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Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the ...

Southeastern Europe
. It is located on the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the from the . The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the , extending from the (where it connects to the ) to the northwest and the . The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are , , , , and ...

Adriatic Sea
and is a part of the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...

Balkans
, sharing borders with
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
to the northeast,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
to the north and west,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
to the east,
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Medite ...

Albania
to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
to the southwest, and
maritime boundary A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The ...
with
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
.
Podgorica Podgorica ( Montenegrin: Подгорица, ; lit. "area below the little hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Podgorica
, the capital and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
, covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory of , and is home to roughly 30% of its total population of 621,000. During the
Early Medieval The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro:
Duklja Duklja ( sr-cyrl, Дукља; el, Διόκλεια, ''Diokleia''; la, Dioclea) was a medieval South Slavic state which roughly encompassed the territories of modern-day southeastern , from the in the west to the in the east, and to the sour ...
, roughly corresponding to the southern half;
Travunia Travunija or Travunia ( sh, Травунија, Travunija; grc, Τερβουνία, ''Terbounía'', modern pronunciation ''Tervounía''; la, Tribunia) was a South Slavic people, South Slavic medieval principality that was part of Serbia in the Mi ...
, the west; and Rascia proper, the north. The
Principality of Zeta The Principality of Zeta ( sr, Кнежевина Зета, Kneževina Zeta) is a historiographical name for a Late Middle Ages, late medieval principality located in the southern parts of modern Montenegro and northern parts of modern Albania, ar ...
emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries. From the late 14th century to the late 18th century, large parts of southern Montenegro were ruled by the
Venetian Republic The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic of Venice, italics=yes; ...
and incorporated into
Venetian Albania Venetian Albania ( vec, Albania Veneta, , Montenegrin: Млетачка Албанија/Mletačka Albanija) was the official term for several possessions of the Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùb ...
. The name Montenegro was first used to refer to the country in the late 15th century. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained its independence in 1696 under the rule of the
House of Petrović-Njegoš A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functio ...
, first as a
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/superna ...
and later as a secular
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...
. Montenegro's independence was recognised by the at the
Congress of Berlin The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a to reorganise the states in the after the , which had been won by Russia against the . Represented at the meeting were Europe's then six : Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, ...
in 1878. In 1910, the country became a
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
. After
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the kingdom became part of
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...
. Following the
breakup of Yugoslavia A relationship breakup, or simply just breakup, is the termination of an intimate relationship An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connect ...

breakup of Yugoslavia
, the republics of
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
and
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in . It is located on the and is a part of the , sharing borders with to the northeast, to the north and west, to the east, to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and to the ...
together proclaimed a
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...

federation
. Following an
independence referendum An independence referendum is a type of referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a Direct democracy, direct and Universal suffrage, universal vote in which an entire Constituency, electorate is invited to vote ...
held in May 2006, Montenegro declared its independence and the confederation peacefully dissolved. Montenegro has an upper middle-income economy and ranks 48th in the
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of , (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers ...
. It is a member of the United Nations,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
, the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
, the
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented . Its mandate includes issues such as , promotion of , , and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations ...
, the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
, and the
Central European Free Trade Agreement The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is an international trade agreement A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide-ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees. It exists when two ...
. Montenegro is also a founding member of the
Union for the Mediterranean The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; french: Union pour la Méditerranée, ar, الإتحاد من أجل المتوسط ''Al-Ittiḥād min ajl al-Mutawassaṭ'') is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) o ...

Union for the Mediterranean
, and is currently in the process of joining the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
.


Etymology

The country's English name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. The first written mention of Montenegro in
Cyrillic The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
was in the Charter of
King Milutin Stefan (title), Stefan Uroš II Milutin ( sr-cyr, Стефан Урош II Милутин; 1253 – 29 October 1321), known as Stefan Milutin (Стефан Милутин), was the Kingdom of Serbia (medieval), King of Serbia between 1282–1 ...
of 1276. In Italian sources, the name of Montenegro was mentioned for the first in its original form Crna Gora in 1348, and in 1379 it is mentioned as Cernagora in the sources from Dubrovnik. In other Italian sources Montenegro is also mentioned as Montagna Negra, Montenegro or Monte Negro and therefrom this designation came into all Western European languages. In the monuments of
Kotor Kotor (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, ; it, Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Bay of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor ...

