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Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...

People's Republic of China
, located in
South China South China () is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population ...
and bordering
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
( Hà Giang,
Cao Bằng Cao Bằng () is a city in northern Vietnam. It is the capital and largest settlement of Cao Bằng Province. It is located on the bank of the Bằng Giang river, and is around away from the border with China's Guangxi region. According to the 201 ...
, Lạng Sơn and
Quảng Ninh Province Quảng Ninh () is a Provinces of Vietnam, province along the Đông Bắc, northeastern coast of Vietnam. It is about 153 km (95 mi) east of Hanoi, comprising four cities, two district-level towns and seven rural districts. The provinc ...
s) and the
Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin ( vi, Vịnh Bắc Bộ, ; formerly known as or during the ) is a at the northwestern portion of the , located off the coasts of () and . It has a total surface area of . It is defined in the west and northwest by the ...

Gulf of Tonkin
. Formerly a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
. Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of
Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...

Chinese history
. The current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in 226 AD. It was given provincial level status during the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
, but even into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory. The abbreviation of the region is "" (; za, Gvei), which comes from the name of the city of
Guilin Guilin (Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or in ...

Guilin
, the provincial capital during both the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming dynasty
and the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
. Guangxi contains the largest population of China's ethnic minorities, in particular the
Zhuang people The Zhuang people (; za, Bouxcuengh, italic=yes) are a Tai-speaking East Asian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from oth ...
, who make up 32% of the population. Various regional languages and dialects such as
Pinghua Pinghua (; : ''Pìhng Wá''; sometimes disambiguated as /) is a pair of spoken mainly in parts of the , with some speakers in province. Pinghua is a in some areas of Guangxi, where it is spoken as a second language by speakers of . Some spea ...
,
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
,
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research un ...

Cantonese
,
Hakka The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese Han Chinese subgroups, subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka Chinese, Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Gu ...
and Min are spoken alongside
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic languages, Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the phonology of Standard Chinese. Because Mandarin ...
.


Name

"''Guǎng''" () means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. Guangxi and neighboring
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
literally mean "expanse west" and "expanse east". Together, Guangxi and Guangdong are called '' Loeng gwong'' (Liangkwang; , Vietnamese: Lưỡng Quảng, QuangTay province). During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Xīlù () and Guǎngnán Dōnglù (), which became abbreviated as Guǎngxī Lù () and Guǎngdōng Lù ().


History

Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the
Baiyue The Baiyue ( zh, t=百越), Hundred Yue, or simply Yue, was a blanket term historically used by ancient Chinese to describe various indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting sporadic regions in Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the 1st mil ...

Baiyue
("Hundred Yue", vi, Bách Việt), the region first became part of China during the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin dynasty
. In 214 BC, the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
general
Zhao Tuo , temple name = , house = Triệu dynasty , birth_date = 240 BC , birth_place = Zhengding County, Shijiazhuang, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and d ...

Zhao Tuo
( vi, Triệu Đà) claimed most of southern China for
Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 259–210 BCE), or Shihuangdi, was the founder of the Qin dynasty, and first Emperor of China, emperor of a unified China. Rather than maintain the title of "Chinese king, king" ( ''wáng'') borne by the previous Shang dyna ...
before the emperor's death. The ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at
Panyu Panyu, Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Punyu, is one of 11 District (China), urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong, Guangdong Province, China. It was a separate county-level city be ...
known as
Nanyue Nanyue () or Namz Yied ( za, Namzyied), was an ancient kingdom ruled by Chinese monarchs of the Triệu dynastyTriệu is a Vietnamese surname, it is the equivalent of the Mandarin Chinese surname Zhou (surname), Zhao (趙). Trieu is the anglic ...

Nanyue
("Southern Yue"). Alternatively submissive to and independent of
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and
sinicization Sinicization, sinofication, sinification, or sinonization (from the prefix , 'Chinese, relating to China') is the process by which non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han-Chinese culture, language, so ...
under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" () until its collapse in 111 BC during the
southward expansion of the Han dynasty The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty was a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam. Military expansion to the south began under the previous Qin dynasty and continued ...
. The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province () of the
Eastern Wu Wu (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous count ...
, who controlled southeastern China during the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancie ...

