent typically is in one of its lower possible oxidation states and is known as the electron donor
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Enzyme
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
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Monomer
A monomer (/ˈmɒnəmər/ MON-ə-mər) (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".[1][2] Large numbers of monomers combine to form polymers in a process called polymerization.Contents1 Classification 2 Synthetic monomers 3 Biopolymers 4 Natural monomers4.1 Amino acids 4.2 Nucleotides 4.3 Glucose
Glucose
and related sugars 4.4 Isoprene5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksClassification[edit] Monomers can be classified in many ways. They can be subdivided into two broad classes, depending on the kind of the polymer that they form. Monomers that participate in condensation polymerization have a different stoichiometry than monomers that participate in addition polymerization:[3]This nylon is formed by condensation polymerization of two monomers, yielding water.Other classifications include:natural vs synthetic monomers, e.g
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Proton
6973167262189800000♠1.672621898(21)×10−27 kg[1] 7002938272081300000♠938.2720813(58) MeV/c2[2] 7000100727646687900♠1.007276466879(91) u[2]Mean lifetime > 7036662709600000000♠2.1×1029 years (stable)Electric charge 6981160217648700000♠+1 e 6981160217662079999♠1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C[2]Charge radius 6999875100000000000♠0.8751(61) fm[2]Electric dipole moment < 6976540000000000000♠5.4×10−24 e⋅cmElectric polarizability 6997119999999999999♠1.20(6)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment6974141060678730000♠1.4106067873(97)×10−26 J⋅T−1[2] 6997152103220530000♠1.5210322053(46)×10−3 μB[2] 7000279284735079999♠2.7928473508(85) μN[2]Magnetic polarizability 6996190000000000000♠1.9(5)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin 1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)A proton is a subatomic
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Hydrogen Atom
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
atom Complete table of nuclidesGeneralName, symbol protium, 1HNeutrons 0Protons 1Nuclide dataNatural abundance 99.985% Isotope
Isotope
mass 1.007825 uSpin 1/2Excess energy 7288.969± 0.001 keVBinding energy 0.000± 0.0000 keVDepiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model
Bohr model
radius. (Image not to scale)A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen. The electrically neutral atom contains a single positively charged proton and a single negatively charged electron bound to the nucleus by the Coulomb force. Atomic hydrogen constitutes about 75% of the baryonic mass of the universe.[1] In everyday life on Earth, isolated hydrogen atoms (called "atomic hydrogen") are extremely rare. Instead, hydrogen tends to combine with other atoms in compounds, or with itself to form ordinary (diatomic) hydrogen gas, H2
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Radical (chemistry)
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.[1][2] With some exceptions, these unpaired electrons make free radicals highly chemically reactive towards other substances, or even towards themselves: their molecules will often spontaneously dimerize or polymerize if they come in contact with each other. Most radicals are reasonably stable only at very low concentrations in inert media or in a vacuum. A notable example of a free radical is the hydroxyl radical (HO•), a molecule that has one unpaired electron on the oxygen atom. Two other examples are triplet oxygen and triplet carbene (:CH 2) which have two unpaired electrons
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Diastereoisomer
Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.[1] Diastereomerism occurs when two or more stereoisomers of a compound have different configurations at one or more (but not all) of the equivalent (related) stereocenters and are not mirror images of each other.[2] When two diastereoisomers differ from each other at only one stereocenter they are epimers. Each stereocenter gives rise to two different configurations and thus increases the number of stereoisomers by a factor of two. Diastereomers differ from enantiomers in that the latter are pairs of stereoisomers that differ in all stereocenters and are therefore mirror images of one another.[3] Enantiomers of a compound with more than one stereocenter are also diastereomers of the other stereoisomers of that compound that are not their mirror image. Diastereomers have different physical properties (unlike enantiomers) and different chemical reactivity
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Acetal
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments. The central carbon atom has four bonds to it, and is therefore saturated and has tetrahedral geometry. The two R'O groups may be equivalent to each other or not. The two R groups can be equivalent to each other (a "symmetric acetal") or not (a "mixed acetal"), and one or both can even be hydrogen atoms rather than organic fragments. Acetals are formed from and convertible to carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones R2C=O). The term ketal is sometimes used to identify structures associated with ketones rather than aldehydes and, historically, the term acetal was used specifically for the aldehyde cases.[1] Formation of an acetal occurs when the hydroxyl group of a hemiacetal becomes protonated and is lost as water. The carbocation that is produced is then rapidly attacked by a molecule of alcohol
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Glycoside
In chemistry, a glycoside /ˈɡlaɪkəsaɪd/ is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. These can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis,[1] which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. Several species of Heliconius butterfly are capable of incorporating these plant compounds as a form of chemical defense against predators.[2] In animals and humans, poisons are often bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body. In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides can be linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic bond
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Aldehyde
An aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group,[1] which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group—without R—is the aldehyde group, also known as the formyl group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry
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Hemiacetal
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively. The Greek word hèmi, meaning half, refers to the fact that a single alcohol has been added to the carbonyl group, in contrast to acetals or ketals, which are formed when a second alkoxy group has been added to the structure.[1]Contents1 Formula and formation1.1 Cyclic hemiacetals and hemiketals2 Synthesis 3 Reactions 4 ReferencesFormula and formation[edit]Above: 1-ethoxybutan-1-ol, a hemiacetal
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Glucosamine
Glucosamine
Glucosamine
(C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine
Glucosamine
is part of the structure of the polysaccharides chitosan and chitin, which compose the exoskeletons of crustaceans and other arthropods, as well as the cell walls of fungi and many higher organisms. Glucosamine
Glucosamine
is one of the most abundant monosaccharides.[1] It is produced commercially by the hydrolysis of crustacean exoskeletons or, less commonly, by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat. Evidence for the effectiveness of glucosamine as a dietary supplement is mixed
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Sucrase
Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine.[1] Sucrase enzymes are located on the brush border of the small intestine. The enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to fructose and glucose. The sucrase enzyme invertase, which occurs more commonly in plants, also hydrolyzes sucrose but by a different mechanism.[2]Contents1 Types 2 Physiology 3 Use in chemical analysis 4 References 5 External linksTypes[edit]EC 3.2.1.10 is sucrase-isomaltase EC 3.2.1.26 is invertase EC 3.2.1.48 is sucrose alpha-glucosidasePhysiology[edit] Sucrose
Sucrose
intolerance (also known as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), genetic sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (GSID), or sucrase-isomaltase deficiency) occurs when sucrase is not secreted in the small intestine
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Stereochemistry
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation. The study of stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers, which by definition have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. For this reason, it is also known as 3D chemistry—the prefix "stereo-" means "three-dimensionality".[1] An important branch of stereochemistry is the study of chiral molecules.[2] Stereochemistry
Stereochemistry
spans the entire spectrum of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and especially supramolecular chemistry
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Functional Group
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.[1][2] This allows for systematic prediction of chemical reactions and behavior of chemical compounds and design of chemical syntheses. Furthermore, the reactivity of a functional group can be modified by other functional groups nearby. In organic synthesis, functional group interconversion is one of the basic types of transformations. The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. Functional groups can also be charged, e.g. in carboxylate salts (–COO−), which turns the molecule into a polyatomic ion or a complex ion
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