Kotor
, Montenegro was mentioned as Montenegro in 1397, as Monte Nigro in 1443 and as Crna Gora in 1435 and 1458, but there are much older papers of Latin sources where Montenegro is mentioned as Monte nigro. The first mention of Montenegro (Latin) dates to 9 November 1053 and the others date to 1061, 1097, 1121, 1125, 1144, 1154, 1179 and 1189. The native name ''Crna Gora,'' also meaning "black mountain" or "black hill", was mentioned for the first time in a charter issued by
Stefan Milutin Stefan Uroš II Milutin ( sr-cyr, Стефан Урош II Милутин; 1253 – 29 October 1321), known as Stefan Milutin (Стефан Милутин), was the King of Serbia This is an archontological list of Serbian monarchs, conta ...
. It came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro in the 15th century. Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići tribe, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as ''Stara Crna Gora'' '
Old Montenegro Old Montenegro ( sr, Стара Црна Гора, Stara Crna Gora), also known as Montenegro proper ( sr-cyrl, Права Црна Гора, Prava Crna Gora), or True Montenegro ( sr, Истинска Црна Гора, Istinska Crna Gora), i ...
' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of ''Brda'' '(The) Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, which saw the annexation of
Old Herzegovina within borders of modern states, including the ''Old Herzegovina'', in Montenegro (red) and Serbia (yellow) Old Herzegovina ( sr, Стара Херцеговина, cnr, italics=yes, Stara Hercegovina) is a historical region, covering eastern par ...

Old Herzegovina
and parts of
Metohija Metohija ( sr-cyr, Метохија, ) or Dukagjini ( sq, Rrafshi i Dukagjinit, ) is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Koso ...
and southern Raška. Its borders have changed little since then, losing
Metohija Metohija ( sr-cyr, Метохија, ) or Dukagjini ( sq, Rrafshi i Dukagjinit, ) is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Koso ...
and gaining the
Bay of Kotor The Bay of Kotor (Serbian language, Serbian and Montenegrin language, Montenegrin: ), also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. It is also th ...
. After the second session of the
AVNOJ The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (, , sl, Antifašistični svet narodne osvoboditve Jugoslavije, mk, Антифашистичко собрание за народно ослободување на Југосл ...
during
World War II in Yugoslavia World War II in Yugoslavia ( sh, Drugi svjetski rat u Jugoslaviji / ; ; ) refers to World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —includin ...
, the contemporary modern state of Montenegro was founded as the ''Federal State of Montenegro'' ( Montenegrin: Савезна држава Црне Горе / ''Savezna država Crne Gore'') on 15 November 1943 within the Yugoslav Federation by the ZAVNOCGB. After the war, Montenegro became a republic under its name, the '' People's Republic of Montenegro'' ( Montenegrin: Народна Република Црна Гора / ''Narodna Republika Crna Gora'') on 29 November 1945. In 1963, it was renamed to the ''Socialist Republic of Montenegro'' ( Montenegrin: Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора / ''Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora''). As the
breakup of Yugoslavia A relationship breakup, or simply just breakup, is the termination of an intimate relationship An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connect ...

breakup of Yugoslavia
occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the ''Republic of Montenegro'' ( Montenegrin: Република Црна Гора / ''Republika Crna Gora'') on 27 April 1992 within the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the that existed from 1992 to 2003, following the of the . The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia comprised the and the . In February 2003, FR Yu ...

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became simply known as ''Montenegro''. The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.


History


Arrival of the Slavs

Three principalities were located on the territory:
Duklja Duklja ( sr-cyrl, Дукља; el, Διόκλεια, ''Diokleia''; la, Dioclea) was a medieval South Slavic state which roughly encompassed the territories of modern-day southeastern , from the in the west to the in the east, and to the sour ...
, roughly corresponding to the southern half,
Travunia Travunija or Travunia ( sh, Травунија, Travunija; grc, Τερβουνία, ''Terbounía'', modern pronunciation ''Tervounía''; la, Tribunia) was a South Slavic people, South Slavic medieval principality that was part of Serbia in the Mi ...
, the west, and Raška, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death (in 1101 or 1108), several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son,
Mihailo (mee-KHA-el) , nickname = , related names = *Variants: Michael / (Mikha'el) , nickname = Mic, Mich, Micha, Mick (disambiguation), Mick, Mickey (disambiguation), Mickey, Micki, Mickie, Mike, Mikey (disambiguation), Mikey, Miki, Mikki, Miko, ...
(1046–81), and his grandson
Constantine Bodin Constantine Bodin (Bulgarian language, Bulgarian and sr, italic=no, Константин Бодин, ''Konstantin Bodin''; 1072–1101) was a medieval Serbian king and the ruler of Duklja, from 1081 to 1101, succeeding his father, Mihailo Vojisl ...
(1081–1101). As the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, and by 1186, the territory of modern-day Montenegro became part of the state ruled by
Stefan Nemanja Stefan Nemanja (Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian Cyrillic: , ; – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Grand Župan#Serbia, Veliki Župan) of the Grand Principality of Serbia, Serbian Grand Principality (also known as Raška (region), Raš ...

Stefan Nemanja
and was a part of various state formations ruled by the
Nemanjić dynasty The Nemanjić ( sr-Cyrl, Немањић, Nemanjići / Немањићи, ) was the most prominent dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages , medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century) Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in ...
for the next two centuries. After the
Serbian Empire The Serbian Empire ( sr, / , ) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affa ...