Three Kingdoms
period.
Guilin Guilin (Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or in ...
formed one of its commanderies. Under the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...
, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of
Nanzhao Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao (literally 'Southern Zhao'), was a dynastic kingdom that flourished in what is now southern China and northern Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries. It was centered on present-day Yunnan in ...

Nanzhao
in
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
, which successfully repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was then divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning. After the collapse of the Southern Zhao,
Liu YanLiu Yan may refer to: * Liu Yan (Xin dynasty) (died 23 AD), rebel leader against the Xin dynasty * Liu Yan (Han dynasty warlord) (died 194), Eastern Han nobleman and warlord * Liu Yan (Shu Han) (died 234), general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdom ...
established the
Southern Han Southern Han (; 917–971), officially Han (), originally Yue (), was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheav ...
(Nanhan) in Xingwangfu (modern
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
). Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
in 971. The name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi ("West Southern Expanse")
CircuitCircuit may refer to: Science and technology Electrical engineering * Electrical circuit, a complete electrical network with a closed-loop giving a return path for current ** Analog circuit, uses continuous signal levels ** Balanced circuit, p ...
. Harassed by both Song and the
Jiaozhi Jiaozhi (standard Chinese Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Mandari ...
in modern
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
, the Zhuang leader
Nong Zhigao Nong Zhigao (modern Zhuang language: ; , vi, Nùng Trí Cao, links=no) (1025–1055?) is a hero admired by the Nùng people The Nùng (''pronounced as noong'' Help:IPA, uːŋ are a Central Tai languages, Central Tai ethnic group living pri ...
led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people. His independent kingdom was short-lived, however, and the tattooed Song general
Di Qing Di Qing (1008–1057), formerly romanized as Ti Ch'ing, was a military general of the Northern Song dynasty. Biography Di Qing was born to a poor family in Xihe, Fenzhou (汾州西河; present-day Fenyang, Shanxi). He sported tattoos on his ...
returned Guangxi to China. The
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
established control over Yunnan during its conquest of the
Dali Kingdom The Dali Kingdom, also known as the Dali State (; Bai language, Bai: Dablit Guaif), was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China from 937 until 1382. In 1253, it was Mongol conquest of China, conquered by the Mongols but its kings cont ...

Dali Kingdom
in 1253 and eliminated the
Southern Song The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...

Southern Song
following the
Battle of Yamen A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...
in 1279. Rather than ruling
Lingnan Lingnan (; Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group n ...
as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians then established Guangxi ("Western Expanse") as a proper province. The area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming dynasty
to employ the different local groups against one another. At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the
Yao Yao or YAO may refer to: * Yao (surname), the transliteration of Chinese family names 姚, 銚, and 么 * Yao (ruler), a mythical Chinese ruler and emperor * Yao Ming, Chinese Basketball All-Star that played for the Houston Rockets * Euphrasie Kouas ...
in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, parts of Guangxi were ruled by the powerful Cen () clan. The Cen were of Zhuang ethnicity and were recognized as ''
tusi ''Tusi'' (; mnc, ᠠᡳᠮᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ; vi, Thổ ty), often translated as "headmen" or "chieftains", were hereditary tribal leaders recognized as imperial officials by the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties of China, and the L ...

tusi
'' or local ruler by the Chinese emperors. The
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A
Yao Yao or YAO may refer to: * Yao (surname), the transliteration of Chinese family names 姚, 銚, and 么 * Yao (ruler), a mythical Chinese ruler and emperor * Yao Ming, Chinese Basketball All-Star that played for the Houston Rockets * Euphrasie Kouas ...
revolt in 1831 was followed the Jintian Uprising, the beginning of the
Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an ...
, in January 1851 and the
Da Cheng Rebellion Da, DA, dA, DÄ and other variants may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * DA! (band), a Chicago post-punk band of the 1980s * Da (play), ''Da'' (play), a 1978 play by Hugh Leonard ** Da (film), ''Da'' (film), a 1988 film based on the ...
in April 1854. The execution of St.
Auguste Chapdelaine
Auguste Chapdelaine
by local officials in Guangxi provoked the
Second Opium War The Second Opium War (), also known as the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A gov ...
in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although
Louis Brière de l'Isle Louis Alexandre Esprit Gaston Brière de l'Isle (24 June 1827 – 19 June 1896) was a French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force (), is the land-bas ...
was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the
Guangxi Army The Guangxi Army was an army raised by the Qing dynasty (China) to fight in the Sino-French War during the Tonkin Campaign. References

