HOME
The Info List - Raphael





Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens
The School of Athens
in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome
Rome
much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome
Rome
his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo
Michelangelo
was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models. His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years (1504–1508) absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates.[6]

Contents

1 Urbino 2 Early life and work 3 Influence of Florence 4 Roman period

4.1 The Vatican "Stanze" 4.2 Other projects

5 Painting
Painting
materials 6 Workshop

6.1 Portraits

7 Architecture 8 Drawings 9 Printmaking 10 Private life and death 11 Critical reception 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Urbino

Giovanni Santi, Raphael's father; Christ supported by two angels, c.1490

Raphael
Raphael
was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino
Urbino
in the Marche
Marche
region,[7] where his father Giovanni Santi
Giovanni Santi
was court painter to the Duke. The reputation of the court had been established by Federico III da Montefeltro, a highly successful condottiere who had been created Duke of Urbino
Urbino
by the Pope – Urbino
Urbino
formed part of the Papal States
Papal States
– and who died the year before Raphael
Raphael
was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi
Giovanni Santi
was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, and had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, and both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments. His poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well. In the very small court of Urbino
Urbino
he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters.[8] Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael
Raphael
the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari.[9] Court life in Urbino
Urbino
at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino
Urbino
in 1504, when Raphael
Raphael
was no longer based there but frequently visited, and they became good friends. He became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both later cardinals, were already becoming well known as writers, and would be in Rome
Rome
during Raphael's period there. Raphael
Raphael
mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however; it is unclear how easily he read Latin.[10] Early life and work

Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino
Urbino
from 1482–1508, c.1507.

His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael
Raphael
was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had already remarried. Raphael
Raphael
was thus orphaned at eleven; his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael
Raphael
had been "a great help to his father".[11] A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity.[12] His father's workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael
Raphael
evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter (d. 1475), and Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello.[13] According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino
Pietro Perugino
as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother". The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source,[14] and has been disputed—eight was very early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino
Urbino
from 1495.[15] Most modern historians agree that Raphael
Raphael
at least worked as an assistant to Perugino
Perugino
from around 1500; the influence of Perugino
Perugino
on Raphael's early work is very clear: "probably no other pupil of genius has ever absorbed so much of his master's teaching as Raphael
Raphael
did", according to Wölfflin.[16] Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino
Perugino
or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are very similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but very thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters.[17] The Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia
Perugia
and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches.[18] Raphael
Raphael
is described as a "master", that is to say fully trained, in December 1500.[19] His first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece
Baronci altarpiece
for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino
Nicholas of Tolentino
in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia
Perugia
and Urbino.[20] Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was also named in the commission. It was commissioned in 1500 and finished in 1501; now only some cut sections and a preparatory drawing remain.[21] In the following years he painted works for other churches there, including the Mond Crucifixion (about 1503) and the Brera Wedding of the Virgin (1504), and for Perugia, such as the Oddi Altarpiece. He very probably also visited Florence
Florence
in this period. These are large works, some in fresco, where Raphael
Raphael
confidently marshals his compositions in the somewhat static style of Perugino. He also painted many small and exquisite cabinet paintings in these years, probably mostly for the connoisseurs in the Urbino
Urbino
court, like the Three Graces and St. Michael, and he began to paint Madonnas and portraits.[22] In 1502 he went to Siena
Siena
at the invitation of another pupil of Perugino, Pinturicchio, "being a friend of Raphael
Raphael
and knowing him to be a draughtsman of the highest quality" to help with the cartoons, and very likely the designs, for a fresco series in the Piccolomini Library
Piccolomini Library
in Siena
Siena
Cathedral.[23] He was evidently already much in demand even at this early stage in his career.[24]

The Mond Crucifixion, 1502–3, very much in the style of Perugino

The Coronation of the Virgin
Coronation of the Virgin
1502–3

The Wedding of the Virgin, Raphael's most sophisticated altarpiece of this period

Saint George and the Dragon, a small work (29 x 21 cm) for the court of Urbino

Influence of Florence

Madonna of the Pinks, c. 1506–7, National Gallery, London

Raphael
Raphael
led a "nomadic" life, working in various centres in Northern Italy, but spent a good deal of time in Florence, perhaps from about 1504. Although there is traditional reference to a "Florentine period" of about 1504–8, he was possibly never a continuous resident there.[25] He may have needed to visit the city to secure materials in any case. There is a letter of recommendation of Raphael, dated October 1504, from the mother of the next Duke of Urbino
Urbino
to the Gonfaloniere of Florence: "The bearer of this will be found to be Raphael, painter of Urbino, who, being greatly gifted in his profession has determined to spend some time in Florence
Florence
to study. And because his father was most worthy and I was very attached to him, and the son is a sensible and well-mannered young man, on both accounts, I bear him great love..."[26] As earlier with Perugino
Perugino
and others, Raphael
Raphael
was able to assimilate the influence of Florentine art, whilst keeping his own developing style. Frescos in Perugia
Perugia
of about 1505 show a new monumental quality in the figures which may represent the influence of Fra Bartolomeo, who Vasari says was a friend of Raphael. But the most striking influence in the work of these years is Leonardo da Vinci, who returned to the city from 1500 to 1506. Raphael's figures begin to take more dynamic and complex positions, and though as yet his painted subjects are still mostly tranquil, he made drawn studies of fighting nude men, one of the obsessions of the period in Florence. Another drawing is a portrait of a young woman that uses the three-quarter length pyramidal composition of the just-completed Mona Lisa, but still looks completely Raphaelesque. Another of Leonardo's compositional inventions, the pyramidal Holy Family, was repeated in a series of works that remain among his most famous easel paintings. There is a drawing by Raphael
Raphael
in the Royal Collection
Royal Collection
of Leonardo's lost Leda and the Swan, from which he adapted the contrapposto pose of his own Saint Catherine of Alexandria.[27] He also perfects his own version of Leonardo's sfumato modelling, to give subtlety to his painting of flesh, and develops the interplay of glances between his groups, which are much less enigmatic than those of Leonardo. But he keeps the soft clear light of Perugino
Perugino
in his paintings.[28] Leonardo was more than thirty years older than Raphael, but Michelangelo, who was in Rome
Rome
for this period, was just eight years his senior. Michelangelo
Michelangelo
already disliked Leonardo, and in Rome
Rome
came to dislike Raphael
Raphael
even more, attributing conspiracies against him to the younger man.[29] Raphael
Raphael
would have been aware of his works in Florence, but in his most original work of these years, he strikes out in a different direction. His Deposition of Christ draws on classical sarcophagi to spread the figures across the front of the picture space in a complex and not wholly successful arrangement. Wöllflin detects the influence of the Madonna in Michelangelo's Doni Tondo
Doni Tondo
in the kneeling figure on the right, but the rest of the composition is far removed from his style, or that of Leonardo. Though highly regarded at the time, and much later forcibly removed from Perugia
Perugia
by the Borghese, it stands rather alone in Raphael's work. His classicism would later take a less literal direction.[30]

