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Pre-eclampsia
PRE-ECLAMPSIA (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine . The condition begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy . In severe disease there may be red blood cell breakdown , a low blood platelet count , impaired liver function, kidney dysfunction, swelling , shortness of breath due to fluid in the lungs , or visual disturbances. Pre-eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia
increases the risk of poor outcomes for both the mother and the baby. If left untreated, it may result in seizures at which point it is known as eclampsia . Risk factors for pre-eclampsia include obesity , prior hypertension , older age, and diabetes mellitus . It is also more frequent in a woman's first pregnancy and if she is carrying twins. The underlying mechanism involves abnormal formation of blood vessels in the placenta amongst other factors
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Vasoactive
A VASOACTIVE substance is an endogenous agent or pharmaceutical drug that has the effect of either increasing or decreasing blood pressure and/or heart rate through its VASOACTIVITY, that is, vascular activity (effect on blood vessels ). By adjusting vascular compliance and vascular resistance , typically through vasodilation and vasoconstriction , it helps the body's homeostatic mechanisms (such as the renin–angiotensin system ) to keep hemodynamics under control. For example, angiotensin , bradykinin , histamine , nitric oxide , and vasoactive intestinal peptide are important endogenous vasoactive substances. Vasoactive drug therapy is typically used when a patient has the blood pressure and heart rate monitored constantly. The dosage is typically titrated (adjusted up or down) to achieve a desired effect or range of values as determined by competent clinicians. Vasoactive drugs are typically administered using a volumetric infusion device (IV pump)
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Calcium Supplementation
CALCIUM is a chemical element with symbol CA and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal , calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium . It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium . The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate , found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum , anhydrite , fluorite , and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Diastolic Blood Pressure
BLOOD PRESSURE (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels . When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation . Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heart beat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heart beats) and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg ), above the surrounding atmospheric pressure (considered to be zero for convenience). It is one of the vital signs , along with respiratory rate , heart rate , oxygen saturation , and body temperature . Normal resting blood pressure in an adult is approximately 120 millimetres of mercury (16 kPa) systolic, and 80 millimetres of mercury (11 kPa) diastolic, abbreviated "120/80 mmHg". Traditionally, blood pressure was measured non-invasively using a mercury manometer and this is still generally considered the gold standard
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Systolic Blood Pressure
BLOOD PRESSURE (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels . When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation . Blood
Blood
pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heart beat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heart beats) and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg ), above the surrounding atmospheric pressure (considered to be zero for convenience). It is one of the vital signs , along with respiratory rate , heart rate , oxygen saturation , and body temperature . Normal resting blood pressure in an adult is approximately 120 millimetres of mercury (16 kPa) systolic, and 80 millimetres of mercury (11 kPa) diastolic, abbreviated "120/80 mmHg". Traditionally, blood pressure was measured non-invasively using a mercury manometer and this is still generally considered the gold standard
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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Endothelial
ENDOTHELIUM is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels , forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system , from the heart to the smallest capillaries . These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These functions include fluid filtration , such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone , hemostasis , neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking. Endothelium
Endothelium
of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is called endocardium
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Micrograph
A MICROGRAPH or PHOTOMICROGRAPH is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. MICROGRAPHY is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. The neuropathologist Solomon Carter Fuller
Solomon Carter Fuller
designed and created the first photomicrograph in 1900. Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy
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Heart Disease
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels . Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke , heart failure , hypertensive heart disease , rheumatic heart disease , cardiomyopathy , heart arrhythmia , congenital heart disease , valvular heart disease , carditis , aortic aneurysms , peripheral artery disease , thromboembolic disease , and venous thrombosis . The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease in question. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis . This may be caused by high blood pressure , smoking , diabetes , lack of exercise , obesity , high blood cholesterol , poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others
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Blood Pressure Medication
ANTIHYPERTENSIVES are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction . Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia , heart failure , and mortality from cardiovascular disease . There are many classes of antihypertensives, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used drugs are thiazide diuretics , calcium channel blockers , ACE inhibitors , angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers . Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines
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Stroke
STROKE is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death . There are two main types of stroke: ischemic , due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic , due to bleeding . They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking , feeling like the world is spinning , or loss of vision to one side . Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache . The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control . The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure
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Hippocrates
HIPPOCRATES OF KOS (/hɪˈpɒkrəˌtiːz/ ; Greek : Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II , was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles ( Classical Greece ), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine . He is referred to as the "Father of Modern Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece , establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated (theurgy and philosophy ), thus establishing medicine as a profession
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Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME or ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODY SYNDROME (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune , hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies . APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis ) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage , stillbirth , preterm delivery , and severe preeclampsia . The diagnostic criteria require one clinical event (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy complication) and two antibody blood tests spaced at least three months apart that confirm the presence of either lupus anticoagulant or anti-β2-glycoprotein-I (since β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies are a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies, an anti-cardiolipin assay can be performed as a less specific proxy). Antiphospholipid syndrome can be primary or secondary. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome occurs in the absence of any other related disease
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Pitting Edema
EDEMA, also spelled œDEMA, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium , located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling . The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis ; and the increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium, or the impaired removal of the fluid, can cause the condition. The word is from Greek οἴδημα oídēma meaning "swelling". CONTENTS* 1 Classifications * 1.1 Generalized * 1.2 Organ-specific * 2 Mechanism * 3 Treatment * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CLASSIFICATIONSCutaneous edema is referred to as "pitting" when, after pressure is applied to a small area, the indentation persists after the release of the pressure. Peripheral pitting edema, as shown in the illustration, is the more common type, resulting from water retention
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Obesity
OBESITY is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 7002294199500000000♠30 kg /m2 , with the range 7002245166250000000♠25–30 kg /m2 defined as overweight . Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions , particularly cardiovascular diseases , type 2 diabetes , obstructive sleep apnea , certain types of cancer , osteoarthritis and depression . Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake , lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility . A few cases are caused primarily by genes , endocrine disorders , medications , or mental disorder
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