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Theropsida
Theropsida
Theropsida
Seeley, 1895[1]Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.[2] They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra, an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each; this accounts for their name.[3] Primitive synapsids are usually called pelycosaurs or pelycosaur-grade synapsids; more advanced mammal-like ones, therapsids. The non-mammalian members are described as mammal-like reptiles in classical systematics;[4][5] they can also be called stem mammals or proto-mammals.[6] Synapsids evolved from basal amniotes and are one of the two major groups of the later amniotes; the other is the sauropsids, a group that includes modern reptiles and birds
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Synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell. Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
proposed that neurons are not continuous throughout the body, yet still communicate with each other, an idea known as the neuron doctrine.[2] The word "synapse" – from the Greek synapsis (συνάψις), meaning "conjunction", in turn from συνάπτεὶν (συν ("together") and ἅπτειν ("to fasten")) – was introduced in 1897 by the Engli
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Eothyrididae
Eothyrididae
Eothyrididae
is an extinct family of very primitive, insectivorous synapsids. Only three genera are known, Eothyris, Vaughnictis and Oedaleops, all from the early Permian
Permian
of North America. Their main distinguishing feature is the large caniniform tooth in front of the maxilla. Eothyridids share with the Caseidae
Caseidae
a number of specialised features associated with the morphology of the snout and external naris and it is likely that they were ancestral to them. The two together form the clade Caseasauria. Eothyris
Eothyris
is known from a single skull specimen; Oedaleops
Oedaleops
is known from three partial skulls and some parts of some limbs. Vaughnictis is known from a partial skull, six dorsal vertebrae and some hind-limb bones
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Phreatophasma
Phreatophasma
Phreatophasma
is an extinct genus of synapsids from the Middle Permian of European Russia. It includes only one species, Phreatophasma aenigmatum, which is itself known from a single femur found in a mine near the town of Belebei
Belebei
in Bashkortostan. Phreatophasma
Phreatophasma
comes from a fossil assemblage that is latest Ufimian
Ufimian
to earliest Kazanian in age under the Russian stratigraphic scheme, correlating with the Roadian Age (earliest Middle Permian, about 270 million years ago) under the international stratigraphic timescale
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Eupelycosauria
The Eupelycosauria
Eupelycosauria
originally referred to a suborder of 'pelycosaurs' (Reisz 1987), but has been redefined (Laurin and Reisz 1997) to designate a clade of synapsids that includes most pelycosaurs, as well as all therapsids and mammals. They first appear during the Early Pennsylvanian epoch (i.e.: Archaeothyris, and perhaps an even earlier genus, Protoclepsydrops), and represent just one of the many stages in the acquiring of mammal-like characteristics (Kemp 1982), in contrast to their earlier amniote ancestors. The defining characteristics which separate these animals from the Caseasauria
Caseasauria
(also pelycosaurs) are based on details of proportion of certain bones of the skull
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Edaphosauridae
Edaphosauridae
Edaphosauridae
is a family of mostly large (up to 3 meters or more) Late Carboniferous
Late Carboniferous
to Early Permian
Early Permian
synapsids. Edaphosaur fossils are so far known only from North America
North America
and Europe.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Classification 3 References 4 External linksCharacteristics[edit] They were the earliest known herbivorous amniotes and, along with the Diadectidae, the earliest known herbivorous tetrapods. The head is small in relation to the bulky body, and there is a tall sail along the back, which may have functioned as a thermoregulatory device. Classification[edit] The interrelationships of Edaphosauridae
Edaphosauridae
was investigated in details by David M. Mazierski and Robert R. Reisz (2010)
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Ophiacodontidae
See text. Ophiacodontidae
Ophiacodontidae
is an extinct family of early eupelycosaurs from the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
and Permian. Archaeothyris, and Clepsydrops were among the earliest ophiacodontids, appearing in the Late Carboniferous. Ophiacodontids are among the most basal synapsids, an offshoot of the lineage which includes therapsids and their descendants, the mammals. The group became extinct by the Middle Permian, replaced by anomodonts, theriodonts, and the diapsid reptiles.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Classification 3 References 4 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The lifestyle of ophiacodonts has long been controversial
