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Rhinophrynidae
The Rhinophrynidae
Rhinophrynidae
are a family of frogs containing one extant genus, the monotypic Rhinophrynus,[1][2][3][4] and a number of fossil genera.[3][5][3] The family is sometimes known as the Mexican burrowing toads[1] or simply burrowing toads.[2] Rhinophrynus
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Late Jurassic
The Late Jurassic
Jurassic
is the third epoch of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic
Jurassic
strata.[2] In European lithostratigraphy, the name "malm" indicates rocks of Late Jurassic
Jurassic
age
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two.[2] Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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André Marie Constant Duméril
André Marie Constant Duméril
André Marie Constant Duméril
(January 1, 1774 – August 14, 1860) was a French zoologist. He was professor of anatomy at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle from 1801 to 1812, when he became professor of herpetology and ichthyology. His son Auguste Duméril
Auguste Duméril
was also a zoologist. Contents1 Life 2 Species
Species
named after A.M.C. Duméril 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] André Marie Constant Duméril
André Marie Constant Duméril
was born on January 1, 1774 in Amiens and died on August 14, 1860 in Paris. He became a doctor at a young age, obtaining, at 19 years, the “prévot” of anatomy at the Medical school of Rouen
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Gabriel Bibron
Gabriel Bibron
Gabriel Bibron
(20 October 1805 – 27 March 1848) was a French zoologist, and herpetologist. He was born in Paris. Son of an employee of the Museum national d'histoire naturelle, he had a good foundation in natural history and was hired to collect vertebrates in Italy
Italy
and Sicily. Under the direction of Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent (1778–1846), he took part in the Morea expedition
Morea expedition
to Peloponnese.[1] He classified a large number of reptile species with André Marie Constant Duméril (1774–1860), whom he had met in 1832. Duméril was interested mainly in the relations between genera, and he left to Bibron the task of describing the species
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Monotypic
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.[1] A monotypic species is one that does not include subspecies or smaller, infraspecific taxa.[citation needed] In the case of genera, the term "unispecific" or "monospecific" is sometimes preferred. In botanical nomenclature, a monotypic genus is a genus in the special case where a genus and a single species are simultaneously described.[2] In contrast an oligotypic taxon contains more than one but only a very few subordinate taxa. Examples[edit] Just as the term monotypic is used to describe a taxon including only one subdivision, one can also refer to the contained taxon as monotypic within the higher-level taxon, e.g. a genus monotypic within a family
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Sister Taxon
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.[1] The expression is most easily illustrated by a cladogram: A, B, and C each represent a taxon:           A  B           CThe sister group to A is B; conversely, the sister group to B is A. Groups A and B, together with all other descendants of their most recent common ancestor, form the clade AB. The sister group to clade AB is C. The whole clade ABC is itself a subtree of a larger tree, which offers yet more sister group branches that are related but farther removed from the leaf nodes, such as A, B, and C. In cladistic standards, A, B, and C may represent specimens, species, taxon-groups, etc
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Albert Günther
Albert Karl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther FRS, also Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Günther (3 October 1830 – 1 February 1914), was a German-born British zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. Günther is currently ranked the second-most productive reptile taxonomist (after George Albert Boulenger) with more than 340 reptile species described.[1][2]Contents1 Early life and career 2 Royal Society 3 Family 4 Selected publications 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Günther was born in Esslingen in Swabia
Swabia
(Württemberg). His father was a Stiftungs-Commissar in Esslingen and his mother was Eleonora Nagel. He initially schooled at the Stuttgart Gymnasium. His family wished him to train for the ministry of the Lutheran Church for which he moved to the University of Tübingen. A brother shifted from theology to medicine, and he, too, turned to science and medicine at Tübingen
Tübingen
in 1852
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Wikidata
Wikidata
Wikidata
is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as,[4][5] and by anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase.[6]Contents1 Concepts 2 Development history2.1 Phase 1 2.2 Phase 2 2.3 Phase 33 Reception 4 Logo 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksConcepts[edit]ScreenshotsThree statements from Wikidata's item on the planet Mars
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Encyclopedia Of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life
Life
(EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world.[2] It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text.[3] In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation
MacArthur Foundation
and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively
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Fossilworks
Fossilworks is a portal which provides query, download, and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. History[edit] Fossilworks was created in 2013 by John Alroy and is housed at Macquarie University. It includes many analysis and data visualization tools formerly included in the Paleobiology Database.[1] References[edit]^ "Frequently asked questions". Fossilworks. Retrieved 21 May 2014. External links[edit]"Fossilworks"
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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
The Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet
Internet
using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the world; GBIF's information architecture makes these data accessible and searchable through a single portal. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes for the world, and scientific names data. The mission of the Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
information Facility (GBIF) is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development
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