The Ansidei Madonna, c. 1505, beginning to move on from Perugino

The Madonna of the Meadow, c. 1506, using Leonardo's pyramidal composition for subjects of the Holy Family.[31]

Saint Catherine of Alexandria, 1507, possibly echoes the pose of Leonardo's Leda

Deposition of Christ, 1507, drawing from Roman sarcophagi

Roman period The Vatican "Stanze" By the end of 1508, Raphael
Raphael
had moved to Rome, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was invited by the new Pope Julius II, perhaps at the suggestion of his architect Donato Bramante, then engaged on St. Peter's Basilica, who came from just outside Urbino
Urbino
and was distantly related to Raphael.[32] Unlike Michelangelo, who had been kept lingering in Rome
Rome
for several months after his first summons,[33] Raphael
Raphael
was immediately commissioned by Julius to fresco what was intended to become the Pope's private library at the Vatican Palace.[34] This was a much larger and more important commission than any he had received before; he had only painted one altarpiece in Florence
Florence
itself. Several other artists and their teams of assistants were already at work on different rooms, many painting over recently completed paintings commissioned by Julius's loathed predecessor, Alexander VI, whose contributions, and arms, Julius was determined to efface from the palace.[35] Michelangelo, meanwhile, had been commissioned to paint the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
ceiling.

The Parnassus, 1511, Stanza della Segnatura

This first of the famous "Stanze" or " Raphael
Raphael
Rooms" to be painted, now known as the Stanza della Segnatura
Stanza della Segnatura
after its use in Vasari's time, was to make a stunning impact on Roman art, and remains generally regarded as his greatest masterpiece, containing The School of Athens, The Parnassus
The Parnassus
and the Disputa. Raphael
Raphael
was then given further rooms to paint, displacing other artists including Perugino and Signorelli. He completed a sequence of three rooms, each with paintings on each wall and often the ceilings too, increasingly leaving the work of painting from his detailed drawings to the large and skilled workshop team he had acquired, who added a fourth room, probably only including some elements designed by Raphael, after his early death in 1520. The death of Julius in 1513 did not interrupt the work at all, as he was succeeded by Raphael's last Pope, the Medici Pope Leo X, with whom Raphael
Raphael
formed an even closer relationship, and who continued to commission him.[36] Raphael's friend Cardinal Bibbiena was also one of Leo's old tutors, and a close friend and advisor. Raphael
Raphael
was clearly influenced by Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling in the course of painting the room. Vasari said Bramante let him in secretly. The first section was completed in 1511 and the reaction of other artists to the daunting force of Michelangelo
Michelangelo
was the dominating question in Italian art for the following few decades. Raphael, who had already shown his gift for absorbing influences into his own personal style, rose to the challenge perhaps better than any other artist. One of the first and clearest instances was the portrait in The School of Athens
The School of Athens
of Michelangelo
Michelangelo
himself, as Heraclitus, which seems to draw clearly from the Sybils and ignudi of the Sistine ceiling. Other figures in that and later paintings in the room show the same influences, but as still cohesive with a development of Raphael's own style.[37] Michelangelo
Michelangelo
accused Raphael
Raphael
of plagiarism and years after Raphael's death, complained in a letter that "everything he knew about art he got from me", although other quotations show more generous reactions.[38] These very large and complex compositions have been regarded ever since as among the supreme works of the grand manner of the High Renaissance, and the "classic art" of the post-antique West. They give a highly idealised depiction of the forms represented, and the compositions, though very carefully conceived in drawings, achieve "sprezzatura", a term invented by his friend Castiglione, who defined it as "a certain nonchalance which conceals all artistry and makes whatever one says or does seem uncontrived and effortless ...".[39] According to Michael Levey, " Raphael
Raphael
gives his [figures] a superhuman clarity and grace in a universe of Euclidian certainties".[40] The painting is nearly all of the highest quality in the first two rooms, but the later compositions in the Stanze, especially those involving dramatic action, are not entirely as successful either in conception or their execution by the workshop.

Stanza della Segnatura

The Mass at Bolsena, 1514, Stanza di Eliodoro

Deliverance of Saint Peter, 1514, Stanza di Eliodoro

The Fire in the Borgo, 1514, Stanza dell'incendio del Borgo, painted by the workshop to Raphael's design

Other projects

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, 1515, one of the seven remaining Raphael Cartoons
Raphael Cartoons
for tapestries for the Sistine Chapel.