Serbian Empire
collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. By the 13th century, ''Zeta'' had replaced ''Duklja'' when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (
Zeta Zeta (, ; uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; grc, ζῆτα, el, ζήτα, label=Demotic Greek Demotic Greek or Dimotiki ( el, Δημοτική Γλώσσα, , , lit. "language of the people") was a colloquial vernacular form of Modern Greek, in c ...
) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as ''Crna Gora'' ( Venetian: '). In 1421, Zeta was annexed to the
Serbian Despotate The Serbian Despotate ( sr, / ) was a medieval Serbia , medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century) Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the di ...
, but after 1455, another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the
Ottomans The Ottoman Turks or Osmanlı Turks ( tr, Osmanlı Türkleri), were the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe an ...
in 1496, and got annexed to the ''
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
'' of
Shkodër Shkodër ( , ; sq-definite, Shkodra) is the List of cities and towns in Albania, fifth most populous city of the Republic of Albania and the seat of Shkodër County, Shkodër County and Shkodër Municipality. The city sprawls across the Plain o ...

Shkodër
. During the reign of Crnojevićs, Zeta became known under its current name – Montenegro. For a short time, Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous ''sanjak'' in 1514–1528 (
Sanjak of Montenegro The Sanjak of Montenegro (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin and sr-cyr, Санџак Црне Горе/''Sandžak Crne Gore''; tr, Karadağ Sancağı, literally Sanjak of the Black Mountain) was a province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in the Ba ...
). Also,
Old Herzegovina within borders of modern states, including the ''Old Herzegovina'', in Montenegro (red) and Serbia (yellow) Old Herzegovina ( sr, Стара Херцеговина, cnr, italics=yes, Stara Hercegovina) is a historical region, covering eastern par ...

Old Herzegovina
region was part of
Sanjak of Herzegovina The Sanjak of Herzegovina ( tr, Hersek Sancağı) was an Ottoman administrative unit established in 1470. The seat was in Foča until 1572 when it was moved to Taşlıca (Pljevlja). The sanjak was initially part of the Eyalet of Rumelia but ...
.


Early modern period

From 1392, numerous parts of the territory that is now Montenegro were controlled by
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
, including the city of
Budva Budva ( sr-cyrl, Будва, or ) is a Montenegro, Montenegrin town on the Adriatic Sea. It has 19,218 inhabitants, and it is the centre of Budva Municipality. The coastal area around Budva, called the Budva Riviera (region), Budva riviera, is t ...

Budva
, in that time known as "Budua". The Venetian territory was centred on the
Bay of Kotor The Bay of Kotor (Serbian language, Serbian and Montenegrin language, Montenegrin: ), also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. It is also th ...
, and the Republic also introduced governors who meddled in Montenegrin politics. Venice would control territories in present-day Montenegro until its fall in 1797. Large portions fell under the control of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
from 1496 to 1878. In the 16th century, Montenegro developed a unique form of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire permitting Montenegrin clans freedom from certain restrictions. Nevertheless, the Montenegrins were disgruntled with Ottoman rule, and in the 17th century, raised numerous rebellions, which culminated in the defeat of the Ottomans in the
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
at the end of that century. Montenegro consisted of territories controlled by warlike clans. Most clans had a chieftain (''knez''), who was not permitted to assume the title unless he proved to be as worthy a leader as his predecessor. The great assembly of Montenegrin clans (''Zbor'') was held every year on 12 July in Cetinje, and any adult clansman could take part. In 1515, Montenegro became a
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-phys ...

theocracy
led by the
Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral The Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral ( sr, Митрополија црногорско-приморска, Mitropolija crnogorsko-primorska) is the largest eparchy (diocese) of the Serbian Orthodox Church in modern Montenegro. Found ...
, which flourished after the Petrović-Njegoš of Cetinje became the traditional prince-bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). People from Montenegro in this historical period have been described as Orthodox Serbs.


Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro

In 1858, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at the
Battle of Grahovac The Battle of Grahovac took place in the eponymous village of Grahovac from 29 April to 1 May 1858, when Montenegrin Grand Duke Mirko Petrović-Njegoš led the army of Principality of Montenegro The Principality of Montenegro ( sr, Књаж ...
. Grand Duke Mirko Petrović, elder brother of
Knjaz Danilo Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš ( sr-cyr, Данило I Петровић-Његош; 25 May 1826 – 13 August 1860), was ruling Principality of Montenegro, Prince of Montenegro, from 1851 to 1860. Beginning of his reign marked the transition of Monte ...

