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Umbrian
UMBRIAN is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri
Umbri
in the ancient Italian region of Umbria . Within the Italic languages it is closely related to the Oscan group and is therefore associated with it in the group of Osco-Umbrian languages
Osco-Umbrian languages
. Since that classification was first formulated a number of other languages in ancient Italy
Italy
were discovered to be more closely related to Umbrian. Therefore, a group was devised to contain them, the Umbrian languages
Umbrian languages
. CONTENTS * 1 Corpus * 2 Alphabet * 3 Sample text * 4 Notes * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links CORPUSUmbrian is known from about 30 inscriptions dated from the 7th through 1st centuries BC
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The Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
, and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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Language Death
In linguistics , LANGUAGE DEATH (also LANGUAGE EXTINCTION (the language is no longer spoken) or LINGUICIDE (death of a language from natural or political causes), and rarely also GLOTTOPHAGY (absorption or replacement of minor language with major language)) occurs when a language loses its last native speaker . Language
Language
death is a process that affects speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers possess of a given language variety is decreased, eventually resulting in no native or fluent speakers of the variety. Language
Language
death may affect any language idiom, including dialects . Language
Language
death should not be confused with language attrition (also called language loss), which describes the loss of proficiency in a first language of an individual
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Religious Law
RELIGIOUS LAW refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions . Examples include Christian
Christian
canon law , Islamic
Islamic
sharia , Jewish
Jewish
halakha , and Hindu law
Hindu law
. The two most prominent systems, canon law and sharia, differ from other religious laws in that canon law is the codification of Catholic , Anglican and Orthodox law as in civil law , while sharia derives many of its laws from juristic precedent and reasoning by analogy (as in a common law tradition)
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Pagan
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan"
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Priest
A PRIEST or PRIESTESS (feminine) (/priːst/ from Greek πρεσβύτερος presbýteros through Latin
Latin
presbyter, "elder", or from Old High German
Old High German
priast, prest, from Vulgar Latin
Latin
"provost" "one put over others", from Latin
Latin
praepositus "person placed in charge"), is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites ; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the PRIESTHOOD, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
, and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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MultiTree
In combinatorics and order-theoretic mathematics, a MULTITREE may describe either of two equivalent structures: a directed acyclic graph in which the set of nodes reachable from any node form a tree , or a partially ordered set that does not have four items a, b, c, and d forming a diamond suborder with a ≤ b ≤ d and a ≤ c ≤ d but with b and c incomparable to each other (also called a DIAMOND-FREE POSET ). CONTENTS * 1 Equivalence between directed acyclic graph and poset definitions * 2 Diamond-free families * 3 Applications * 4 Related structures * 5 References EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN DIRECTED ACYCLIC GRAPH AND POSET DEFINITIONSIf G is a directed acyclic graph ("DAG") in which the nodes reachable from each vertex form a tree (or equivalently, if G is a directed graph in which there is at most one directed path between any two nodes, in either direction) then the reachability relation in G forms a diamond-free partial order
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet , which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet . The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet . Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Assisi
ASSISI (Italian pronunciation: , from the Latin : Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy
Italy
in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria
Umbria
region , on the western flank of Monte Subasio . It was the birthplace of St. Francis , who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death. The 19th-century Saint
Saint
Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi
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Todi
TODI is a town and comune (municipality) of the province of Perugia (region of Umbria
Umbria
) in central Italy. It is perched on a tall two-crested hill overlooking the east bank of the river Tiber
Tiber
, commanding distant views in every direction. In the 1990s, Richard S. Levine, a professor of architecture described Todi
Todi
as the model sustainable city, because of its scale and its ability to reinvent itself over time. After that, the Italian press reported on Todi
Todi
as the world's most livable city. The Duomo in the sloping Piazza del Popolo. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Main sights * 2.1 The Cathedral * 2.2 Palazzo del Popolo * 2.3 Palazzo del Capitano * 2.4 Palazzo dei Priori * 2.5 Palazzo Vescovile * 2.6 Other sights * 3 Sports * 3.1 A.S.D
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