The Vatican projects took most of his time, although he painted several portraits, including those of his two main patrons, the popes Julius II and his successor Leo X, the former considered one of his finest. Other portraits were of his own friends, like Castiglione, or the immediate Papal circle. Other rulers pressed for work, and King Francis I of France
Francis I of France
was sent two paintings as diplomatic gifts from the Pope.[41] For Agostino Chigi, the hugely rich banker and Papal Treasurer, he painted the Triumph of Galatea and designed further decorative frescoes for his Villa Farnesina, a chapel in the church of Santa Maria della Pace
Santa Maria della Pace
and mosaics in the funerary chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo. He also designed some of the decoration for the Villa Madama, the work in both villas being executed by his workshop. One of his most important papal commissions was the Raphael
Raphael
Cartoons (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum), a series of 10 cartoons, of which seven survive, for tapestries with scenes of the lives of Saint Paul and Saint Peter, for the Sistine Chapel. The cartoons were sent to Brussels
Brussels
to be woven in the workshop of Pier van Aelst. It is possible that Raphael
Raphael
saw the finished series before his death—they were probably completed in 1520.[42] He also designed and painted the Loggie at the Vatican, a long thin gallery then open to a courtyard on one side, decorated with Roman-style grottesche.[43] He produced a number of significant altarpieces, including The Ecstasy of St. Cecilia and the Sistine Madonna. His last work, on which he was working up to his death, was a large Transfiguration, which together with Il Spasimo shows the direction his art was taking in his final years—more proto- Baroque
Baroque
than Mannerist.[44]

Triumph of Galatea, 1512, his only major mythology, for Chigi's villa.

Il Spasimo 1517, brings a new degree of expressiveness to his art.

Transfiguration, 1520, unfinished at his death.

The Holy Family, 1518

Painting
Painting
materials Raphael
Raphael
painted several of his works on wood support (Madonna of the Pinks) but he also used canvas (Sistine Madonna) and he was known to employ drying oils such as linseed or walnut oils. His palette was rich and he used almost all of the then available pigments such as ultramarine, lead-tin-yellow, carmine, vermilion, madder lake, verdigris and ochres. In several of his paintings (Ansidei Madonna) he even employed the rare brazilwood lake, metallic powdered gold and even less known metallic powdered bismuth.[45][46] Workshop Vasari says that Raphael
Raphael
eventually had a workshop of fifty pupils and assistants, many of whom later became significant artists in their own right. This was arguably the largest workshop team assembled under any single old master painter, and much higher than the norm. They included established masters from other parts of Italy, probably working with their own teams as sub-contractors, as well as pupils and journeymen. We have very little evidence of the internal working arrangements of the workshop, apart from the works of art themselves, which are often very difficult to assign to a particular hand.[47] The most important figures were Giulio Romano, a young pupil from Rome (only about twenty-one at Raphael's death), and Gianfrancesco Penni, already a Florentine master. They were left many of Raphael's drawings and other possessions, and to some extent continued the workshop after Raphael's death. Penni did not achieve a personal reputation equal to Giulio's, as after Raphael's death he became Giulio's less-than-equal collaborator in turn for much of his subsequent career. Perino del Vaga, already a master, and Polidoro da Caravaggio, who was supposedly promoted from a labourer carrying building materials on the site, also became notable painters in their own right. Polidoro's partner, Maturino da Firenze, has, like Penni, been overshadowed in subsequent reputation by his partner. Giovanni da Udine
Giovanni da Udine
had a more independent status, and was responsible for the decorative stucco work and grotesques surrounding the main frescoes.[48] Most of the artists were later scattered, and some killed, by the violent Sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527.[49] This did however contribute to the diffusion of versions of Raphael's style around Italy and beyond. Vasari emphasises that Raphael
Raphael
ran a very harmonious and efficient workshop, and had extraordinary skill in smoothing over troubles and arguments with both patrons and his assistants—a contrast with the stormy pattern of Michelangelo's relationships with both.[50] However though both Penni and Giulio were sufficiently skilled that distinguishing between their hands and that of Raphael
Raphael
himself is still sometimes difficult,[51] there is no doubt that many of Raphael's later wall-paintings, and probably some of his easel paintings, are more notable for their design than their execution. Many of his portraits, if in good condition, show his brilliance in the detailed handling of paint right up to the end of his life.[52] Other pupils or assistants include Raffaellino del Colle, Andrea Sabbatini, Bartolommeo Ramenghi, Pellegrino Aretusi, Vincenzo Tamagni, Battista Dossi, Tommaso Vincidor, Timoteo Viti
Timoteo Viti
(the Urbino
Urbino
painter), and the sculptor and architect Lorenzetto
Lorenzetto
(Giulio's brother-in-law).[53] The printmakers and architects in Raphael's circle are discussed below. It has been claimed the Flemish Bernard van Orley worked for Raphael
Raphael
for a time, and Luca Penni, brother of Gianfrancesco and later a member of the First School of Fontainebleau, may have been a member of the team.[54] Portraits

Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga, c. 1504

Portrait of Pope Julius II, c. 1512

Portrait of Bindo Altoviti, c. 1514

Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, c. 1515

Architecture

Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila, now destroyed

After Bramante's death in 1514, Raphael
Raphael
was named architect of the new St Peter's. Most of his work there was altered or demolished after his death and the acceptance of Michelangelo's design, but a few drawings have survived. It appears his designs would have made the church a good deal gloomier than the final design, with massive piers all the way down the nave, "like an alley" according to a critical posthumous analysis by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. It would perhaps have resembled the temple in the background of The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple.[55] He designed several other buildings, and for a short time was the most important architect in Rome, working for a small circle around the Papacy. Julius had made changes to the street plan of Rome, creating several new thoroughfares, and he wanted them filled with splendid palaces.[56] An important building, the Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila
Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila
for Leo's Papal Chamberlain Giovanni Battista Branconio, was completely destroyed to make way for Bernini's piazza for St. Peter's, but drawings of the façade and courtyard remain. The façade was an unusually richly decorated one for the period, including both painted panels on the top story (of three), and much sculpture on the middle one.[57] The main designs for the Villa Farnesina
Villa Farnesina
were not by Raphael, but he did design, and decorate with mosaics, the Chigi Chapel
Chigi Chapel
for the same patron, Agostino Chigi, the Papal Treasurer. Another building, for Pope Leo's doctor, the Palazzo di Jacobo da Brescia, was moved in the 1930s but survives; this was designed to complement a palace on the same street by Bramante, where Raphael
Raphael
himself lived for a time.[58]

View of the Chigi Chapel

The Villa Madama, a lavish hillside retreat for Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, later Pope Clement VII, was never finished, and his full plans have to be reconstructed speculatively. He produced a design from which the final construction plans were completed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Even incomplete, it was the most sophisticated villa design yet seen in Italy, and greatly influenced the later development of the genre; it appears to be the only modern building in Rome
Rome
of which Palladio
Palladio
made a measured drawing.[59] Only some floor-plans remain for a large palace planned for himself on the new via Giulia in the rione of Regola, for which he was accumulating the land in his last years. It was on an irregular island block near the river Tiber. It seems all façades were to have a giant order of pilasters rising at least two storeys to the full height of the piano nobile, "a gandiloquent feature unprecedented in private palace design".[60] In 1515 he was given powers as "Prefect" over all antiquities unearthed entrusted within the city, or a mile outside. Raphael
Raphael
wrote a letter to Pope Leo suggesting ways of halting the destruction of ancient monuments, and proposed a visual survey of the city to record all antiquities in an organised fashion. The Pope's concerns were not exactly the same; he intended to continue to re-use ancient masonry in the building of St Peter's, but wanted to ensure that all ancient inscriptions were recorded, and sculpture preserved, before allowing the stones to be reused.[61]

Lucretia, engraved by Raimondi after a drawing by Raphael.[62]

Drawings Raphael
Raphael
was one of the finest draftsmen in the history of Western art, and used drawings extensively to plan his compositions. According to a near-contemporary, when beginning to plan a composition, he would lay out a large number of stock drawings of his on the floor, and begin to draw "rapidly", borrowing figures from here and there.[63] Over forty sketches survive for the Disputa in the Stanze, and there may well have been many more originally; over four hundred sheets survive altogether.[64] He used different drawings to refine his poses and compositions, apparently to a greater extent than most other painters, to judge by the number of variants that survive: "... This is how Raphael
Raphael
himself, who was so rich in inventiveness, used to work, always coming up with four or six ways to show a narrative, each one different from the rest, and all of them full of grace and well done." wrote another writer after his death.[65] For John Shearman, Raphael's art marks "a shift of resources away from production to research and development".[66] When a final composition was achieved, scaled-up full-size cartoons were often made, which were then pricked with a pin and "pounced" with a bag of soot to leave dotted lines on the surface as a guide. He also made unusually extensive use, on both paper and plaster, of a "blind stylus", scratching lines which leave only an indentation, but no mark. These can be seen on the wall in The School of Athens, and in the originals of many drawings.[67] The " Raphael
Raphael
Cartoons", as tapestry designs, were fully coloured in a glue distemper medium, as they were sent to Brussels
Brussels
to be followed by the weavers. In later works painted by the workshop, the drawings are often painfully more attractive than the paintings.[68] Most Raphael drawings are rather precise—even initial sketches with naked outline figures are carefully drawn, and later working drawings often have a high degree of finish, with shading and sometimes highlights in white. They lack the freedom and energy of some of Leonardo's and Michelangelo's sketches, but are nearly always aesthetically very satisfying. He was one of the last artists to use metalpoint (literally a sharp pointed piece of silver or another metal) extensively, although he also made superb use of the freer medium of red or black chalk.[69] In his final years he was one of the first artists to use female models for preparatory drawings—male pupils ("garzoni") were normally used for studies of both sexes.[70]

Study for soldiers in this Resurrection of Christ, ca 1500.

Red chalk study for the Villa Farnesina
Villa Farnesina
Three Graces

Sheet with study for the Alba Madonna
Alba Madonna
and other sketches

Developing the composition for a Madonna and Child

Printmaking Raphael
Raphael
made no prints himself, but entered into a collaboration with Marcantonio Raimondi
Marcantonio Raimondi
to produce engravings to Raphael's designs, which created many of the most famous Italian prints of the century, and was important in the rise of the reproductive print. His interest was unusual in such a major artist; from his contemporaries it was only shared by Titian, who had worked much less successfully with Raimondi.[71] A total of about fifty prints were made; some were copies of Raphael's paintings, but other designs were apparently created by Raphael
Raphael
purely to be turned into prints. Raphael
Raphael
made preparatory drawings, many of which survive, for Raimondi to translate into engraving.[72] The most famous original prints to result from the collaboration were Lucretia, the Judgement of Paris and The Massacre of the Innocents (of which two virtually identical versions were engraved). Among prints of the paintings The Parnassus
The Parnassus
(with considerable differences)[73] and Galatea were also especially well-known. Outside Italy, reproductive prints by Raimondi and others were the main way that Raphael's art was experienced until the twentieth century. Baviero Carocci, called "Il Baviera" by Vasari, an assistant who Raphael
Raphael
evidently trusted with his money,[74] ended up in control of most of the copper plates after Raphael's death, and had a successful career in the new occupation of a publisher of prints.[75]

Drawing
Drawing
for a Sibyl
Sibyl
in the Chigi Chapel.

