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Serbian Cyrillic
The Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet (Serbian: српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced [sr̩̂pskaː t͡ɕirǐlit͡sa]) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
instead, and adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles
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Krste Misirkov
Krste Petkov Misirkov (Bulgarian: Кръстьо Петков Мисирков; Macedonian: Крсте Петков Мисирков) (18 November 1874, Postol, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
– 26 July 1926, Sofia, Kingdom of Bulgaria) was a philologist, slavist, historian and ethnographer
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Voiced Bilabial Stop
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨b⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b. The voiced bilabial stop occurs in English, and it is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨b⟩ in boy. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way[clarification needed] contrast between breathy voiced /bʱ/ and plain /b/.Contents1 Features 2 Varieties 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiced bilabial stop:Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) pronounced [federǎːtsija bôsneː i xěrtseɡoʋineː] ( listen)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments. It is inhabited primarily by Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Bosnian Croats, which is why it is sometimes informally referred to as the Bosniak-Croat Federation (with the Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
as the third constituency of the entity)
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Venko Markovski
Venko Markovski
Venko Markovski
(Bulgarian and Macedonian: Венко Марковски), born Veniamin Milanov Toshev (March 5, 1915, Skopje—January 7, 1988, Sofia) was a Bulgarian and Macedonian writer, poet, partisan and Communist politician.Contents1 Biography 2 Bibliography2.1 In Macedonian 2.2 In Bulgarian 2.3 in English3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born on March 5, 1915 in Skoplje
Skoplje
(now Skopje), Kingdom of Serbia, then occupied by Kingdom of Bulgaria, (now Republic of Macedonia), Markovski completed his secondary education in Skoplje, later studying Slavic Philology
Philology
in Sofia. Markovski was a member of the Macedonian Literary Group founded in Skoplje
Skoplje
in 1931, the Macedonian Literary Circle in Sofia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1938–1941)
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Ve (Cyrillic)
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/, like ⟨v⟩ in "very". The capital letter Ve looks the same as the capital Latin letter B but is pronounced differently. Ve is romanized usually by the Latin letter V but sometimes the Latin letter W (such as in Polish or German).[citation needed]Contents1 History 2 Usage 3 Related letters and other similar characters 4 Computing codes 5 External linksHistory[edit] Both Ve and the Cyrillic letter Be (Б б) were derived from the Greek letter Beta (Β β), which already represented /v/ in Greek by the time that the Cyrillic alphabet was created. In the Early Cyrillic alphabet, its name was вѣдѣ (vědě), meaning "I know". In the Cyrillic numeral system, it had the value of 2. Usage[edit] In Russian and Bulgarian, Ve generally represents /v/, but at the end of a word or before voiceless consonants, it represents the voiceless [f]
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Ge (Cyrillic)
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is also known in some languages as He
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Kingdom Of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
(Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија;[4] Macedonian: Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed during the interwar period (1918–1939) and first part of World War II
World War II
(1939–1941). It was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
(itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia
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Voiced Velar Stop
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɡ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-story G , but the double-story G is considered an acceptable alternative
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Iotified Vowel
In Slavic languages, iotation (/joʊˈteɪ.ʃən/, /ˌaɪ.oʊˈteɪ.ʃən/) is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant /j/ from the succeeding morpheme. The /j/ is represented by iota (ι) in the Cyrillic alphabet
Cyrillic alphabet
and the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
on which it is based. For example, ni in English onion has the sound of iotated n. Iotation is a distinct phenomenon from Slavic first palatalization in which only the front vowels are involved, but the final result is similar.Contents1 Sound change 2 Orthography2.1 Iotified vowels 2.2 Iotated consonants3 See also 4 References4.1 BibliographySound change[edit] Iotation occurs when a labial (/m/, /b/), dental (/n/, /s/, /l/) or velar (/k/, /ɡ/, /x/) consonant comes into contact with a iotified vowel, i.e. one preceded by a palatal glide /j/
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De (Cyrillic)
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. De commonly represents the voiced dental stop /d/, like the pronunciation of ⟨d⟩ in admit. De is romanized using the Latin letter D.Contents1 History 2 Form 3 Usage 4 Related letters and other similar characters 5 Computing codes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The Cyrillic letter De was derived from the Greek letter Delta (Δ δ). In the Early Cyrillic alphabet
Early Cyrillic alphabet
its name was добро (dobro), meaning "good". In the Cyrillic numeral system, De had a value of 4. Form[edit] The major graphic difference between De and its modern Greek equivalent lies in the two descenders ("feet") below the lower corners of the Cyrillic letter
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Latin Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c
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Voiced Alveolo-palatal Affricate
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨d͡ʑ⟩, ⟨d͜ʑ⟩, ⟨ɟ͡ʑ⟩ and ⟨ɟ͜ʑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z and J_z, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨ɟ⟩ (J in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨dʑ⟩ or ⟨ɟʑ⟩ in the IPA and dz or Jz in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences
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A (Cyrillic)
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents an open central unrounded vowel /a/, like the pronunciation of ⟨a⟩ in "father". The Cyrillic letter А is romanized using the Latin letter A.Contents1 History 2 Form 3 Usage 4 Related letters and other similar characters 5 Computing codes 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]Letter А in ABC by Elisabeth BohmThe Cyrillic letter А was derived directly from the Greek letter Alpha
Alpha
(Α α). In the Early Cyrillic alphabet
Early Cyrillic alphabet
its name was азъ (azǔ), meaning "I"
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Open-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages
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