Knjaz Danilo
, led an army of 7,500 and defeated the numerically superior Ottomans with 15,000 troops at
Grahovac Grahovac ( sr-cyrl, Граховац) is a village in western Montenegro, in the municipality of Nikšić. The village is located on a karst plateau overlooking the Grahovo, Nikšić, Grahovo polje, field and Lake Grahovo. According to the 2011 cens ...
on 1 May 1858. This forced the to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, ''de facto'' recognizing Montenegro's independence. In the Battle of Vučji Do Montenegrins inflicted major defeat to the Ottoman Army under Grand Vizier . In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. The Ottoman Empire recognised the independence of Montenegro in the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The first Montenegrin constitution (also known as the Danilo Code) was proclaimed in 1855. Under (ruled 1860–1918), the
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political le ...
was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in 1878. Nicholas I established diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of
Abdul Hamid II Abdul Hamid II or Abdülhamid II ( ota , عبد الحميد ثانی, Abdü’l-Ḥamîd-i-sânî; tr, II. Abdülhamid; 21 September 1842 10 February 1918) reigned as the 34th Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with seve ...
in 1909.Uğur Özcan
II. Abdülhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri
(Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era) Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2013.
The political skills of Abdul Hamid II and Nicholas I played a major role in the mutually amicable relations. Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party, who supported the process of democratisation and union with Serbia, and those of the
True People's Party The True People's Party ( sr, Права народна странка, Prava narodna stranka, abbr. ПНС/ PNS), also known as the Pravaši (''Rightists''), was a political party in the Principality of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Montenegro. Th ...
, who were monarchist. In 1910, Montenegro became a kingdom, and as a result of the
Balkan wars The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original comb ...

Balkan wars
in 1912 and 1913, a common border with Serbia was established, with
Shkodër Shkodër ( , ; sq-definite, Shkodra) is the List of cities and towns in Albania, fifth most populous city of the Republic of Albania and the seat of Shkodër County, Shkodër County and Shkodër Municipality. The city sprawls across the Plain o ...

Shkodër
being awarded to
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Medite ...

Albania
, though the current capital city of Montenegro, Podgorica, was on the old border of Albania and Yugoslavia. Montenegro became one of the Allied Powers during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
(1914–18). In the Battle of Mojkovac fought in January 1916 between
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
and the Kingdom of Montenegro, Montenegrins achieved decisive victory despite being outnumbered five to one. From 1916 to October 1918 Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro. During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in
Bordeaux Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon language, Gascon oc, Bordèu ) is a port city on the river Garonne in the Gironde Departments of France, department in Southwestern France. The municipality (Communes of France, commune) of Bordeaux proper has a popula ...

Bordeaux
.


Kingdom of Yugoslavia

In 1922, Montenegro formally became the Oblast of Cetinje in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, with the addition of the coastal areas around
Budva Budva ( sr-cyrl, Будва, or ) is a Montenegro, Montenegrin town on the Adriatic Sea. It has 19,218 inhabitants, and it is the centre of Budva Municipality. The coastal area around Budva, called the Budva Riviera (region), Budva riviera, is t ...

Budva
and
Bay of Kotor The Bay of Kotor (Serbian language, Serbian and Montenegrin language, Montenegrin: ), also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. It is also th ...
. In a further restructuring in 1929, it became a part of a larger Zeta Banovina, Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River. Nicholas's grandson, the Serb King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Alexander I, dominated the Yugoslav government. Zeta Banovina was one of nine banovinas that formed the kingdom; it consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia.


World War II and Socialist Yugoslavia

In April 1941, Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and other Axis allies attacked and occupied the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Italian governorate of Montenegro, Kingdom of Montenegro. In May, the Montenegrin branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia started preparations for an uprising planned for mid-July. The Communist Party and its Youth League organised 6,000 of its members into detachments prepared for guerrilla warfare. According to some historians, the first armed uprising in Nazi Germany, Nazi-occupied Europe happened on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro. Unexpectedly, the uprising took hold, and by 20 July, 32,000 men and women had joined the fight. Except for the coast and major towns (Podgorica, Cetinje, Pljevlja, and Nikšić), which were besieged, Montenegro was mostly liberated. In a month of fighting, the Italian army suffered 5,000 dead, wounded, and captured. The uprising lasted until mid-August, when it was suppressed by a counter-offensive of 67,000 Italian troops brought in from Albania. Faced with new and overwhelming Italian forces, many of the fighters laid down their arms and returned home. Nevertheless, intense guerrilla fighting lasted until December. Fighters who remained under arms fractured into two groups. Most of them went on to join the Yugoslav Partisans, consisting of communists and those inclined towards active resistance; these included Arso Jovanović, Sava Kovačević (Yugoslav Partisan), Sava Kovačević, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, Milovan Đilas, Peko Dapčević, Vlado Dapčević, Veljko Vlahović, and Blažo Jovanović. Those loyal to the Karađorđević dynasty and opposing communism went on to become Chetniks, and turned to collaboration with Italians against the Partisans. War broke out between Partisans and Chetniks during the first half of 1942. Pressured by Italians and Chetniks, the core of the Montenegrin Partisans went to Serbia and Bosnia, where they joined with other Yugoslav Partisans. Fighting between Partisans and Chetniks continued through the war. Chetniks with Italian backing controlled most of the country from mid-1942 to April 1943. Montenegrin Chetniks received the status of "anti-communist militia" and received weapons, ammunition, food rations, and money from Italy. Most of them were moved to Mostar, where they fought in the Battle of Neretva against the Partisans, but were dealt a heavy defeat. During the German operation Schwartz against the Partisans in May and June 1943, Germans disarmed a large number of Chetniks without fighting, as they feared they would turn against them in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon German occupied territory of Montenegro, occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late 1943 and entire 1944. Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans in December 1944. Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Its capital became Podgorica, renamed Podgorica, Titograd in honour of President Josip Broz Tito. After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began, and the University of Montenegro was established. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in 1974.