History of Guangxi Sino-French War Disbanded armies Military units and formations of the Qing Dynasty {{ ...
saw a great deal of action in the 1884
Sino-French War The Sino-French War (, french: Guerre franco-chinoise, vi, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 to April 1885. There was no declaration of war. Militarily it was ...
. Largely ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass (modern
Friendship Pass Friendship Pass (), also commonly known by its older name Ải Nam Quan (), is a pass near the China-Vietnam border, between China's Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang ...
) on 23 March 1885. Following the
Wuchang Uprising The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang (now Wuchang District of Wuhan), Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last im ...
, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911. The Qing governor,
Shen Bingdan__NOTOC__ Shen may refer to: * Shen (Chinese religion) ''Shen'' (神) is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit", heart, inclusive and community mind, or future mind. The Japanese equivalent is '' shin''. This single Chinese term expresses ...
, initially remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General
Lu Rongting Lu Rongting (; September 9, 1859 – November 6, 1928), also spelled as Lu Yung-ting and Lu Jung-t'ing, was a late Qing/early Beiyang government, Republican military and political leader from Wuming District, Wuming, Guangxi. Lu belonged to the Z ...

Lu Rongting
. General Lu's
Old Guangxi clique After the founding of the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located pri ...
overran
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the ...

Hunan
and
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
as well and helped lead the
National Protection War The National Protection War (), also known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies b ...
against
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai (; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty, becoming the Emperor of the Empire of China (1915–1916). He tried to save the dynasty with a numb ...

Yuan Shikai
's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with
Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat-sen (; born Sun Deming; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) Singtao daily. Saturday edition. 23 October 2010. section A18. Sun Yat-sen Xinhai revolution 100th anniversary edition . was a Chinese statesman A statesman or stateswoman is ...

Sun Yat-sen
led to defeat in the 1920 and 1921
Guangdong–Guangxi War The Guangdong–Guangxi War, or the 1st and 2nd Yue-Gui Wars, occurred between the Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1 ...
. After a brief occupation by
Chen Jiongming Chen Jiongming, (; 18 January 187822 September 1933), was a Hailufeng Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min ...

Chen Jiongming
's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years until
Li Zongren Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (; 13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; ), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civ ...

Li Zongren
's Guangxi Pacification Army established the
New Guangxi clique After the founding of the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located pri ...
dominated by Li,
Huang Shaohong Huang Shaohong (1895 – August 31, 1966) was a warlord in Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic o ...

Huang Shaohong
, and
Bai Chongxi Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966; , , Xiao'erjing: ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as Nationa ...

Bai Chongxi
. Successful action in Hunan against
Wu Peifu Wu Peifu or Wu P'ei-fu (; ; April 22, 1874 – December 4, 1939) was a major figure in the struggles between the warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory w ...

Wu Peifu
led to the Zhuang GPA becoming known as the "Flying Army" and the "Army of Steel." After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Li also repulsed
Tang Jiyao Tang Jiyao () (August 14, 1883 – May 23, 1927) was a Chinese general and warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of the ...

Tang Jiyao
's
revolt Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
and joined the
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
establishing control over other warlords by the
Republic of China (1912–49) Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
. His was one of the few
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Ch ...
units free from serious
Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congress, 13th) , seats1 = , seats2_title = Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, NPC Standing ...
(CCP) influence and was therefore employed by
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and Romanization of Chinese, romanized via Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese Kuomintang, Nationalist politician, ...

Chiang Kai-shek
for the
Shanghai massacre of 1927 The Shanghai massacre of 12 April 1927, known commonly in China as the April 12 Purge or April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist ...
. Within the People's Republic of China, Guangxi is also noted for the
Baise Uprising The Baise Uprising (), also known as the Youjiang Riots (), was a successful military insurrection in late 1929 in Baise Baise (; local pronunciation: ), or Bose, is the westernmost prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China bordering Vietnam as well ...
, a failed CCP revolt led by Chen Zhaoli and
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), also known by his courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in ...

Deng Xiaoping
in 1929. Being in the far south, Guangxi did not fall during the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, but joined the People's Republic in December 1949, two months after its founding. In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline (
Qinzhou Qinzhou ( postal: Yamchow, , Jyutping: ''Jam1 zau1'' ( Canton) /''Ham1 zau1'' ( Local) ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangs ...