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Varanopidae
See below Archaeovenator
Archaeovenator
hamiltonensis Varanodon
Varanodon
agilis Varanopidae
Varanopidae
is an extinct family of synapsid "pelycosaurs" that resembled monitor lizards and might have had the same lifestyle, hence their name. Like many other pelycosaur families, they evolved from an Archaeothyris-like synapsid in the Late Carboniferous; they had become extinct by the end of the Middle Permian. A varanopid from the latest Middle Permian
Middle Permian
Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone
Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone
is the youngest known varanopid and the last member of the "pelycosaur" group of synapsids.[1]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Classification 3 References 4 External linksCharacteristics[edit] No known varanopids developed a sail like Dimetrodon
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Sphenacodontia
Sphenacodontia
Sphenacodontia
is a stem-based clade of derived synapsids. It was defined by Amson and Laurin (2011) as "the largest clade that includes Haptodus
Haptodus
baylei, Haptodus
Haptodus
garnettensis and Sphenacodon
Sphenacodon
ferox, but not Edaphosaurus
Edaphosaurus
pogonias".[1] They first appear during the Late Pennsylvanian epoch. Basal Sphenacodontia
Sphenacodontia
constitute a transitional evolutionary series from early pelycosaurs to ancestral therapsids (which in turn were the ancestors of more advanced forms and finally the mammals)
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Echinerpeton
Echinerpeton
Echinerpeton
is an extinct genus of synapsid, including the single species Echinerpeton
Echinerpeton
intermedium from the Late Carboniferous
Late Carboniferous
of Nova Scotia, Canada. Along with its contemporary Archaeothyris, Echinerpeton
Echinerpeton
is the oldest known synapsid, having lived around 308 million years ago. It is known from six small, fragmentary fossils, which were found in an outcrop of the Morien Group near the town of Florence.[1] The most complete specimen preserves articulated vertebrae with high neural spines, indicating that Echinerpeton
Echinerpeton
was a sail-backed synapsid like the better known Dimetrodon, Sphenacodon, and Edaphosaurus
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Protoclepsydrops
Protoclepsydrops
Protoclepsydrops
is an extinct genus of early synapsids, found in Joggins, Nova Scotia.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Classification 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] Like Archaeothyris, Protoclepsydrops
Protoclepsydrops
resembled modern lizards. However, Protoclepsydrops
Protoclepsydrops
still had primitive vertebrae with tiny neural processes typical of the amniotes' amphibian ancestors. Classification[edit] Its skeletal remains indicate that it may have been more closely related to synapsids than to sauropsids, making it a possible synapsid member. If so, it is the oldest synapsid known, though its status is unconfirmed because its remains were fragmentary
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Harry Seeley
Harry Govier Seeley (18 February 1839 – 8 January 1909) was a British paleontologist.[1][2]Contents1 Career 2 Dinosaurs 3 References 4 External linksCareer[edit] Seeley was born in London, the son of Richard Hovill Seeley, goldsmith, and his second wife Mary Govier. He attended classes at the Royal School of Mines, Kensington before becoming an assistant to Adam Sedgwick at the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, from 1859. He matriculated as a student at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
in 1863.[3] He turned down positions both with the British Museum
British Museum
and the Geological Survey of Britain to work on his own. Late in his career he accepted a position as Professor of Geology at King's College, Cambridge and Bedford College (London)
Bedford College (London)
(1876)
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Synapsis
Synapsis (also called syndesis) is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their segregation, and possible chromosomal crossover between them. Synapsis takes place during prophase I of meiosis. When homologous chromosomes synapse, their ends are first attached to the nuclear envelope. These end-membrane complexes then migrate, assisted by the extranuclear cytoskeleton, until matching ends have been paired. Then the intervening regions of the chromosome are brought together, and may be connected by a protein-RNA complex called the synaptonemal complex.[1] Autosomes undergo synapsis during meiosis, and are held together by a protein complex along the whole length of the chromosomes called the synaptonemal complex
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Mammal
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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