Montenegro within FR Yugoslavia

After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia. In the Montenegrin independence referendum, 1992, referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, the turnout was 66%, with 96% of the votes cast in favour of the federation with Serbia. The referendum was boycotted by the Muslim, Albanian, and Catholic minorities, as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins. The opponents claimed that the poll was organised under anti-Democracy, democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. No impartial report on the fairness of the referendum was made, as it was unmonitored, unlike in a later 2006 referendum when
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
observers were present. During the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia. These operations, aimed at acquiring more territory, were characterised by a consistent pattern of large-scale violations of human rights. Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik. Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča ethnic cleansing, Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed. In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and its partner Serbia, which was led by Slobodan Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently Montenegro and the euro, adopted the euro, although not part of the Eurozone. Subsequent governments pursued pro-independence policies, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was limited in both time and area affected. In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement for continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This resulted in the Belgrade Agreement, which saw the country's transformation into a more decentralised state union named Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. The Belgrade Agreement also contained a provision delaying any future referendum on the independence of Montenegro for at least three years.


Independence

The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by a Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006, referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate; 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against. This narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all diplomatic recognition, recognised Montenegro's independence. The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, OSCE/Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, ODIHR team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from Center for Democracy and Technology, CDT (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE), and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report stated that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights." On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro, formally confirming the result of the referendum. The Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty was passed by the Parliament of Montenegro on 12 July 2011. It rehabilitated the House of Petrović-Njegoš, Royal House of Montenegro and recognised limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic. In 2015, the investigative journalists' network Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project, OCCRP named Montenegro's long-time President and Prime Minister Milo Đukanović "Person of the Year in Organized Crime". The extent of Đukanović's corruption led to street demonstrations and calls for his removal. In October 2016, for the day of the Montenegrin parliamentary election, 2016, parliamentary election, a Montenegrin coup d'état attempt, coup d'état was prepared by a group of persons that included leaders of the Montenegrin opposition, Serbian nationals and Russian agents; the coup was prevented. In 2017, fourteen people, including two Russian nationals and two Montenegrin opposition leaders, Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević (Montenegrin politician), Milan Knežević, were indicted for their alleged roles in the coup attempt on charges such as "preparing a conspiracy against the constitutional order and the security of Montenegro" and an "attempted terrorist act."Montenegrin Court Confirms Charges Against Alleged Coup Plotters
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty, 8 June 2017.


Recent history

Montenegro formally Montenegro–NATO relations, became a member of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
in June 2017, though "Montenegro remains deeply divided over joining NATO",Indictment tells murky Montenegrin coup tale: Trial will hear claims of Russian involvement in plans to assassinate prime minister and stop Balkan country's NATO membership.
Politico Europe, Politico, 23 May 2017.
an event that triggered a promise of retaliatory actions on the part of Russia's government. Montenegro has been in Accession of Montenegro to the European Union, negotiations with the EU since 2012. In 2018, the earlier goal of acceding by 2022 was revised to 2025. The 2019 Montenegrin anti-corruption protests, Montenegrin anti-corruption protests began in February 2019 against the incumbent President Milo Đukanović and the Prime Minister Duško Marković-led Government of Montenegro#Marković Cabinet (2016-present), government of the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS), which has been in power since 1991. As of late December 2019, the newly adopted Law on Religion, which de jure transfers the ownership of church buildings and estates built before 1918 from the Serbian Orthodox Church to the Montenegrin state, sparked a series of large 2019–2020 clerical protests in Montenegro, protests followed with road blockages. Seventeen opposition Democratic Front (Montenegro), Democratic Front MPs were arrested prior to the voting for disrupting the vote. Demonstrations continued into March 2020 as peaceful protest walks, mostly organised by the
Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral The Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral ( sr, Митрополија црногорско-приморска, Mitropolija crnogorsko-primorska) is the largest eparchy (diocese) of the Serbian Orthodox Church in modern Montenegro. Found ...
and the Eparchy of Budimlja and Nikšić in the majority of Montenegrin municipalities. In its political rights and civil liberties worldwide report in May 2020, Freedom House marked Montenegro as a hybrid regime rather than a democracy because of declining standards in governance, justice, elections, and media freedom. For the first time in three decades, in the 2020 Montenegrin parliamentary election, 2020 parliamentary election, the opposition won more votes than Đukanović's ruling party.