Qinzhou
, Lianzhou (now
Hepu County Hepu (), alternately romanized as Hoppo, Hopu or Hop'u, is a County (People's Republic of China), county under the administration of Beihai City in southeastern Guangxi, China. It borders Lianjiang, Guangdong, Lianjiang (Guangdong) to the southeast ...
),
Fangchenggang Fangchenggang () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''alread ...

Fangchenggang
and
Beihai Beihai () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Beihai
) was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. The Guangxi Massacre, during the
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a Political sociology, sociopolitical Social movement, movement in China from 1966 until Mao Zedong's death in 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong, Chairman of ...
, involved the killing of 100,000 to 150,000 in the province in 1967 and 1968. While some development of
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one ...
occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, the province remained largely a scenic tourist destination. Even the economic growth of the 1990s seemed to leave Guangxi behind. However, in recent years, there has been a growing amount of industrialization and increasing concentration on cash crops. Per capita GDP has risen as industries in Guangdong transfer production to comparatively lower-wage areas in Guangxi.


Geography

Located in the southern part of the country, Guangxi is bordered by
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
to the west,
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
to the north,
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the ...

Hunan
to the northeast, and
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
to the east and southeast. It is also bordered by
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
in the southwest and the
Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin ( vi, Vịnh Bắc Bộ, ; formerly known as or during the ) is a at the northwestern portion of the , located off the coasts of () and . It has a total surface area of . It is defined in the west and northwest by the ...

Gulf of Tonkin
in the south. Its proximity to Guangdong is reflected in its name, with "Guang" () being used in both names. Large portions of Guangxi are hilly and mountainous. The northwest portion of Guangxi includes part of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, the Jiuwan Mountains and the Fenghuang Mountains both run through the north, the
Nanling Mountains The Nanling (), also known as the Wuling (), is a major mountain range in Southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate mega-regions within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC) ...
form the region's north-east border, and the Yuecheng and
Haiyang MountainsThe Haiyang Mountains (), in ancient times known as "''Yanghai Mountains''" () form a mountain range in the northeastern Guangxi separating Li River (Guangxi), West River drainage basin of the Xi River from the Xiang River drainage basin of the Yangt ...
both branch from the Nanling Mountains. Also in the north are the Duyao Mountains. The Duyang Mountains run through the west of Guangxi. Near the center of the region are the Dayao Mountains, Da Yao and Daming Mountains, Da Ming Mountains. On the southeastern border are the Yunkai Mountains. Guangxi's highest point is Kitten Mountain, in the Yuecheng Mountains, at . Karst, Karst landforms, characterized by steep mountains and large caverns, are common in Guangxi, accounting for 37.8 percent of its total land area. Guangxi is also home to a number of river systems, which flow into a number of different bodies of water: the Qin River (Guangxi), Qin River and the Nanliu River both flow into the Gulf of Tonkin, a number of tributary rivers flow into the larger Xiang River in neighbouring Hunan province, and the Xi River system flows southeast through the autonomous region into the South China Sea. Along the border with Vietnam there is the Ban Gioc–Detian Falls, Ban Gioc–Detian waterfall (), which separates the two countries. About one-quarter of Guangxi's area is forested.


Human geography

Major cities in Guangxi include
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
, Liuzhou,
Guilin Guilin (Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or in ...

Guilin
, and
Beihai Beihai () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Beihai
. Notable towns include , Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County, Sanjiang, and Yangshuo. Important seaports along Guangxi's short coastline on the
Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin ( vi, Vịnh Bắc Bộ, ; formerly known as or during the ) is a at the northwestern portion of the , located off the coasts of () and . It has a total surface area of . It is defined in the west and northwest by the ...

Gulf of Tonkin
include
Beihai Beihai () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Beihai
,
Qinzhou Qinzhou ( postal: Yamchow, , Jyutping: ''Jam1 zau1'' ( Canton) /''Ham1 zau1'' ( Local) ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangs ...

Qinzhou
and
Fangchenggang Fangchenggang () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''alread ...

Fangchenggang
.


Climate

Guangxi has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long, hot, and humid, lasting from April to October. Winters are mild, and snow is rare. The autonomous region's average annual temperature ranges from to , with January temperatures typically ranging from to , and July temperatures typically ranging from to . Due to frequent rain-bearing monsoon winds, average annual precipitation is quite high in Guangxi, ranging from in drier zones to in wetter zones. The region also experiences monsoons, blowing from south-southwest from late April to the beginning of October. Most of the precipitation occurs between May and August. Microbursts can also occasionally occur in the extreme south of the region, from July to September. This is caused by typhoons blowing from the South China Sea.


