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Shun Dynasty
The Shun dynasty (simplified Chinese: 顺朝; traditional Chinese: 順朝; pinyin: Shùn cháo), or Great Shun (simplified Chinese: 大顺; traditional Chinese: 大順; pinyin: Dà shùn), was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history. The dynasty was founded in Xi'an
Xi'an
on 8 February 1644, the first day of the lunar year, by Li Zicheng, the leader of a large peasant rebellion. Li, however, only went by the title of King (王), not Emperor (皇帝). The capture of Beijing
Beijing
by the Shun forces in April 1644 marked the end of the Ming dynasty, but Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng
failed to solidify his mandate; in late May 1644, he was defeated at the Battle of Shanhai Pass by the joint forces of Ming general Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui
and Manchu prince Dorgon
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Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an
is the capital of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwestern China.[3] One of the oldest cities in China,
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Dynasties In Chinese History
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.Contents1 Background 2 Dynasties of China 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBackground[edit] As one might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines, it is not usually the case that one dynasty transitions abruptly and smoothly into another. Rather, dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing reign, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1645 marks the year in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
armies overthrew the preceding Ming dynasty, according to the dynastic cycle of China. However, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
pretender was not deposed until 1663
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Yale University Press
Yale University
Yale University
Press is a university press associated with Yale University. It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day,[3] and became an official department of Yale University
Yale University
in 1961, but it remains financially and operationally autonomous. As of 2009[update], Yale University
Yale University
Press published approximately 300 new hardcover and 150 new paperback books annually and has more than 6,000 books in print
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Gao Guiying
Gao Guiying 高桂英 (died 1647) was a female Chinese revolutionary, rebellion-leader and army-commander. From the beginning of the 17th century, the Ming dynasty - China was decaying during a large number of rebellions, the greatest one being the rebellion of Li Zicheng, who gathered a very large army of followers around him and became more successful every year. It is said that Li met Gao while hiding in the house of her father, and when he left, she went with him and took and active part in the rebellion, following him side by side at the head of his army, sharing his command; while Li was the commander of the male troops, Gao educated, trained and lead the female troops of rebels. The rebellion was so successful that the armies of Li and Gao effectively controlled large parts of China and ruled them as independent entities
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Chancellor
Chancellor
Chancellor
(Latin: cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery. The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion)
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Emperor Of China
The Emperor or Huangdi (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin:  Huángdì) was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917. The holy title of Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ), a title much more elder than the Emperor of China
China
that predates the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
and recognized as the ruler of "All under Heaven" (i.e., the whole world)
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Dorgon
Dorgon
Dorgon
(Manchu: , literally "badger";[1] 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), formally known as Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty. Born in the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan as the 14th son of Nurhaci
Nurhaci
(the founder of the Qing dynasty), Dorgon
Dorgon
started his career in military campaigns against the Ming dynasty, Mongols and Koreans during the reign of his eighth brother, Huangtaiji, who succeeded their father. After Huangtaiji's death in 1643, he was involved in a power struggle against Huangtaiji's eldest son, Hooge, over the succession to the throne. Both of them eventually came to a compromise by backing out and letting Huangtaiji's ninth son, Fulin, become the emperor; Fulin was installed on the throne as the Shunzhi Emperor
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Mandate Of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven
Heaven
or Tin Ming, Tian
Tian
Ming (Chinese: 天命; pinyin: Tiānmìng; Wade–Giles: T'ien-ming) and in various dialectal spellings, is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the Emperor of China. According to this belief, heaven (天, Tian)—which embodies the natural order and will of the universe—bestows the mandate on a just ruler of China, the "Heavenly Son" of the "Celestial Empire". If a ruler was overthrown, this was interpreted as an indication that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate
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History Of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
in IndonesiaKorean ConfucianismJapanese Confucianism
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Cash (Chinese Coin)
Cash was a type of coin of China
China
and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD. Originally cast during the Warring States
Warring States
period, these coins continued to be used for the entirety of Imperial China
China
as well as under Mongol, and Manchu rule. The last Chinese cash coins were cast in the first year of the Republic of China. Generally most cash coins were made from copper or bronze alloys, with iron, lead, and zinc coins occasionally used less often throughout Chinese history. Rare silver and gold cash coins were also produced. During most of their production, cash coins were cast but, during the late Qing dynasty, machine-struck cash coins began to be made. In the modern era, these coins are considered to be Chinese “good luck coins”; they are hung on strings and round the necks of children, or over the beds of sick people
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