The Massacre of the Innocents, engraving by (?) Raimondi from a design by Raphael. The version "without fir tree".

Judgement of Paris, still influencing Manet, who used the seated group in his most famous work.

Galatea, engraving after the fresco in the Villa Farnesina

Private life and death

La Fornarina, Raphael's mistress

From 1517 until his death, Raphael
Raphael
lived in the Palazzo Caprini
Palazzo Caprini
in the Borgo, in rather grand style in a palace designed by Bramante. He never married, but in 1514 became engaged to Maria Bibbiena, Cardinal Medici
Medici
Bibbiena's niece; he seems to have been talked into this by his friend the Cardinal, and his lack of enthusiasm seems to be shown by the marriage not having taken place before she died in 1520.[76] He is said to have had many affairs, but a permanent fixture in his life in Rome
Rome
was "La Fornarina", Margherita Luti, the daughter of a baker (fornaro) named Francesco Luti from Siena
Siena
who lived at Via del Governo Vecchio.[77] He was made a "Groom of the Chamber" of the Pope, which gave him status at court and an additional income, and also a knight of the Papal Order of the Golden Spur. Vasari claims he had toyed with the ambition of becoming a Cardinal, perhaps after some encouragement from Leo, which also may account for his delaying his marriage.[76] Raphael's premature death on Good Friday
Good Friday
(April 6, 1520), which was possibly his 37th birthday, was due to unclear causes, with several possibilities raised by historians. [78] Vasari also says that Raphael had also been born on a Good Friday, which in 1483 fell on March 28.[79] Whatever the cause, in his acute illness, which lasted fifteen days, Raphael
Raphael
was composed enough to confess his sins, receive the last rites, and to put his affairs in order. He dictated his will, in which he left sufficient funds for his mistress's care, entrusted to his loyal servant Baviera, and left most of his studio contents to Giulio Romano and Penni. At his request, Raphael
Raphael
was buried in the Pantheon.[80] His funeral was extremely grand, attended by large crowds. The inscription in his marble sarcophagus, an elegiac distich written by Pietro Bembo, reads: "Ille hic est Raffael, timuit quo sospite vinci, rerum magna parens et moriente mori", meaning: "Here lies that famous Raphael
Raphael
by whom Nature feared to be conquered while he lived, and when he was dying, feared herself to die."

Self-portraits

Probable self-portrait drawing by Raphael
Raphael
in his teens

Self-portrait, Raphael
Raphael
in the background, from The School of Athens

Possible Self-portrait
Self-portrait
with a friend, c. 1518

Portrait of a Young Man, 1514, Lost during the Second World War. Possible self-portrait by Raphael

Critical reception

Sistine Madonna
Sistine Madonna
(1512)

Raphael
Raphael
was highly admired by his contemporaries, although his influence on artistic style in his own century was less than that of Michelangelo. Mannerism, beginning at the time of his death, and later the Baroque, took art "in a direction totally opposed" to Raphael's qualities;[81] "with Raphael's death, classic art – the High Renaissance – subsided", as Walter Friedländer put it.[82] He was soon seen as the ideal model by those disliking the excesses of Mannerism:

the opinion ...was generally held in the middle of the sixteenth century that Raphael
Raphael
was the ideal balanced painter, universal in his talent, satisfying all the absolute standards, and obeying all the rules which were supposed to govern the arts, whereas Michelangelo
Michelangelo
was the eccentric genius, more brilliant than any other artists in his particular field, the drawing of the male nude, but unbalanced and lacking in certain qualities, such as grace and restraint, essential to the great artist. Those, like Dolce and Aretino, who held this view were usually the survivors of Renaissance Humanism, unable to follow Michelangelo
Michelangelo
as he moved on into Mannerism.[83]

Vasari himself, despite his hero remaining Michelangelo, came to see his influence as harmful in some ways, and added passages to the second edition of the Lives expressing similar views.[84]

Raphael
Raphael
and Maria Bibbiena's tomb in the Pantheon. The Madonna is by Lorenzetto.

Raphael's sarcophagus

Raphael's compositions were always admired and studied, and became the cornerstone of the training of the Academies of art. His period of greatest influence was from the late 17th to late 19th centuries, when his perfect decorum and balance were greatly admired. He was seen as the best model for the history painting, regarded as the highest in the hierarchy of genres. Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
in his Discourses praised his "simple, grave, and majestic dignity" and said he "stands in general foremost of the first [i.e., best] painters", especially for his frescoes (in which he included the " Raphael
Raphael
Cartoons"), whereas "Michael Angelo claims the next attention. He did not possess so many excellences as Raffaelle, but those he had were of the highest kind..." Echoing the sixteenth-century views above, Reynolds goes on to say of Raphael:

The excellency of this extraordinary man lay in the propriety, beauty, and majesty of his characters, his judicious contrivance of his composition, correctness of drawing, purity of taste, and the skilful accommodation of other men’s conceptions to his own purpose. Nobody excelled him in that judgment, with which he united to his own observations on nature the energy of Michael Angelo, and the beauty and simplicity of the antique. To the question, therefore, which ought to hold the first rank, Raffaelle or Michael Angelo, it must be answered, that if it is to be given to him who possessed a greater combination of the higher qualities of the art than any other man, there is no doubt but Raffaelle is the first. But if, according to Longinus, the sublime, being the highest excellence that human composition can attain to, abundantly compensates the absence of every other beauty, and atones for all other deficiencies, then Michael Angelo demands the preference.[85]

Reynolds was less enthusiastic about Raphael's panel paintings, but the slight sentimentality of these made them enormously popular in the 19th century: "We have been familiar with them from childhood onwards, through a far greater mass of reproductions than any other artist in the world has ever had..." wrote Wölfflin, who was born in 1862, of Raphael's Madonnas.[86] In Germany, Raphael
Raphael
had an immense influence on religious art of the Nazarene movement
Nazarene movement
and Düsseldorf school of painting
Düsseldorf school of painting
in the 19th century. In contrast, in England the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood explicitly reacted against his influence (and that of his admirers such as Joshua Reynolds), seeking to return to styles that pre-dated what they saw as his baneful influence. According to a critic whose ideas greatly influenced them, John Ruskin:

The doom of the arts of Europe went forth from that chamber [the Stanza della Segnatura], and it was brought about in great part by the very excellencies of the man who had thus marked the commencement of decline. The perfection of execution and the beauty of feature which were attained in his works, and in those of his great contemporaries, rendered finish of execution and beauty of form the chief objects of all artists; and thenceforward execution was looked for rather than thought, and beauty rather than veracity.