Image gallery

File:漓江山水.jpg, Li River, Guangxi File:Paddy field Longsheng.JPG, Longsheng Rice Terrace File:Yulong.JPG, Yulong River File:Thác Bản Giốc.jpg, Ban Gioc–Detian Falls, Ban Gioc Duc Thien– Banyue Detian Falls


Administrative divisions

Guangxi is divided into fourteen Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: all Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities: These 14 prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 111 county-level divisions (41 District of China, districts, 10 county-level cities, 48 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and 12 Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, autonomous counties). At the year end of 2021, the total population is 48.85 millio


Urban areas


Demographics

The
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
are the largest ethnic group in Guangxi. Han Chinese populations in Guangxi largely live along the autonomous region's southern coast and eastern portions. Of these, the main subgroups are those that speak Yue Chinese, Yue and Southwestern Mandarin varieties of Chinese language family, Chinese. Qinzhou and Goulou Yue are spoken in the southern and eastern regions, respectively.
Pinghua Pinghua (; : ''Pìhng Wá''; sometimes disambiguated as /) is a pair of spoken mainly in parts of the , with some speakers in province. Pinghua is a in some areas of Guangxi, where it is spoken as a second language by speakers of . Some spea ...
is spoken in Nanning and Guilin. There are Hakka-speaking regions in Luchuan County, Bobai County and in some areas bordering Vietnam. Guangxi has over 14 million Zhuang people, Zhuangs, the largest minority ethnicity of China. Over 90 percent of Zhuang in China live in Guangxi, especially in the central and western regions. High concentrations of Zhuang people can be found in
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
, Liuzhou, Chongzuo, Baise, Hechi, and Laibin. The highest concentration of ethnic Zhuang people is found in the county-level city of Jingxi, Guangxi, Jingxi, with a 2021 publication by the People's Government of Guangxi stating that the Jingxi's population is 99.7% Zhuang. The autonomous region also has sizable populations of indigenous
Yao Yao or YAO may refer to: * Yao (surname), the transliteration of Chinese family names 姚, 銚, and 么 * Yao (ruler), a mythical Chinese ruler and emperor * Yao Ming, Chinese Basketball All-Star that played for the Houston Rockets * Euphrasie Kouas ...
, Miao people, Miao, Kam people, Kam, Mulao people, Mulam, Maonan people, Maonan, Hui people, Hui, Gin people, Gin, Yi people, Yi, Sui people, Sui and Gelao people, Gelao peoples. Other Ethnic minorities in China, ethnic minorities in Guangxi include the Manchu people, Manchu, Mongols, Mongol, Koreans, Korean, Tibetan people, Tibetan, Hlai people, Hlai, and Tujia people, Tujia people.


Religion

The predominant religions in Guangxi among the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. The large Zhuang people, Zhuang population mostly practices the Zhuang folk religion centered around the worship of their ancestral god ''Buluotuo'' (布洛陀). According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 40.48% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, ancestor veneration, while 0.26% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 59.26% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects. The
Yao Yao or YAO may refer to: * Yao (surname), the transliteration of Chinese family names 姚, 銚, and 么 * Yao (ruler), a mythical Chinese ruler and emperor * Yao Ming, Chinese Basketball All-Star that played for the Houston Rockets * Euphrasie Kouas ...
, another numerous ethnic group inhabiting the province, mostly practices a form of Yao Taoism, indigenised and conservative Taoism. Today, there are 21 mosques in Guangxi This may include: * Nanning Mosque * Chongshan Street Mosque, Guilin Chongshan Mosque * Guilin Ancient Mosque * Liuzhou Mosque * Baise Mosque


