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Vertebrate
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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Fire Salamander
The fire salamander ( Salamandra
Salamandra
salamandra) is possibly the best-known salamander species in Europe. It is black with yellow spots or stripes to a varying degree; some specimens can be nearly completely black while on others the yellow is dominant. Shades of red and orange may sometimes appear, either replacing or mixing with the yellow according to subspecies.[2] Fire salamanders can have a very long lifespan; one specimen lived for more than 50 years in Museum Koenig, a German natural history museum.Contents1 Habitat, behaviour and diet 2 Reproduction 3 Toxicity 4 Distribution 5 Subspecies 6 Confirmed hosts of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans 7 Gallery 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHabitat, behaviour and diet[edit] Fire salamanders live in central European forests and are more common in hilly areas. They prefer deciduous forests, since they like to hide in fallen leaves and around mossy tree trunks
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Extant Taxon
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms. It is the study of extant taxa (singular: extant taxon): taxa (such as species, genera and families) with members still alive, as opposed to (all) being extinct. For example:The moose (Alces alces) is an extant species, and the dodo is an extinct species. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods, as of 1987[update] there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species.[1]A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as extant if there are new discoveries of extant species ("Lazarus species"), or if previously-known extant species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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Batoidea
Batoidimorpha MyliobatoideaSpotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari Batoidea
Batoidea
is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays. They and their close relatives, the sharks, comprise the subclass Elasmobranchii. Rays are the largest group of cartilaginous fishes, with well over 600 species in 26 families. Rays are distinguished by their flattened bodies, enlarged pectoral fins that are fused to the head, and gill slits that are placed on their ventral surfaces.Contents1 Anatomy 2 Reproduction 3 Habitat 4 Feeding 5 Classification 6 Differences between sharks and rays 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 Bibliography9 External linksAnatomy[edit] Batoids are flat-bodied, and, like sharks, are cartilaginous marine fish, meaning they have a boneless skeleton made of a tough, elastic substance
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Phylum
In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia
Animalia
or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla
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Subphylum
In zoological nomenclature, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum. The taxonomic rank of "subdivision" in fungi and plant taxonomy is equivalent to "subphylum" in zoological taxonomy. Taxonomic rank[edit] Subphylum is:subordinate to the phylum superordinate to the infraphylum.Where convenient, subphyla in turn may be divided into infraphyla; in turn such an infraphylum also would be superordinate to any classes or superclasses in the hierarchy. Examples[edit] Not all fauna phyla are divided into subphyla
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck
Lamarck
(1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck (/ləˈmɑːrk/;[1] French: [lamaʁk]), was a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. Lamarck
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Rhynchocyon Petersi
The black and rufous elephant shrew,[2] ( Rhynchocyon
Rhynchocyon
petersi) the black and rufous sengi,[1] or the Zanj elephant shrew[3] is one of the 17 species of elephant shrew found only in Africa.[2] Like other members of the genus Rhynchocyon, it is a relatively large species, with adults averaging about 28 cm (11 in) in length and 450-700 g (1.0-1.5 lb) in weight. It is native to the lowland montane and dense forests of Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania.[4] It eats insects such as beetles, termites, and centipedes, using its proboscis to dig them from the soil and its tongue to lick them up.[5] It typically builds ground level nests for shelter[6] requiring dry leaf litter[3] often at the base of trees.[7] Like most elephant shrews, it lives in monogamous pairs, defending hectare-sized territories.[8][6]Distribution of Rhynchocyon
Rhynchocyon
petersi in Tanzania
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Southern Cassowary
The southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) also known as double-wattled cassowary, Australian cassowary or two-wattled cassowary,[2] is a large flightless black bird. It is a ratite and therefore related to emu, ostrich, and the Rhea and Kiwi genera
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Animal Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Neogene
The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period
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Silurian
The Silurian
Silurian
is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian
Devonian
Period, 419.2 Mya.[8] As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian
Silurian
is set at a series of major Ordovician–Silurian extinction events
Ordovician–Silurian extinction events
when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian
Silurian
was the diversification of jawed and bony fish
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