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Pre-Raphaelite
The PRE-RAPHAELITE BROTHERHOOD (later known as the PRE-RAPHAELITES) was a group of English painters , poets , and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
, John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
and Dante Gabriel Rossetti . The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti , James Collinson , Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form the seven-member "brotherhood". Their principles were shared by other artists, including Marie Spartali Stillman and Ford Madox Brown . A later, medievalising strain inspired by Rossetti included Edward Burne-Jones and extended into the twentieth century with artists such as John William Waterhouse
John William Waterhouse

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Fitzrovia
FITZROVIA (/fɪtsˈroʊviə/ ) is a district in central London , near London's West End lying partly in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
(in the west), and partly in the London Borough of Camden
London Borough of Camden
(in the east); and situated between Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
and Marylebone
Marylebone
, and north of Soho
Soho
. It is characterised by its mixed-use of residential, business, retail, education and healthcare, with no single activity dominating. The historically bohemian area was once home to such writers as Virginia Woolf , George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
and Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud

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Medieval
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages . Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period , including various Germanic peoples , formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Spirituality
Traditionally, SPIRITUALITY refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live," often in a context separate from organized religious institutions. Modern spirituality typically includes a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm, personal growth , a quest for an ultimate/sacred meaning , religious experience , or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension." The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. The term "spirituality" originally developed within early Christianity, referring to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit
Spirit

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Cleveland Street, London
CLEVELAND STREET in central London runs north to south from Euston Road (A501 ) to the junction of Mortimer Street and Goodge Street. It lies within Fitzrovia , in the W1 post code area. Cleveland Street also runs along part of the border between Bloomsbury (ward) which is located in London Borough of Camden
London Borough of Camden
, and West End (ward) and Marylebone
Marylebone
High Street (ward) in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster

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Quattrocento
The cultural and artistic events of Italy
Italy
during the period 1400 to 1499 are collectively referred to as the QUATTROCENTO (Italian pronunciation: ) from the Italian for the number 400, in turn from millequattrocento, which is Italian for the year 1400. The Quattrocento
Quattrocento
encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages (most notably International Gothic ) and the early Renaissance
Renaissance
. CONTENTS * 1 Historical context * 2 Development of Quattrocento
Quattrocento
styles * 3 List of Italian Quattrocento
Quattrocento
artists * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORICAL CONTEXTAfter the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476, economic disorder and disruption of trade spread across Europe
Europe

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Sir Joshua Reynolds
SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS RA FRS FRSA (/ˈrɛnəldz/ ; 16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits. According to John Russell , he was one of the major European painters of the 18th Century. He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was a founder and first president of the Royal Academy of Arts , and was knighted by George III in 1769
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Royal Academy Of Arts
The ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects; its purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Activities * 3 Royal Academy Schools * 4 Library, archive, and collections * 4.1 Wall and ceiling paintings * 4.2 Michelangelo\'s Taddei Tondo * 5 War memorials * 6 Membership * 7 See also * 8 References and sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition
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Idealism
In philosophy , IDEALISM is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically , idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In a sociological sense, idealism emphasizes how human ideas—especially beliefs and values—shape society. As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit. Idealism
Idealism
thus rejects physicalist and dualist theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind. The earliest extant arguments that the world of experience is grounded in the mental derive from India and Greece. The Hindu idealists in India and the Greek Neoplatonists gave panentheistic arguments for an all-pervading consciousness as the ground or true nature of reality
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Materialism
MATERIALISM is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature , and that all things, including mental things and consciousness , are results of material interactions. Materialism
Materialism
is closely related to physicalism , the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime , physical energies and forces , dark matter , and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous . Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism , pluralism , dualism , and other forms of monism
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Benjamin Robert Haydon
BENJAMIN ROBERT HAYDON (/ˈheɪdən/ ; 26 January 1786 – 22 June 1846) was an English painter who specialised in grand historical pictures, although he also painted a few contemporary subjects and portraits. His commercial success was damaged by his often tactless dealings with patrons, and by the enormous scale on which he preferred to work. He was troubled by financial problems throughout his life, which led to several periods of imprisonment for debt. He committed suicide in 1846. He gave lectures on art, and kept extensive diaries that were published after his death
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Blasphemy
BLASPHEMY is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity , to religious or holy persons or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable . Some religions consider blasphemy to be a religious crime. As of 2012, anti-blasphemy laws existed in 32 countries, while 87 nations had hate speech laws that covered defamation of religion and public expression of hate against a religious group. Anti-blasphemy laws are particularly common in Muslim-majority nations, such as those in the Middle East and North Africa, although they are also present in some Asian and European countries
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David Wilkie (artist)
SIR DAVID WILKIE RA (18 November 1785 – 1 June 1841) was a Scottish painter. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Historical art * 3 Honours * 4 Travels on the Continent * 5 The visit of King George IV to Scotland * 6 Three more years of foreign travel * 7 Latter years * 8 Achievements * 9 Legacy * 10 In fiction * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links EARLY LIFE Pitlessie Fair (1804) Painting by David Wilkie entitled The Chelsea Pensioners reading the Waterloo Dispatch , a huge success in 1822 when it was first exhibited by the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
on the 7th anniversary of the battle. The Letter of Introduction, 1813. The painting represents the artist own unpleasant experience, when he presented a useless introduction letter to a potential patron, who didn't receive it well
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Bitumen
ASPHALT /ˈæsˌfɔːlt, -ˌfɑːlt/ , also known as BITUMEN /ˈbɪtʃəmᵻn, bᵻˈtuːmᵻn/ , is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum . It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch . Before the 20th century, the term ASPHALTUM was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete . Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
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Gustave Courbet
JEAN DéSIRé GUSTAVE COURBET (French: ; 10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting. Committed to painting only what he could see, he rejected academic convention and the Romanticism
Romanticism
of the previous generation of visual artists. His independence set an example that was important to later artists, such as the Impressionists and the Cubists . Courbet occupies an important place in 19th-century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing to make bold social statements through his work. Courbet's paintings of the late 1840s and early 1850s brought him his first recognition. They challenged convention by depicting unidealized peasants and workers, often on a grand scale traditionally reserved for paintings of religious or historical subjects
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Glaze (painting Technique)
A glaze is a thin transparent or semi-transparent layer on a painting which modifies the appearance of the underlying paint layer. Glazes can change the chroma , value , hue and texture of a surface. Glazes consist of a great amount of binding medium in relation to a very small amount of pigment . Drying time will depend on the amount and type of paint medium used in the GLAZE. The medium, base, or vehicle is the mixture to which the dry pigment is added. Different media can increase or decrease the rate at which oil paints dry. Often, because a paint is too opaque, painters will add special media or a lot of medium to the paint to make them more transparent for the purposes of glazing. While these media are usually liquids, there are solid and semi-solid media used in the making of paints as well. For example, many classical oil painters have also been known to use ground glass and semi-solid resins to increase the translucency of their paint
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