Politics

; Secretary-Generals of the Kuomintang, KMT Guangxi Provincial Senate #Ou Wenxiong (): 1938–1942 #Huang Kunshan (): 1942–1946 #Sun Renlin (): 1946-1949 ; Chairmen of the Senate #Li Renren (): 1938-1942 #Huang Xuchu (): 1942-1949 ; Secretaries of the Communist Party of China, CPC Guangxi Committee #Zhang Yunyi: 1949–1953 #Chen Manyuan (): 1953–1957 #Liu Jianxun (): 1957–1961 #Wei Guoqing: 1960–1966 #Qiao Xiaoguang (): 1966–1967 #Wei Guoqing: 1970–1975 #An Pingsheng (): 1975–1977. #Qiao Xiaoguang (): 1977–1985 #Chen Huiguang (): 1985–1990 #Zhao Fulin (): 1990–1997 #Cao Bochun: 1997–2006 #Liu Qibao: 2006–2007 #Guo Shengkun: 2007–2012 #Peng Qinghua: 2012–2018 #Lu Xinshe: 2018 – incumbent ; Chairmen of Government #Zhang Yunyi: 1949–1953 #Chen Manyuan: 1953–1958 #Wei Guoqing: 1958–1975 #An Pingsheng (): 1975–1977 #Qiao Xiaoguang: 1977–1979 #Qin Yingji (): 1979–1983 #Wei Chunshu (): 1983–1990 #Cheng Kejie: 1990–1998 #Li Zhaozhuo: 1998–2003 #Lu Bing: 2003 – December 2007 #Ma Biao (politician), Ma Biao: December 2007 – 2013 #Chen Wu (politician), Chen Wu: March 2013 – incumbent


Economy

Important crops in Guangxi include rice, maize and sweet potatoes. Cash crops include sugar cane, peanuts, tobacco, and kenaf. 85 percent of the world's star anise is grown in Guangxi. It is a major ingredient in the antiviral oseltamivir. Guangxi is one of China's key production centers for nonferrous metals. The province holds approximately 1/3 of all tin and manganese deposits in China. Liuzhou is the main industrial center and is a major motor vehicle manufacturing center. General Motors have a manufacturing base here in a joint venture as SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. The city also has a large steel factory and several related industries. The local government of Guangxi hopes to expand the province's manufacturing sector, and during the drafting of China's Five Year Plan in 2011, earmarked 2.6 trillion RMB for investment in the province's Beibu Gulf Economic Zone(See Below). In recent years Guangxi's economy has languished behind that of its wealthy neighbor and twin,
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
. Guangxi's 2017 nominal GDP was about 2039.63 billion yuan (US$302.09 billion) and ranked 17th in China. Its per capita GDP was 38,102 yuan (US$5,770). Due to its lack of a major manufacturing industry in comparison to other provinces, Guangxi is the fourth most energy efficient province in China, helping to further boost its green image.


Economic and technological development zones

* Beihai Silver Beach National Tourist Holiday Resort * Beihai Export Processing Zone Approved by the State Council, Beihai Export Processing Zone (BHEPZ) was established in March 2003. Total planned area is . The first phase of developed area is . It was verified and accepted by Customs General Administration and eight ministries of the state, on 26 December 2003. It is the Export Processing Zone nearest to ASEAN in China and also the only one bordering the sea in western China. It is situated next to Beihai Port. * Dongxing Border Economic Cooperation Area * Guilin National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone Guilin Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in May 1988. In 1991, it was approved as a national-level industrial zone. It has an area of . Encouraged industries include electronic information, biomedical, new materials and environmental protection. * Nanning Economic & Technological Development Area Established in 1992, Nanning Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved to be a national level zone in May 2001. Its total planned area of . It is located in the south of Nanning. It has become the new developing zone with fine chemical engineering, auto parts, aluminum processing, biological medicine and other industries. * Nanning National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone Nanning Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1988 and was approved as a national-level industrial zone in 1992. The zone has a planned area of , and it encourages industries that do electronic information, bioengineering and pharmaceutical, mechanical and electrical integration and new materials industry. * Pingxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone In 1992, Pinxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone was established. It has a total area of . It focuses on development of hardware mechanical and electrical products, daily-use chemical processing, the services, and international logistics-based storage and information industry. * Yongning Economic Development Zone


Investment

Seventy-one Taiwanese ventures started up in Guangxi in 2007, with contracts bringing up to US$149 million of investment, while gross exports surpassed US$1 billion. There are a total of 1182 Taiwan ventures in Guangxi, and by the end of 2006, they have brought a total of US$4.27 billion of investment into the autonomous region. During the first half of 2007, 43 projects worthy of RMB2.6 billion (US$342 million) have already been contracted between Guangxi and Taiwan investors. Cooperation between Guangxi and Taiwan companies mainly relates to manufacturing, high-tech electronic industries, agriculture, energy resources and tourism.