Geography

Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor. Montenegro's large karst region lies generally at elevations of above sea level; some parts, however, rise to , such as Mount Orjen (), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of , is the lowest segment. The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrains in Europe, averaging more than in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of . Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period. Internationally, Montenegro borders
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
,
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Medite ...

Albania
and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
. It lies between latitudes 41st parallel north, 41° and 44th parallel north, 44°N, and longitudes 18th meridian east, 18° and 21st meridian east, 21°E. * Longest beach: Velika Plaža, Ulcinj – * Highest peak: Zla Kolata, Prokletije at * Largest lake: Skadar Lake – of surface area * Deepest canyon: Tara River Canyon – * Biggest bay:
Bay of Kotor The Bay of Kotor (Serbian language, Serbian and Montenegrin language, Montenegrin: ), also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. It is also th ...
 – * Deepest cave: Iron Deep , exploring started in 2012, now more than long Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, as more than of the country's territory lie within the Danube Drainage basin, catchment area.


Biodiversity

The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity. The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in any European country. Biological estimates suggest that over 1,200 species of freshwater algae, 300 species of marine algae, 589 species of moss, 7,000-8,000 species of vascular plants, 2,000 species of fungi, 16,000-20,000 species of insects, 407 species of marine fish, 56 species of reptile, 333 species of regularly visiting birds and a high species diversity of mammals are found in Montenegro. Montenegro can be divided into two main Biogeography, biogeographic regions, which include the Mediterranean Biogeographic Region and the Alpine Biogeographic Region. It is also home to three terrestrial ecoregions: Balkan mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, and Illyrian deciduous forests. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.41/10, ranking it 73rd globally out of 172 countries. The total share of protected areas in Montenegro is 9.05% of the country's area, which mainly comes from the five List of national parks of Montenegro, national parks of Montenegro.


Government and politics

The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "Civic engagement, civic, democratic, environmentalism, ecological state of social justice, based on the rule of law, reign of Law." Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007. The President of Montenegro is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament of Montenegro, Parliament, and proposes candidates for Prime Minister of Montenegro, Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje. The Government of Montenegro is the Executive (government), executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister of Montenegro, Prime Minister and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers. The Parliament of Montenegro is a unicameral Legislature, legislative body. It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters. In 2019, the Freedom House reported that years of increasing state capture, abuse of power, and strongman tactics employed by the President Đukanović have tipped his country over the edge – for the first time since 2003, Montenegro is no longer categorised as democracy and became a hybrid regime. The DPS narrowly lost the 2020 Montenegrin parliamentary election, ending its 30-year rule.


Foreign relations

After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June 2006, following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competencies of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state. The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation. These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders. Integration into the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
is Montenegro's strategic goal. This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term. The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
, which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals. Montenegro believes NATO integration would speed up EU integration. In May 2017 NATO accepted Montenegro as a NATO member starting 5 June 2017.


Symbols

An official flag of Montenegro, based on the royal standard of King Nicholas I, was adopted on 12 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. This royal flag was red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ, in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script), representing King Nicholas I. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion. The national day of Statehood Day (Montenegro), 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the
Congress of Berlin The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a to reorganise the states in the after the , which had been won by Russia against the . Represented at the meeting were Europe's then six : Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, ...
recognised Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro. In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, "Oj, svijetla majska zoro, Oh, Bright Dawn of May", as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nicholas I was ''Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori'' ("To Our Beautiful Montenegro").


Military

The military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence (Montenegro), Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army, the Montenegrin Navy, and the Montenegrin Air Force, along with special forces. Conscription was abolished in 2006. The military currently maintains a force of 1,920 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force. Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, which was granted in December 2009. Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter. Montenegro was invited to join
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
on 2 December 2015 and on 19 May 2016, NATO and Montenegro conducted a signing ceremony at NATO headquarters in Brussels for Montenegro's membership invitation. Montenegro became NATO's 29th Member states of NATO, member on 5 June 2017, despite Russia's objections. The government plans to have the army participate in peacekeeping missions through the UN and NATO such as the International Security Assistance Force.


Administrative divisions

Montenegro is divided into twenty-four municipalities (''opština''). This includes 21 District-level Municipalities and 2 Urban Municipalities, with two subdivisions of municipality of Podgorica, Podgorica municipality, listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".


Cities in Montenegro


Economy

The economy of Montenegro is mostly Tertiary sector of the economy, service-based and is in Transition economy, late transition to a market economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $5.424 billion in 2019. The Purchasing power parity, GDP PPP for 2019 was $12.516 billion, or $20,083 per capita. According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 48% of the EU average in 2018. The Central Bank of Montenegro is not part of the euro system but the country is "euroisation, euroised", using Montenegro and the euro, the euro unilaterally as its currency. GDP grew at 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008. The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the late-2000s recession, global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign direct investment, foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment. The country exited the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth at around 0.5%. However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit. In 2007, the service sector made up 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively. There are 50,000 farming households in Montenegro that rely on agriculture to fill the family budget.