And as I told you, these are the two secondary causes of the decline of art; the first being the loss of moral purpose. Pray note them clearly. In mediæval art, thought is the first thing, execution the second; in modern art execution is the first thing, and thought the second. And again, in mediæval art, truth is first, beauty second; in modern art, beauty is first, truth second. The mediæval principles led up to Raphael, and the modern principles lead down from him.[87]

He was still seen by 20th-century critics like Bernard Berenson
Bernard Berenson
as the "most famous and most loved" master of the High Renaissance,[88] but it would seem he has since been overtaken by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo in this respect.[89][original research?] See also

List of works by Raphael List of paintings by Raphael Italian Renaissance Renaissance painting

Italy portal Biography portal Visual arts portal

Notes

^ Jones and Penny, p. 171. The portrait of Raphael
Raphael
is probably "a later adaptation of the one likeness which all agree on": that in The School of Athens, vouched for by Vasari. ^ Variants also include Raffaello Santi, Raffaello da Urbino
Urbino
or Rafael Sanzio da Urbino. The surname Sanzio derives from the latinization of the Italian Santi into Santius. He normally signed documents as Raphael
Raphael
Urbinas — a latinized form. Gould:207 ^ Jones and Penny, p. 1 and 246. He died on his 37th birthday; according to different sources, his birth and death both occurred on Good Friday. The matter has been much discussed, as both cannot be true. ^ On Neoplatonism, see Chapter 4, "The Real and the Imaginary", in Kleinbub, Christian K., Vision and the Visionary in Raphael, 2011, Penn State Press, ISBN 0271037040, 9780271037042 ^ See, for example Honour, Hugh; Fleming, John (1982). A World History of Art. London: Macmillan Reference Books. p. 357. ISBN 9780333235836. OCLC 8828368.  ^ Vasari, pp. 208, 230 and passim. ^ Osborne, June. Urbino: The Story of a Renaissance City. p. 39 on the population, as a "few thousand" at most; even today it is only 15,000 without the students of the University.  ^ Jones and Penny, pp. 1–2 ^ Vasari:207 & passim ^ Jones & Penny:204 ^ Vasari, at the start of the Life. Jones & Penny:5 ^ Ashmolean Museum
Ashmolean Museum
"Image". z.about.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-02.  ^ Jones and Penny: 4–5, 8 and 20 ^ Simone Fornari in 1549–50, see Gould:207 ^ Jones & Penny:8 ^ contrasting him with Leonardo and Michelangelo
Michelangelo
in this respect. Wölfflin:73 ^ Jones and Penny:17 ^ Jones & Penny:2–5 ^ Ettlinger & Ettlinger:19 ^ Ettlinger & Ettlinger:20 ^ It was later seriously damaged during an earthquake in 1789. ^ Jones and Penny:5–8 ^ One surviving preparatory drawing appears to be mostly by Raphael; quotation from Vasari by – Jones and Penny:20 ^ Ettlinger & Ettlinger:25–27 ^ Gould:207-8 ^ Jones and Penny:5 ^ National Gallery, London
National Gallery, London
Jones & Penny:44 ^ Jones & Penny:21–45 ^ Vasari, Michelangelo:251 ^ Jones & Penny:44–47, and Wöllflin:79–82 ^ "Image". szepmuveszeti.hu. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.  ^ Jones & Penny:49, differing somewhat from Gould:208 on the timing of his arrival ^ Vasari:247 ^ Julius was no great reader—an inventory compiled after his death has a total of 220 books, large for the time, but hardly requiring such a receptacle. There was no room for bookcases on the walls, which were in cases in the middle of the floor, destroyed in the 1527 Sack of Rome. Jones & Penny:4952 ^ Jones & Penny:49 ^ Jones & Penny:49–128 ^ Jones & Penny:101–105 ^ Blunt:76, Jones & Penny:103-5 ^ Book of the Courtier 1:26 The whole passage ^ Levey, Michael; Early Renaissance, p.197 ,1967, Penguin ^ One, a portrait of Joanna of Aragon, Queen consort of Naples, for which Raphael
Raphael
sent an assistant to Naples to make a drawing, and probably left most of the painting to the workshop. Jones & Penny:163 ^ Jones & Penny:133–147 ^ Jones & Penny:192–197 ^ Jones & Penny:235–246, though the relationship of Raphael
Raphael
to Mannerism, like the definition of Mannerism
Mannerism
itself, is much debated. See Craig Hugh Smyth, Mannerism
Mannerism
& Maniera, 1992, IRSA Vienna, ISBN 3-900731-33-0 ^ Roy, A., Spring, M., Plazzotta, C. ‘Raphael’s Early Work in the National Gallery: Paintings before Rome‘. National Gallery Technical Bulletin Vol 25, pp 4–35 ^ Italian painters at ColourLex ^ Jones and Penny:146–147, 196–197, and Pon:82–85 ^ Jones and Penny:147, 196 ^ Vasari, Life of Polidoro online in English Maturino for one is never heard of again ^ Vasari:207 & 231 ^ See for example, the Raphael
Raphael
Cartoons ^ Jones & Penny:163–167 and passim ^ The direct transmission of training can be traced to some surprising figures, including Brian Eno, Tom Phillips and Frank Auerbach ^ Vasari (full text in Italian) pp197-8 & passim Archived 2007-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.; see also Getty Union Artist Name List entries ^ Jones & Penny:215–218 ^ Jones & Penny:210–211 ^ Jones & Penny:221–222 ^ Jones & Penny:219–220 ^ Jones and Penny:226–234; Raphael
Raphael