Power

Guangxi Power Grid invested 180 million yuan in 2007 in projects to bring power to areas that still lacked access to electricity. The areas affected include
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
, Hechi, Bose, Guangxi, Bose and Guigang. Around 125,000 people have gained access to electricity. The money has been used to build or alter 738 10-kilovolt distribution units with a total length of wire reaching 1,831.8 kilometers. Due to lack of investment in construction in the power grid net in rural areas, more than 400 villages in Guangxi Province were not included in the projects. Around 500,000 cannot participate in the policy known as "The Same Grid, the Same Price." Guangxi Power Grid will invest 4.6 billion yuan in improving the power grid during the 11th Five Year Plan. Guangxi Power Grid has invested 2.5 billion yuan in building electric power system in the first half of 2007. Of the total investment, 2.3 billion yuan has been put into the project of the main power grid. So far, four new transformer substations in Guangxi are in various stages of completion. Wenfu substation went into operation in the city of Hechi in January 2007, and since then it has become a major hub of the electrical power system of the surrounding three counties. When Cangwu substation was completed, it doubled the local transformer capacity. In June 2007, the new substation in Chongzuo passed its operation tests. And in the same month, Qiulong commenced production too. This shall support the power supply system of Qiulong City, as well as the northern part of Guangxi province, and facilitate the nationwide project to transmit power from west to east.


Beibu Gulf Economic Zone

In late February 2008, the central government approved China's first international and regional economic cooperation zone in Guangxi. The construction of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone began in 2006. With the approval, the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone will be formally incorporated into national development strategies. The Beibu Gulf Economic Zone covers six coastal cities along the Beibu Gulf. It integrates the cities of
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
, the region's capital,
Beihai Beihai () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Beihai
,
Qinzhou Qinzhou ( postal: Yamchow, , Jyutping: ''Jam1 zau1'' ( Canton) /''Ham1 zau1'' ( Local) ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangs ...

Qinzhou
,
Fangchenggang Fangchenggang () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''alread ...

Fangchenggang
, Chongzuo and Yulin, Guangxi, Yulin. The state will adopt policies and measures to support mechanism innovation, rational industry layout and infrastructure construction in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone. Guangxi has pledged a 100 billion yuan (US$14 billion) investment over the next five years for building and repairing railways to form a network hub in the area. Beibu Gulf Zone will serve as the logistics base, business base, processing and manufacturing base and information exchange center for China-ASEAN cooperation. Beibu Gulf Zone promises broad prospects for further development and its growth potential is rapidly released. But the shortage of talent and professionals in petrochemicals, iron and steel, electricity, finance, tourism, port planning, logistics and marine (ocean), marine industries are bottlenecks. The regional government is also working on speeding up key cooperation projects including Transport in the People's Republic of China, transportation, the marine industry, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy development, cross-border tourism, and environmental protection. Beibu Gulf has already attracted a number of major projects such as Qinzhou oil refinery projects and Stora Enso, a Fortune 500 forest products company based in Finland. In January 2008 trade import and export in the Beibu Gulf zone exceeded US$1.3 billion, a record high.


Bauxite reserves

In September 2007, China's Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Commerce said that it has found 120 million tons of new bauxite reserves in Guangxi. The ministry said that the new reserves, which are located in Chongzhou in the southern region of Youjiang, have a very high-quality of bauxite, a raw material for making aluminum. Currently, the proven reserves of bauxite in Guangxi are about 1 billion tons, making the province one of the country's biggest bauxite sources.


Transport


Rail

The Hunan–Guangxi Railway, Hunan–Guangxi Railway (Xianggui Line), which bisects the autonomous region diagonally from Quanzhou County, Quanzhou in the northeast on the border with
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the ...

Hunan
to Pingxiang, Guangxi, Pingxiang in the southwest on the border with
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
, passes through Guangxi's three principal cities,
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
, Liuzhou and
Guilin Guilin (Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or in ...

Guilin
. Most other railways in Guangxi are connected to the Xianggui Line. From Nanning, the Nanning–Kunming Railway heads west through Baise to Kunming,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
and the Nanning–Fangchenggang Railway runs south to
Qinzhou Qinzhou ( postal: Yamchow, , Jyutping: ''Jam1 zau1'' ( Canton) /''Ham1 zau1'' ( Local) ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangs ...