Infrastructure

The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards. Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination. Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are European route E65, E65 and European route E80, E80. The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade–Bar railway, which provides international connection towards
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
. There is a domestic branch line, the Nikšić-Podgorica railway, which was operated as a freight-only line for decades, and is now also open for passenger traffic after the reconstruction and electrification works in 2012. The other branch line from Podgorica towards the Albanian border, the Podgorica–Shkodër railway, is not in use. Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1.1 million passengers in 2008. The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.


Tourism

With a total of 1.6 million visitors, Montenegro is the 36th most visited country (out of 47 countries) in Europe. The majority of foreign visitors to Montenegro come from the neighbouring countries of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, as well as Russia. The Montenegrin Adriatic coast is long, with of beaches and many well-preserved ancient old towns. Some of the most popular beaches on the Montenegrin Littoral, Montenegrin coast include Jaz Beach, Budva, Mogren Beach, Bečići, Bečići Beach, Sveti Stefan, Sveti Stefan Beach and Velika Plaža. Meanwhile, some of the most popular ancient Montenegrin towns include Herceg Novi, Perast,
Kotor Kotor (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, ; it, Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Bay of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor ...

Kotor
,
Budva Budva ( sr-cyrl, Будва, or ) is a Montenegro, Montenegrin town on the Adriatic Sea. It has 19,218 inhabitants, and it is the centre of Budva Municipality. The coastal area around Budva, called the Budva Riviera (region), Budva riviera, is t ...

Budva
and Ulcinj. ''National Geographic Traveler'' (edited once a decade) ranks Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and the Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine. The coast region of Montenegro is considered one of the great new "discoveries" among world tourists. In January 2010, ''The New York Times'' ranked the Ulcinj South Coast region of Montenegro, including Velika Plaža, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, among the "Top 31 Places to Go in 2010" as part of a worldwide ranking of tourism destinations. Montenegro was also listed by Yahoo Travel among the "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009" to visit, describing it as being "[c]urrently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world (falling just behind China)". It is listed every year by prestigious tourism guides like Lonely Planet as a top tourist destination along with Greece, Spain and other popular locations.


Demographics


Ethnic structure

According to the 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. The results of the 2011 census show that Montenegro had 620,029 citizens. Montenegro is a Multinational state, multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority. Major ethnic groups include Montenegrins (ethnic group), Montenegrins (Црногорци/''Crnogorci'') and Serbs (Срби/''Srbi''); others are Bosniaks (''Bošnjaci''), Albanians (''Albanci – Shqiptarët'') and Croats (''Hrvati''). The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation. Ethnic composition according to the 2011 official data:


Languages

The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. Also, Serbian language, Serbian, Bosnian language, Bosnian, Albanian language, Albanian, and Croatian language, Croatian are recognised in usage. Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian are mutually intelligible, all being standard varieties of the Serbo-Croatian language. Montenegrin is the plurality mother-tongue of the population under 18 years of age. Previous constitutions endorsed Serbo-Croatian as the official language in SR Montenegro and Serbian of the Ijekavian standard during the Republic of Montenegro (federal), 1992–2006 period. According to the 2011 Census the following languages are spoken in the country:


Religion

Montenegro has been historically at the crossroads of multiculturalism and over centuries this has shaped its unique form of co-existence between Muslim and Christian populations. Montenegrins have been, historically, members of the Serbian Orthodox Church (governed by the
Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral The Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral ( sr, Митрополија црногорско-приморска, Mitropolija crnogorsko-primorska) is the largest eparchy (diocese) of the Serbian Orthodox Church in modern Montenegro. Found ...
), and Serbian Orthodox Christianity is the most popular religion today in Montenegro. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recently founded and is followed by a small minority of Montenegrins although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been officially recognised. Despite tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War, Montenegro remained fairly stable, mainly due to its population having a historic perspective on religious tolerance and faith diversity. Religious institutions from Montenegro all have guaranteed rights and are separate from the state. The second largest religion is Islam, which amounts to 19% of the total population of the country. Montenegro has the sixth-highest proportion of Muslims in Europe, after Kosovo (96%), Turkey (90%), Albania (60%), Bosnia and Herzegovina (51%), and North Macedonia (34%), and Montenegro has the third highest proportion among Slavic countries, behind only Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia. A little more than one-fourth of the country's Albanians are Catholics (8,126 in the 2004 census) while the rest (22,267) are mainly Sunni Muslims; in 2012 a protocol passed that recognises Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served at military facilities, hospitals, dormitories and all social facilities; and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and at public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to take Fridays off work for the Jumu'ah (Friday)-prayer. Since the time of Vojislavljević dynasty Catholicism is autochthonous in the Montenegrin area. There is also a small Roman Catholic population, mostly Albanians with some Croats, divided between the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, Archdiocese of Antivari headed by the Primate of Serbia and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kotor, Diocese of Kotor that is a part of the Catholic Church in Croatia. Religious determination according to the 2011 census:


Culture


Art

The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Ottoman (Turk), Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
) have been the most important in recent centuries. Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque architecture, Romanesque, Gothic art, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in
Kotor Kotor (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, ; it, Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Bay of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor ...