left a long letter describing his intentions to the Cardinal, reprinted in full on pp.247–8 ^ Jones & Penny:224(quotation)-226 ^ Jones & Penny:205 The letter may date from 1519, or before his appointment ^ "Lucretia". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ Giovanni Battista Armenini (1533–1609) De vera precetti della pittura(1587), quoted Pon:115 ^ Jones & Penny:58 & ff; 400 from Pon:114 ^ Ludovico Dolce (1508–68), from his L'Aretino of 1557, quoted Pon:114 ^ quoted Pon:114, from lecture on The Organization of Raphael's Workshop, pub. Chicago, 1983 ^ Not surprisingly, photographs do not show these well, if at all. Leonardo sometimes used a blind stylus to outline his final choice from a tangle of different outlines in the same drawing. Pon:106–110. ^ Lucy Whitaker, Martin Clayton, The Art of Italy in the Royal Collection; Renaissance and Baroque, p.84, Royal Collection Publications, 2007, ISBN 978-1-902163-29-1 ^ Pon:104 ^ National Galleries of Scotland ^ Pon:102. See also a lengthy analysis in: Landau:118 ff ^ The enigmatic relationship is discussed at length by both Landau and Pon in her Chapters 3 and 4. ^ Pon:86–87 lists them ^ "Il Baviera" may mean "the Bavarian"; if he was German, as many artists in Rome
Rome
were, this would have been helpful during the 1527 Sack; Marcantonio had many printing-plates looted from him. Jones and Penny:82, see also Vasari ^ Pon:95–136 & passim; Landau:118–160, and passim ^ a b Vasari:230–231 ^ Art historians and doctors debate whether the right hand on the left breast in La Fornarina
La Fornarina
reveal a cancerous breast tumour detailed and disguised in a classic pose of love."The Portrait of Breast Cancer and Raphael's La Fornarina", The Lancet, December 21, 2002/December 28, 2002. ^ Various other historians provide different theories: Bernardino Ramazzini (1700), in his De morbis artificum, noted that painters at the time generally led “sedentary lives and melancholic disposition” and often worked “with mercury- and lead-based materials.” Bufarale (1915) “diagnosed pneumonia or a military fever” while Portigliotti suggested “pulmonary disease.” Joannides has stated that “ Raphael
Raphael
died of over-work. Note also that Raphael's age at death is also debated by some, with Michiel asserting that Raphael
Raphael
died at thirty-four, while Pandolfo Pico and Girolamo Lippomano arguing that Raphael
Raphael
died at thirty-three. For all see: Shearman:573. ^ Whereas Michiel said he died on his birthday. Art historian
Art historian
John Shearman addressed this apparent discrepancy: "The time of death can be calculated from the convention of counting from sundown, which Michaelis puts at 6.36 on Friday 6 April, plus half-an-hour to Ave Maria, plus three hours, that is, soon after 10.00 pm. The coincidence noted between the birth-date and death-date is usually thought in this case (since it refers to the Friday and Saturday in Holy Week, the movable feast rather than the day of the month) to fortify the argument that Raphael
Raphael
was also born on Good Friday, i.e., 28 March 1483. But there is a notable ambiguity in Michiel’s note, not often noticed: Morse
Venerdi Santo venendo il Sabato, giorno della sua Nativita, may also be taken to mean that his birthday was on Saturday, and in that case the awareness could as well be the date, thus producing a birth-date of 7 April 1483." Shearman:573. ^ Vasari:231 ^ Chastel André, Italian Art,p. 230, 1963, Faber ^ Walter Friedländer, Mannerism
Mannerism
and Anti- Mannerism
Mannerism
in Italian Painting, p.42 (Schocken 1970 edn.), 1957, Columbia UP ^ Blunt:76 ^ See Jones & Penny:102-4 ^ The 1772 Discourse Online text of Reynold's Discourses The whole passage is worth reading. ^ Wölfflin:82, ^ John Ruskin
John Ruskin
(1853), Pre-Raphaelitism, p. 127 online at Project Gutenburg ^ Berenson, Bernard, Italian Painters of the renaissance, Vol 2 Florentine and Central Italian Schools, Phaidon 1952 (refs to 1968 ed), p.94 ^ For what it is worth, Amazon UK's "Renaissance" top 25 bestsellers list included five books with Leonardo in the title, three with Michelangelo, and one with Raphael."Bestsellers in Renaissance". Amazon.com. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  Their US site does not run a comparable list.

References

Blunt, Anthony, Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450–1660, 1940 (refs to 1985 edn), OUP, ISBN 0-19-881050-4 Gould, Cecil, The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National Gallery Catalogues, London 1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5 Ettlinger, Leopold D., and Helen S. Ettlinger, Raphael, Oxford: Phaidon, 1987, ISBN 0714823031 Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, Raphael, Yale, 1983, ISBN 0-300-03061-4 Landau, David in:David Landau & Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print, Yale, 1996, ISBN 0-300-06883-2 Pon, Lisa, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi, Copying and the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
Print, 2004, Yale UP, ISBN 978-0-300-09680-4 Shearman, John; Raphael
Raphael
in Early Modern Sources 1483–1602, 2003, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09918-5 Vasari, Life of Raphael
Raphael
from the Lives of the Artists, edition used: Artists of the Renaissance selected & ed Malcolm Bull, Penguin 1965 (page nos from BCA edn, 1979) Wölfflin, Heinrich; Classic Art; An Introduction to the Renaissance, 1952 in English (1968 edition), Phaidon, New York.