Qinzhou
,
Fangchenggang Fangchenggang () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''alread ...

Fangchenggang
and
Beihai Beihai () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Beihai
on the coast. From Liuzhou, the Guizhou–Guangxi Railway extends northwestward through Hechi to
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
and the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway runs due north to
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the ...

Hunan
, and eventually Hubei and Henan in South Central China, central China. From Litang, Guangxi, Litang Township on the Xianggui Line between Nanning and Liuzhou, the Litang–Qinzhou Railway runs south to
Qinzhou Qinzhou ( postal: Yamchow, , Jyutping: ''Jam1 zau1'' ( Canton) /''Ham1 zau1'' ( Local) ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangs ...

Qinzhou
on the coast and the Litang–Zhanjiang Railway, Litang–Zhanjiang Railway (Lizhan Line) extends southeastward through Guigang and Yulin, Guangxi, Yulin to Zhanjiang,
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
. The Luoyang–Zhanjiang Railway, Luoyang–Zhanjiang Railway (Luozhan Line), which intersects with the Xianggui Line on the Hunan side of the border at Yongzhou, runs south through Hezhou and Wuzhou in eastern Guangxi and joins the Lizhan Line at Yulin. At Cenxi, a branch of the Luozhan Line heads east to Maoming, Guangdong, forming a second rail outlet from Guangxi to Guangdong.


Roads


Aviation

Guangxi has 7 airports in different cities: Nanning, Guilin, Beihai, Liuzhou, Wuzhou, Baise, Hechi.


Culture

"Guangxi" and neighbouring
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
literally mean "Western Expanse" and "Eastern Expanse". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Two Expanses" (). Its culture and language are reflected in this. Though now associated with the Zhuang people, Zhuang ethnic minority, Guangxi's culture traditionally has had a close connection with the Cantonese. Cantonese culture and language followed the Xi River valley from Guangdong and is still predominate in the eastern half of Guangxi today. Outside of this area there is a huge variety of ethnicities and language groups represented. Guangxi is known for its ethno-linguistic diversity. In the capital of
Nanning Nanning (; ; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang A ...

Nanning
, for example, three varieties of Chinese are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin, Yue Chinese, Yue (specifically Cantonese language, Cantonese), and
Pinghua Pinghua (; : ''Pìhng Wá''; sometimes disambiguated as /) is a pair of spoken mainly in parts of the , with some speakers in province. Pinghua is a in some areas of Guangxi, where it is spoken as a second language by speakers of . Some spea ...
, in addition to various Zhuang languages and others.


Tourism

The major tourist attraction of Guangxi is
Guilin Guilin (Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or in ...

Guilin
, a city famed across China and the world for its spectacular setting by the Li River (Guangxi), Li Jiang (Li River) among karst peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi and Jingjiang Princes' City, the old princes' residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin down the river is the town of Yangshuo, which has become a favourite destination for foreign tourists. The variety of visible cultures in Guangxi, such as the Zhuang people, Zhuang and Dong people, Dong, are also a draw for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
, is home to the Longsheng Rice Terraces, some of the steepest in the world. Nearby is Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County. Many Chinese tourists visiting Nanning also visit Ban Gioc–Detian Falls on the China Vietnam border.


Education

*Guilin University of Technology *Guangxi Arts University *Guangxi University *Guangxi Medical University *Guangxi Normal University *Guilin University of Electronic Technology *Guangxi University for Nationalities *Guangxi Chinese Medical University


Sister regions

* – Kumamoto Prefecture (1982) * – Carinthia (state), Carinthia (1987) * – Rio Grande do Norte (1995) * – Newport, Wales, Newport (formerly) (1996–2019) * – Voronezh Oblast (1997) * – Montana (1999) * – Poitou-Charentes (2002) * – Surat Thani Province (2004) * – Podkarpackie (2015)


See also

* Major national historical and cultural sites (Guangxi), Major national historical and cultural sites in Guangxi * List of twin towns and sister cities in China * 2017 China floods#Guangxi, 2017 Guangxi floods


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


Economic profile for Guangxi
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC


External links


Guangxi Government website
* {{Coord, 23.6, N, 108.3, E, type:adm1st_region:CN-45, display=title Guangxi, South China, . Autonomous regions of China Zhuang people Gulf of Tonkin States and territories established in 1958