Kotor
(Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina monastery (Montenegro), Savina Monastery and others. Medieval monasteries contain a number of artistically important frescoes. A dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of ''Čojstvo i Junaštvo'', "Humaneness and Gallantry". The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro (eagle dance), Oro, the "eagle dance" that involves dancing in circles with couples alternating in the centre, and is finished by forming a human pyramid by dancers standing on each other's shoulders.


Literature

Montenegro's capital, Podgorica, and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centres of culture and the arts in the country. The American author Rex Stout wrote a long series of detective novels featuring his fictional creation Nero Wolfe, who was born in Montenegro. His Nero Wolfe novel ''The Black Mountain (novel), The Black Mountain'' was largely set in Montenegro during the 1950s.


Media

The media of Montenegro refers to mass media outlets based in Montenegro. Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Montenegro guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition, Montenegro's media system is under transformation.


Cuisine

Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's long history. It is a variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. The most influence is from Italy, Turkey, Byzantine Empire/Greece, and Hungary. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region. The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine, with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental.


Sport

The Sports in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports, such as water polo, Association football, football, basketball, handball, and volleyball. Other sports involved are boxing, tennis, swimming, judo, karate, Athletics (sport), athletics, table tennis, and chess. Water polo is the most popular sport in Montenegro, and is considered the national sport. Montenegro men's national water polo team is one of the FINA Water Polo World Rankings, top ranked teams in the world, winning the gold medal at the 2008 Men's European Water Polo Championship in Málaga, Spain, and winning the gold medal at the 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League, which was held in the Montenegrin capital,
Podgorica Podgorica ( Montenegrin: Подгорица, ; lit. "area below the little hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Podgorica
. The Montenegrin team PVK Primorac from
Kotor Kotor (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, ; it, Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Bay of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor ...

Kotor
became a champion of Europe at the LEN Euroleague 2009 in Rijeka, Croatia. Association football, Football is the second most popular sport in Montenegro. Notable football players from Montenegro are Dejan Savićević, Predrag Mijatović, Mirko Vučinić, Stefan Savić, Stevan Jovetić, and Stefan Mugoša. Montenegrin national football team, founded in 2006, played in playoffs for UEFA Euro 2012, which is the biggest success in the history of the national team. The Montenegro national basketball team is also known for good performances and had won a lot of medals in the past as part of the Yugoslavia national basketball team. In 2006, the Basketball Federation of Montenegro along with this team joined the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) on its own, following the Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006, Independence of Montenegro. Montenegro participated on two Eurobaskets until now. Among women sports, Montenegro women's national handball team, the national handball team is the most successful, having won the 2012 European Women's Handball Championship, 2012 European Championship and finishing as runners-up at the Handball at the 2012 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics. ŽRK Budućnost Podgorica won two times EHF Champions League. Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, were born in Montenegro. At the Handball at the 2012 Summer Olympics, 2012 Olympic Games in London, Montenegro women's national handball team won the country's first Olympic medal by winning silver. They lost in the final to defending World, Olympic and European Champions, Norway women's national handball team, Norway 26–23. Following this defeat the team won against Norway in the final of the 2012 European Women's Handball Championship, 2012 European Championship, becoming champions for the first time.


Public holidays

*2021 dates – exact dates vary each year according to the Julian calendar, Orthodox calendar


See also

* Montenegro real estate taxes * Outline of Montenegro


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

* * * *


Further reading

* Banac, Ivo. ''The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics'' Cornell University Press, (1984) * Fleming, Thomas. ''Montenegro: The Divided Land'' (2002) * Longley, Norm. ''The Rough Guide to Montenegro'' (2009) * Morrison, Kenneth. ''Montenegro: A Modern History'' (2009) * Roberts, Elizabeth. ''Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro'' (Cornell University Press, 2007) 521pp * Stevenson, Francis Seymour. ''A History of Montenegro'' 2002) * Özcan, Uğur
II. Abdulhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri
' [Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era] (2013
Türk Tarih Kurumu
Turkish Historical Society


External links


Official website of the Government of Montenegro (English)

Montenegro
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Montenegro
from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs'' *
Montenegro profile
from the BBC News
Culture Corner – leading Montenegrin web portal for culture

Official Website National Parks Montenegro
* * {{Authority control Montenegro, 2006 establishments in Montenegro, * Balkan countries Countries in Europe Member states of NATO Member states of the Council of Europe Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean Member states of the United Nations Serbian-speaking countries and territories Southeastern European countries Southern European countries States and territories established in 2006