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Tefnut
Tefnut
Tefnut
(Ancient Egyptian: tfn.t) is a goddess of moisture, moist air, dew and rain in Ancient Egyptian religion.[1] She is the sister and consort of the air god Shu and the mother of Geb
Geb
and Nut.Contents1 Etymology 2 Mythological origins 3 Iconography 4 Cult centres 5 Mythology 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Literally translating as "That Water",[2] the name Tefnut
Tefnut
has been linked to the verb 'tfn' meaning 'to spit'[3] and versions of the creation myth say that Ra (or Atum) spat her out and her name was written as a mouth spitting in late texts.[4] Like most Egyptian deities, including her brother, Tefnut
Tefnut
has no single ideograph or symbol. Her name in hieroglyphics consists of four single phonogram symbols t-f-n-t
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/[2][3]) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.[4][5] Cursive hieroglyphs
Cursive hieroglyphs
were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC (Naqada III),[1] with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty
Second Dynasty
(28th century BC)
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Bodily Fluid
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people. In normal healthy men, the total body water is about 60% of the total body weight; it is slightly lower in women. A 70 kg (160 pound) man, then, has 42 liters of water in his body. This is divided between ICF and ECF in a two-to-one ratio: 28 liters are inside cells and 14 liters are outside cells. This ECF compartment is divided into the fluid between cells - the interstitial fluid volume - and the vascular volume, also called the blood plasma volume
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Husband
A husband is a male in a marital relationship. The rights and obligations of a husband regarding his spouse and others, and his status in the community and in law, vary between cultures and have varied over time. In monogamous cultures, there are only two parties to a marriage. This is enforced by legal codes that outlaw two (bigamy) or more (polygamy) female spouses. Similarly, polyandry, marriage of one female partner with more than one male partner at the same time is not permitted
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Heliopolis (Ancient Egypt)
Heliopolis was a major city of ancient Egypt. It was the capital of the 13th or Heliopolite Nome
Heliopolite Nome
of Lower Egypt
Egypt
and a major religious center. It is now located in Ayn Shams, a northeastern suburb of Cairo. Heliopolis was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, occupied since the Predynastic Period.[1] It greatly expanded under the Old and Middle Kingdoms but is today mostly destroyed, its temples and other buildings having been scavenged for the construction of medieval Cairo. Most information about the ancient city comes from surviving records. The major surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the obelisk of the Temple of Ra- Atum
Atum
erected by Senusret I
Senusret I
of Dynasty XII
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Solar God
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms. The Sun
Sun
is sometimes referred to by its Latin
Latin
name Sol or by its Greek name Helios
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Creation Myth
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.[2][3][4] While in popular usage the term myth often refers to false or fanciful stories, members of cultures often ascribe varying degrees of truth to their creation myths.[5][6] In the society in which it is told, a creation myth is usually regarded as conveying profound truths, metaphorically, symbolically and sometimes in a historical or literal sense.[7][8] They are commonly, although not always, considered cosmogonical myths – that is, they describe the ordering of the cosmos from a state of chaos or amorphousness.[9] Creation myths often share a number of features
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Twin Brother
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.[1] Twins can be either monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote, which splits and forms two embryos, or dizygotic ("fraternal"), meaning that they develop from two different eggs
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Parthenogenesis
Parthenogenesis
Parthenogenesis
(/ˌpɑːrθɪnoʊˈdʒɛnɪsɪs, -θɪnə-/;[1][2] from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation"[3]) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. In animals, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell. In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis. Parthenogenesis
Parthenogenesis
occurs naturally in some plants, some invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some mites, some bees, some Phasmida
Phasmida
and parasitic wasps) and a few vertebrates (such as some fish,[4] amphibians, reptiles[5][6] and very rarely birds[7])
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Masturbates
Masturbation
Masturbation
is the sexual stimulation of one's own genitals for sexual arousal or other sexual pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm.[1] The stimulation may involve hands, fingers, everyday objects, sex toys such as vibrators, or combinations of these.[1][2] Mutual masturbation
Mutual masturbation
(mutual manual stimulation of the genitals between partners) can be a substitute for sexual penetration. Studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans of both sexes and all ages, although there is variation. Various medical and psychological benefits have been attributed to a healthy attitude toward sexual activity in general and to masturbation in particular. No causal relationship is known between masturbation and any form of mental or physical disorder.[3] Masturbation
Masturbation
has been depicted in art since prehistoric times and is mentioned and discussed in very early writings
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Musical Instrument
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years
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Akhenaten
Akhetaten, Gempaaten, Hwt-BenbenReligion Ancient Egyptian religion Atenism Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(/ˌækəˈnɑːtən/;[1] also spelled Echnaton,[7] Akhenaton,[8] Ikhnaton,[9] and Khuenaten;[10][11] meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning " Amun
Amun
Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty
18th Dynasty
who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monolatristic, henotheistic, or even quasi-monotheistic
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Nefertiti
Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Nefertiti
Nefertiti
(/ˌnɛfərˈtiːti/[3]) (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
(chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc
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Joyce Tyldesley
Joyce Ann Tyldesley (born 25 February 1960)[1] is a British archaeologist and Egyptologist, academic, writer and broadcaster.Contents1 Life 2 Rutherford Press Limited 3 Writings 4 Bibliography (Books only) 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] Tyldesley was born in Bolton, Lancashire
Bolton, Lancashire
and attended Bolton School. In 1981 she earned a first-class honours degree in archaeology from Liverpool University; in 1986 she was awarded a doctorate in Prehistoric Archaeology
Archaeology
from Oxford. In 2011 she was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Bolton
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Karnak
The Karnak
Karnak
Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (/ˈkɑːr.næk/[1], from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I
Senusret I
in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period, although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom. The area around Karnak
Karnak
was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places") and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad
Theban Triad
with the god Amun
Amun
as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes
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Nubia
Nubia
Nubia
is a region along the Nile
Nile
river encompassing the area between Aswan
Aswan
in southern Egypt
Egypt
and Khartoum
Khartoum
in central Sudan. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2500 BC onward ( Kerma
Kerma
culture), and was home to several empires, most prominently the kingdom of Kush, which for a while even ruled over Egypt. Its collapse in the 4th century AD after more than 1000 years of existence saw the rise of three Christian kingdoms, Nobatia, Makuria
Makuria
and Alodia, the last two again lasting 1000 years
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