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Pre-eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia
(PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.[1][8] When it arises, the condition begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy.[2][3] In severe disease there may be red blood cell breakdown, a low blood platelet count, impaired liver function, kidney dysfunction, swelling, shortness of breath due to fluid in the lungs, or visual disturbances.[2][3]
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Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Hippocrates
of Kos
Kos
(Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles
Pericles
(Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine"[1][2] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine
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Diastolic Blood Pressure
Blood
Blood
pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. Used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation. Blood
Blood
pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heart beat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heart beats) and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), above the surrounding atmospheric pressure (considered to be zero for convenience). Blood
Blood
pressure is one of the vital signs, along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and body temperature
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Calcium Supplementation
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Hypertrophic Decidual Vasculopathy
In pathology, hypertrophic decidual vasculopathy, abbreviated HDV, is the histomorphologic correlate of gestational hypertension, as may be seen in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[1] and HELLP syndrome. The name of the condition describes its appearance under the microscope; the smooth muscle of the decidual (or maternal) blood vessels is hypertrophic, i.e. the muscle part of the blood vessels feeding the placenta is larger due to cellular enlargement. Morphologic features[edit] The morphologic features of mild and moderate HDV include:[1]Perivascular inflammatory cells, +/-Vascular thrombosis, Smooth muscle hypertrophy, and Endothelial hyperplasia.Severe HDV is characterized by:Atherosis - foamy macrophages within vascular wall, and Fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall (amorphous eosinophilic vessel wall).See also[edit]Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy Gestational diabetes Placenta PregnancyReferences[edit]^ a b Roberts, DJ.; Post, MD. (Dec 2008)
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Blood Pressure Medication
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).[1] Antihypertensive
Antihypertensive
therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.[2] There are many classes of antihypertensives, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used drugs are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines
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Heart Disease
Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
(CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.[2] Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
includes coronary artery diseases
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Stroke
Stroke
Stroke
is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.[4] There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.[4] They result in part of the brain not functioning properly.[4] Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side.[1][2] Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.[2] If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or m
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Pitting Edema
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling. The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis; and the increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium. The word is from Greek οἴδημα oídēma meaning "swelling".[1]Contents1 Classifications1.1 Generalized 1.2 Organ-specific2 Mechanism 3 Treatment 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksClassifications[edit] Cutaneous edema is referred to as "pitting" when, after pressure is applied to a small area, the indentation persists after the release of the pressure. Peripheral pitting edema, as shown in the illustration, is the more common type, resulting from water retention
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Diagnostic Method
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia. The diagnostic criteria require one clinical event (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy complication) and two antibody blood tests spaced at least three months apart that confirm the presence of either lupus anticoagulant or anti-β2-glycoprotein-I (since β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies are a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies, an anti-cardiolipin assay can be performed as a less specific proxy).[2] Antiphospholipid syndrome can be primary or secondary. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome occurs in the absence of any other related disease. Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome occurs with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
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Endothelial
Endothelium
Endothelium
refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple, or single-layered, squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology
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Vasoactive
A vasoactive substance is an endogenous agent or pharmaceutical drug that has the effect of either increasing or decreasing blood pressure and/or heart rate through its vasoactivity, that is, vascular activity (effect on blood vessels). By adjusting vascular compliance and vascular resistance, typically through vasodilation and vasoconstriction, it helps the body's homeostatic mechanisms (such as the renin–angiotensin system) to keep hemodynamics under control. For example, angiotensin, bradykinin, histamine, nitric oxide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide are important endogenous vasoactive substances. Vasoactive drug therapy is typically used when a patient has the blood pressure and heart rate monitored constantly. The dosage is typically titrated (adjusted up or down) to achieve a desired effect or range of values as determined by competent clinicians. Vasoactive drugs are typically administered using a volumetric infusion device (IV pump)
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Immune System
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity
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Kidney Disease
Kidney
Kidney
disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, is damage to or disease of a kidney. Nephritis
Nephritis
is inflammatory kidney disease. It can be diagnosed by blood testings. Nephrosis
Nephrosis
is noninflammatory kidney disease. Kidney
Kidney
disease usually causes kidney failure to some degree, with the amount depending on the type of disease. In precise usage, disease denotes the structural and causal disease entity[clarification needed] whereas failure denotes the impaired kidney function. In common usage these meanings overlap; for example, the terms chronic kidney disease and chronic renal failure are usually considered synonymous. Acute kidney disease has often been called acute renal failure, although nephrologists now often tend to call it acute kidney injury
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