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Würzburg Radar
The low- UHF
UHF
band Würzburg
Würzburg
radar was the primary ground-based gun laying radar for the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
and the Wehrmacht Heer (German Army) during World War II. Initial development took place before the war and the apparatus entered service in 1940. Eventually over 4,000 Würzburgs of various models were produced. It took its name from the city of Würzburg.Contents1 Development 2 Operational models 3 Post-War Use in Astronomy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksDevelopment[edit] In January 1934, Telefunken
Telefunken
met with German radar researchers, notably Dr. Rudolf Kühnhold of the Communications Research Institute of the Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
and Dr. Hans Hollmann, an expert in microwaves, who informed them of their work on an early warning radar. Telefunken's director of research, Dr
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of GermanyBundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a] Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto)(English: "Unity and Justice and Freedom")Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"[b](English: "Song of Germany")Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of Germany (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityBerlin[c]52
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Lubmin
Lubmin
Lubmin
(German pronunciation: [lʊpˈmiːn]) is a coastal resort in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Lubmin
Lubmin
is situated near Greifswald
Greifswald
and on the Bay of Greifswald. Apart from tourism, Lubmin
Lubmin
is a major transport and industry hub and investment location in the German energy sector. Both the Nord Stream gas pipeline from Russia
Russia
(by Gazprom
Gazprom
and E.ON) and several power plants (by DONG Energy
DONG Energy
and EnBW) are under construction
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Oscilloscope
An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph,[1][2] and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. Other signals (such as sound or vibration) can be converted to voltages and displayed. Oscilloscopes are used to observe the change of an electrical signal over time, such that voltage and time describe a shape which is continuously graphed against a calibrated scale. The observed waveform can be analyzed for such properties as amplitude, frequency, rise time, time interval, distortion and others. Modern digital instruments may calculate and display these properties directly
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Searchlight
A searchlight (or spotlight) is an apparatus that combines an extremely luminous source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually constructed so that it can be swiveled about.Contents1 Military use1.1 First World War 1.2 Second World War2 Non-military use 3 See also 4 References 5 Notes 6 External linksMilitary use[edit]Russian troops use a searchlight against a Japanese night attack during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904Military helicopter with searchlightThe first use of searchlights using carbon arc technology occurred during the Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.[1] The Royal Navy used searchlights in 1882 to prevent Egyptian forces from staffing artillery batteries at Alexandria
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Infra-red
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Lobe Switching
Lobe switching
Lobe switching
is a method used on early radar sets to improve tracking accuracy. It used two slightly separated antenna elements to send the beam slightly to either side of the midline of the antenna, switching between the two to find which one gave the stronger return, thereby indicating which direction the antenna should be moved in order to point directly at the target. The concept was used only briefly, and was almost completely replaced by conical scanning systems by the end of World War II. The concept is also known as sequential lobing, although this terminology appears to be rare, and the associated output was sometimes known as a split display. Description[edit] Early radar antennas generally consisted of a number of small dipole antennas in front of a passive reflector. The dipoles were placed in order to have them constructively interfere in front of the antenna, thereby "aiming" the signal in that direction
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SCR-268 Radar
The SCR-268 (for Signal Corps Radio
Signal Corps Radio
no. 268) was the US Army's first radar system. It was developed to provide accurate aiming information and used in gun laying systems and directing searchlights against aircraft. The system was already considered out of date by the end of World War II, having been replaced by the much smaller and more accurate SCR-584 microwave-based system.Three soldiers of the United States Army operate a radar used by the 90th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft, Semimobile, Colored) in CasablancaContents1 Development 2 Description 3 Surviving examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksDevelopment[edit] The Signal Corps had been experimenting with some radar concepts as early at the late 1920s, under the direction of Colonel William R. Blair, director of the Signal Corps Laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey
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Whisk
A whisk is a cooking utensil which can be used to blend ingredients smooth or to incorporate air into a mixture, in a process known as whisking or whipping. Most whisks consist of a long, narrow handle with a series of wire loops joined at the end. The wires are usually metal, but some are plastic for use with nonstick cookware. Whisks are also made from bamboo. Whisks are commonly used to whip egg whites into a firm foam to make meringue, or to whip cream into whipped cream. Whisks have differently-shaped loops depending on their intended functions:Contents1 History 2 Types 3 Mechanisms 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Bundles of twigs, typically apple, have long been used as whisks; often the wood used would lend a certain fragrance to the dish. An 18th century Shaker
Shaker
recipe calls to “Cut a handful of peach twigs which are filled with sap at this season of the year. Clip the ends and bruise them and beat the cake batter with them
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British Commandos
The British Commandos
British Commandos
were formed during the Second World War in June 1940, following a request from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, for a force that could carry out raids against German-occupied Europe. Initially drawn from within the British Army
British Army
from soldiers who volunteered for the Special
Special
Service Brigade, the Commandos' ranks would eventually be filled by members of all branches of the British Armed Forces
British Armed Forces
and a number of foreign volunteers from German-occupied countries. By the end of the war 25,000 men had passed through the Commando
Commando
course at Achnacarry
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Bombing Of Peenemünde In World War II
The bombing of Peenemünde
Peenemünde
in World War II was carried out on several occasions as part of the overall Operation Crossbow
Operation Crossbow
to disrupt German secret weapon development
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Peenemünde
Peenemünde
Peenemünde
(German pronunciation: [peːnəˈmʏndə], English: "Peene [River] Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald
Vorpommern-Greifswald
district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is part of the Amt (municipal confederation) of Usedom-Nord
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V-2 Rocket
maximum:5,760 km/h (3,580 mph) at impact: 2,880 km/h (1,790 mph)Guidance systemGyroscopes to determine direction Müller-type pendulous gyroscopic accelerometer for engine cutoff on most production rockets[2][3]:225Launch platformMobile (Meillerwagen)The V-2 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range[4] guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, was developed during the Second World War
Second World War
in Germany as a "vengeance weapon", assigned to attack Allied cities as retaliation for the Allied bombings against German cities
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Klystron
A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,[1] which is used as an amplifier for high radio frequencies, from UHF up into the microwave range. Low-power klystrons are used as oscillators in terrestrial microwave relay communications links, while high-power klystrons are used as output tubes in UHF television transmitters, satellite communication, and radar transmitters, and to generate the drive power for modern particle accelerators. In a klystron, an electron beam interacts with radio waves as it passes through resonant cavities, metal boxes along the length of a tube.[2] The electron beam first passes through a cavity to which the input signal is applied. The energy of the electron beam amplifies the signal, and the amplified signal is taken from a cavity at the other end of the tube
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Radio Astronomy
Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky
Karl Jansky
at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, regarded as evidence for the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory, was made through radio astronomy. Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis
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Hydrogen Line
The hydrogen line, 21-centimeter line or H I line[1] refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms. This electromagnetic radiation is at the precise frequency of 7009142040575176670♠1420405751.7667±0.0009 Hz,[2] which is equivalent to the vacuum wavelength of 6999211061140541999♠21.1061140542 cm in free space. This wavelength falls within the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is observed frequently in radio astronomy, since those radio waves can penetrate the large clouds of interstellar cosmic dust that are opaque to visible light. The microwaves of the hydrogen line come from the atomic transition of an electron between the two hyperfine levels of the hydrogen 1s ground state that have an energy difference of ~ 7000587433000000000♠5.87433 µeV.[3] It is called the spin-flip transition
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