Further reading

The standard source of biographical information is now: V. Golzio, Raffaello nei documenti nelle testimonianze dei contemporanei e nella letturatura del suo secolo, Vatican City and Westmead, 1971 The Cambridge Companion to Raphael, Marcia B. Hall, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-80809-X, New catalogue raisonné in several volumes, still being published, Jürg Meyer zur Capellen, Stefan B. Polter, Arcos, 2001–2008 Raphael. James H. Beck, Harry N. Abrams, 1976, LCCN 73-12198, ISBN 0-8109-0432-2 Raphael, Pier Luigi De Vecchi, Abbeville Press, 2003. ISBN 0789207702 Raphael, Bette Talvacchia, Phaidon Press, 2007. ISBN 9780714847863 Raphael, John Pope-Hennessy, New York University Press, 1970, ISBN 0-8147-0476-X Raphael: From Urbino
Urbino
to Rome; Hugo Chapman, Tom Henry, Carol Plazzotta, Arnold Nesselrath, Nicholas Penny, National Gallery Publications Limited, 2004, ISBN 1-85709-999-0 (exhibition catalogue) The Raphael
Raphael
Trail: The Secret History of One of the World's Most Precious Works of Art; Joanna Pitman, 2006. ISBN 0091901715 Raphael
Raphael
– A Critical Catalogue of his Pictures, Wall-Paintings and Tapestries, catalogue raisonné by Luitpold Dussler published in the United States by Phaidon Publishers, Inc., 1971, ISBN 0-7148-1469-5 (out of print, but there is an online version here [1]) Wolk-Simon, Linda. (2006). Raphael
Raphael
at the Metropolitan: The Colonna Altarpiece. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9781588391889.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Raffaello Sanzio.

Raphael
Raphael
at Encyclopædia Britannica Raphael
Raphael
Research Resource from the National Gallery, London V&A London online feature on the Raphael
Raphael
Cartoons Ten drawings and three paintings from the Royal Collection Web Gallery of Art Most of the Raphael/Raimondi prints from the San Francisco Museums Raphael
Raphael
Project/Raffael Projekt Website of Teylers Museum on the provenance of the Raphael
Raphael
drawings in the museum's collection. Birthplace Museum of Raphael, Urbino, on the Artist's Studio Museum Network website Raphael
Raphael
Santi at ColourLex.

v t e

Raphael

Early works

Resurrection of Christ Baronci Altarpiece St. Sebastian Oddi Altar Solly Madonna Mond Crucifixion Three Graces St Michael Portrait of a Man Connestabile Madonna Madonna and Child The Marriage of the Virgin Vision of a Knight St George Colonna Altarpiece Portrait of Perugino 1 Madonna and Child with the Book

Florentine period

Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga 2 Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro 2 Portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro Self-portrait Madonna of the Grand Duke Ansidei Madonna Young Man with an Apple Christ Blessing Madonna Terranuova Madonna of the Goldfinch Madonna of the Meadow Esterhazy Madonna Small Cowper Madonna St George and the Dragon La donna gravida Portrait of Agnolo Doni Portrait of Maddalena Doni Madonna of the Pinks Young Woman with Unicorn Madonna with Beardless St Joseph Saint Catherine of Alexandria Canigiani Holy Family La belle jardinière Deposition of Christ Portrait of a Young Woman Tempi Madonna Madonna Colonna Madonna de Bogota

Roman period

Portrait of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese La disputa The School of Athens Madonna of Loreto Aldobrandini Madonna Madonna with the Blue Diadem Portrait of a Cardinal Alba Madonna Niccolini-Cowper Madonna The Parnassus Cardinal and Theological Virtues The Prophet Isaiah The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple Portrait of Pope Julius II Madonna of Foligno Madonna with the Fish Triumph of Galatea Sistine Madonna Madonna of the Candelabra Madonna della seggiola Madonna dell'Impannata Madonna della tenda The Fire in the Borgo The Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila Deliverance of Saint Peter The Mass at Bolsena Portrait of Bindo Altoviti The Sibyls Ecstasy of St. Cecilia Portrait of Balthasar Castiglione La donna velata Portrait of Tommaso Inghirami Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila Portrait of Andrea Navagero and Agostino Beazzano Portrait of Cardinal Bibbiena Church of Sant'Eligio degli Orefici Creation of the World Transfiguration Portrait of Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
with Two Cardinals Christ Falling on the Way to Calvary The Holy Family of Francis I Ezekiel's Vision St. Michael Vanquishing Satan Madonna of the Rose Self-Portrait with a Friend La Fornarina Visitation Portrait of a Young Man Miraculous Draught of Fishes Christ's Charge to Peter Healing of the Lame Man Death of Ananias Stoning of St. Stephen Conversion of the Proconsul Sacrifice at Lystra St Paul in Prison St Paul Preaching in Athens Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia St Margaret and the Dragon

1 Also attributed to Lorenzo di Credi 2 Attributed

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64055977 LCCN: n79041756 ISNI: 0000 0001 2136 483X GND: 118597787 SELIBR: 197348 SUDOC: 027608956 BNF: cb12215591q (data) ULAN: 500023578 NLA: 35442294 NDL: 00453605 NKC: ola2002153926 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV02031 BNE: XX1002094 KulturNav: fdce292e-d882-4e1b-8644-19b32b07ed46 RKD: 65622 SN

.