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Praguerie
The PRAGUERIE was a revolt of the French nobility against King Charles VII in 1440. It was so named because a similar rising had recently taken place in Prague
Prague
, Bohemia
Bohemia
, at that time closely associated with France
France
through the House of Luxembourg
House of Luxembourg
, kings of Bohemia
Bohemia
. Its causes lay in the reforms of Charles VII at the close of the Hundred Years\' War , by which he sought to diminish the anarchy in France
France
and its brigand-soldiery
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Dauphin Of France
The DAUPHIN OF FRANCE ( /ˈdɔːfᵻn/ , also UK : /ˈdoʊfæn/ and US : /doʊˈfæn/ ; French : Dauphin de France, IPA: )—strictly THE DAUPHIN OF VIENNOIS (Dauphin de Viennois)—was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word is French for dolphin , as a reference to the depiction of the animal on their coat of arms . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gallery of Arms * 3 List of Dauphins * 4 In literature * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYGuigues IV , Count of Vienne , had a dolphin on his coat of arms and was nicknamed le Dauphin. The title of Dauphin de Viennois descended in his family until 1349, when Humbert II sold his seigneury , called the Dauphiné , to King Philippe VI on condition that the heir of France assume the title of le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine
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Arthur III, Duke Of Brittany
ARTHUR III (in Breton ARZHUR III) (24 August 1393 – 26 December 1458), known as the Justicier and as ARTHUR DE RICHEMONT, was Lord of Parthenay and titular Count (Earl) of Richmond in England and for eleven months at the very end of his life, Duke of Brittany
Duke of Brittany
and Count of Montfort after inheriting those titles upon the death of his nephew. CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Family * 2 Succession * 3 Ancestry * 4 References * 5 See also * 6 External links LIFEArthur was a younger son of Duke John IV and his third wife Joanna of Navarre , and so a member of the Ducal House of Montfort . Arthur was born at the Château de Suscinio . Just a year before his own death, Arthur succeeded his nephew Peter II as Duke
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Duke Of Bourbon
DUKE OF BOURBON (French : Duc de Bourbon) is a title in the peerage of France . It was created in the first half of the 14th century for the eldest son of Robert of France, Count of Clermont and Beatrice of Burgundy , heiress of the lordship of Bourbon . In 1416, with the death of John of Valois , the Dukes of Bourbon were simultaneously Dukes of Auvergne . Although the senior line came to an end in 1527, the cadet branch of La Marche-Vendome would later succeed to the French throne as the Royal House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
, which would later spread out to other kingdoms and duchies in Europe. After this date, the title was given to several Princes of Condé and sons of the French Royal family
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Mercenaries
A MERCENARY is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities by desire for private gain". Mercenaries fight for money or other recompense rather than for political interests. In the last century, and as reflected in the Geneva Convention , mercenaries have increasingly come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. However, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, as financial and political interests may overlap
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Louis, Count Of Vendôme
LOUIS DE BOURBON (Louis I, Count of Vendôme) (1376 – December 21, 1446, Tours
Tours
), younger son of John I, Count of La Marche
John I, Count of La Marche
and Catherine de Vendôme , was Count of Vendôme from 1393, and Count of Castres from 1425 until his death. He was a supporter of the duc d\' Orléans
Orléans
, and obtained valuable posts at court, becoming Grand Chamberlain of France in 1408 and Grand Maître de France in 1413. As part of the Armagnac faction, he was at odds with the Burgundians, and was imprisoned by them twice, in 1407 and 1412. In 1414, he married Blanche (d. 1421), daughter of Hugh II, Count of Roucy ; but he was captured the next year by the English at the Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
, and held by them for some time. Freed, he was later captured at the Battle of Cravant , 31 July 1423
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Poitou
POITOU (French pronunciation: ​ ), in Poitevin : POETOU, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers
Poitiers
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Culture * 4 In fiction * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links GEOGRAPHYThe main historical cities are Poitiers
Poitiers
(historical capital city), Châtellerault (France's kings establishment in Poitou), Niort, La Roche-sur-Yon, Thouars, and Parthenay. HISTORYThe region of Poitou
Poitou
was called Thifalia (or Theiphalia) in the sixth century. There is a marshland called the Poitevin Marsh
Marsh
(French Marais Poitevin ) on the Gulf of Poitou
Poitou
, on the west coast of France, just north of La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and west of Niort
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Feudal
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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Dauphiné
The DAUPHINé (/ˌdoʊfiːˈneɪ/ or /ˈdoʊfɪneɪ/ ; French pronunciation: ) or DAUPHINé VIENNOIS, formerly DAUPHINY in English, is a former province in southeastern France
France
, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère
Isère
, Drôme
Drôme
, and Hautes-Alpes . The Dauphiné
Dauphiné
was originally the County of Albon. In the 12th century, the local ruler Count Guigues IV of Albon (c.1095–1142) bore a dolphin on his coat of arms and was nicknamed "le Dauphin" (French for dolphin). His descendants changed their title from Count of Albon to Dauphin of Viennois . The state took the name of Dauphiné. It became a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in the 11th century
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Auvergne (province)
The HISTORY OF THE AUVERGNE dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France. It was originally the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne
Auvergne
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economic history * 3 Cultural history * 4 Notable residents * 5 Notable fictional residents * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Auvergne
Auvergne
was a province of France deriving its name from the Arverni , a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area, well known for its fierce resistance, led by Vercingetorix , to conquest by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Christianized by Saint Austremoine , Auvergne
Auvergne
was quite prosperous during the Roman period. After a short time under the Visigoths , it was conquered by the Franks
Franks
in 507
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Saintonge
SAINTONGE (French pronunciation: ​ ), historically spelled XAINTONGE and XAINCTONGE, is a former province of France located on the west central Atlantic coast. The capital city was Saintes (Xaintes, Xainctes). Other principal towns include Saint-Jean-d\'Angély , Jonzac , Frontenay-Rohan-Rohan , Royan , Marennes , Pons , and Barbezieux-Saint-Hilaire . The borders of the province slightly shifted through history, and some mapmakers, such as Nicolas Sanson (1650), Johannes Blaeu
Johannes Blaeu
(1662), and Bernard Antoine Jaillot (1733), show it extending into Cognac , traditionally part of Angoumois , and to the parishes of Braud-et-Saint-Louis and Étauliers , part of the Pays Gabay on the right bank of the Gironde River
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Georges De La Tremoille
GEORGES DE LA TRéMOILLE (c.1382 –6 May 1446) was Count de Guînes from 1398 to 1446 and Grand Chamberlain of France to King Charles VII of France . He sought reconciliation between Philip, Duke of Burgundy and Charles VII during their estrangement in the latter part of the Hundred Years\' War . De la Trémoille was a political opponent of Arthur de Richemont within the French court. Most historians take a poor view of his career, assessing that he placed personal advancement before the public interest, albeit the traditional historical interpretation of the Grand Chamberlain as Jeanne d\'Arc 's opponent has been revised. La Trémoille was captured at Agincourt in 1415. He regained his freedom shortly afterward and dedicated the rest of his career to court life and diplomacy. He made an advantageous marriage to Joan II of Auvergne (1378 –1424), Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne (1404 –1424)
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