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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. The neuropathologist Solomon Carter Fuller
Solomon Carter Fuller
designed and created the first photomicrograph in 1900.[1] Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy.

Contents

1 Types

1.1 Photomicrograph 1.2 Electron micrograph

2 Magnification
Magnification
and micron bars 3 Micrography
Micrography
as art 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Types[edit] Photomicrograph[edit] A light micrograph or photomicrograph is a micrograph prepared using an optical microscope, a process referred to as photomicroscopy. At a basic level, photomicroscopy may be performed simply by hooking up a regular camera to a microscope, thereby enabling the user to take photographs at reasonably high magnification. Scientific use began in England in 1850 by Prof Richard Hill Norris FRSE for his studies of blood cells.[2] Roman Vishniac
Roman Vishniac
was a pioneer in the field of photomicroscopy, specializing in the photography of living creatures in full motion. He also made major developments in light-interruption photography and color photomicroscopy. Photomicrographs are now commonly obtained using a USB microscope attached directly to a home computer or laptop. Electron micrograph[edit] An electron micrograph is a micrograph prepared using an electron microscope. Magnification
Magnification
and micron bars[edit] Micrographs usually have micron bars, or magnification ratios, or both. Magnification
Magnification
is a ratio between size of object on a picture and its real size. Unfortunately, magnification is somewhat a misleading parameter. It depends on a final size of a printed picture, and therefore varies with variation in picture size. Editors of journals and magazines routinely resize a figure to fit the page, making any magnification number provided in the figure legend incorrect. A scale bar, or micron bar, is a bar of known length displayed on a picture. The bar can be used for measurements on a picture. When a picture is resized a bar is also resized. If a picture has a bar, the magnification can be easily calculated. Ideally, all pictures destined for publication/presentation should be supplied with a scale bar; the magnification ratio is optional. All but one (limestone) of the micrographs presented on this page do not have a micron bar; supplied magnification ratios are likely incorrect, as they were not calculated for pictures at the present size. Micrography
Micrography
as art[edit] The microscope has been mainly used for scientific discovery. It has also been linked to the arts since its invention in the 17th century. At first scientists used the microscope to view and draw objects not visible with the unaided eye. Early adopters of the microscope, such as Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, were excellent illustrators. After the invention of photography in the 1820s the microscope was later combined with the camera to take pictures instead of relying on an artistic rendering. Since the early 1970s individuals have been using the microscope as an artistic instrument. Web sites and traveling art exhibits such as the Nikon Small World and Olympus Bioscapes have featured a range of images for the sole purpose of artistic enjoyment. Some collaborative groups, such as the Paper Project have also incorporated microscopic imagery into tactile art pieces as well as 3D immersive rooms and dance performances. Gallery[edit]

Measurements of a large Colpodium at 400x.

Measurements of a large amoeba at 400x.

Snowflake micrograph by Wilson Bentley, 1890

An image taken from a scanning electron microscope

See also[edit]

Close-up Digital microscope Macro photography Microphotograph Microscopy USB microscope

References[edit]

^ "Fuller, Jr., Solomon Carter 1872–1953 Research". Encyclopedia.com. N. p., 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2016. ^ http://calmview.bham.ac.uk/GetDocument.ashx?db=Catalog&fname=US41.pdf

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Microscopic images.

Make a Micrograph
Micrograph
– This presentation by the research department of Children's Hospital Boston
Children's Hospital Boston
shows how researchers create a three-color micrograph. Shots with a Microscope
Microscope
– a basic, comprehensive guide to photomicrography Scientific photomicrographs – free scientific quality photomicrographs by Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig, CSc. Micrographs of 18 natural fibres by the International Year of Natural Fibres 2009 Seeing Beyond the Human Eye Video produced by Off Book (web series) [1] - Solomon C. Fuller bio Charles Krebs Microscopic Images Dennis Kunkel Microscopy Andrew Paul Leonard, APL Microscopic Cell Centered Database - Montage Nikon Small World Olympus Biosca

.