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Potsdam Agreement
The Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreement (German: Potsdamer Abkommen) was the agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. It concerned the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany, its borders, and the entire European Theatre of War territory. It also addressed Germany's demilitarisation, reparations and the prosecution of war criminals. Executed as a communiqué, the agreement was not a peace treaty according to international law, although it created accomplished facts. It was superseded by the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany signed on 12 September 1990. As De Gaulle had not been invited to the Conference, the French resisted implementing the Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreements within their occupation zone. In particular, the French refused to resettle any expelled Germans from the east
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Peace Of Riga
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga
Riga
(Polish: Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga
Riga
on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine. The treaty ended the Polish–Soviet War.[2] The Soviet-Polish borders established by the treaty remained in force until the Second World War. They were later redrawn during the Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference.Contents1 Background 2 Negotiations 3 Terms 4 Treaty aftermath 5 Further consequences 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesBackground[edit] Further information: Polish–Soviet War World War I
World War I
removed former imperial borders across Europe
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Clement Attlee
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS[1] (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. In 1940, Attlee took Labour into the wartime coalition government and served under Winston Churchill, becoming the first person to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He went on to lead the Labour Party to an unexpected landslide victory at the 1945 general election; forming the first Labour majority government, and a mandate to implement its postwar reforms
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Treaty Of Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
[zɡɔˈʐɛlɛt͡s] ( listen) (German: Görlitz, Upper Sorbian: Zhorjelc, Czech: Zhořelec) is a town in south-western Poland
Poland
with 32,322 inhabitants (2012). It lies in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Jelenia Góra Voivodeship). It is the seat of Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
County, and also of the smaller district of Gmina
Gmina
Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
(although it is not part of the territory of the latter, as the town is an urban gmina in its own right)
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Belgian Annexation Plans After The Second World War
After the defeat of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II
World War II
in 1945, Belgium planned to annex parts of the territory along the Belgian–German border. In addition to monetary compensations and the lending of labour forces, this was considered a way of reparations. In mid-April 1949, Belgium
Belgium
surprisingly waived any interest in most of the previously claimed areas.Contents1 Actual assignments 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksActual assignments[edit]Map of territorial changesOn 1 April 1949 (prior to the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany), the border areas in the territories of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
were temporarily divested to Belgium
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Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
Palace (German: Schloss Cecilienhof) is a palace in Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
Germany
built from 1914 to 1917 in the layout of an English Tudor manor house. Cecilienhof
Cecilienhof
was the last palace built by the House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
that ruled the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and the German Empire
German Empire
until the end of World War I. It is famous for having been the location of the Potsdam
Potsdam
Conference in 1945, in which the leaders of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States made important decisions affecting the shape of post World War II Europe and Asia
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Polish Areas Annexed By Nazi Germany
Following the Invasion of Poland
Invasion of Poland
at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and placed directly under the German civil administration. The rest of Nazi occupied Poland
Poland
was renamed as the General Government
General Government
district.[1] The annexation was part of the "fourth" partition of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union, outlined months before the invasion, in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.[2] Some smaller territories were incorporated directly into the existing Gaue East Prussia
East Prussia
and Silesia, while the bulk of the land was used to create new Reichsgaue
Reichsgaue
Danzig-West Prussia
Danzig-West Prussia
and Wartheland
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Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
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Wikisource
Wikisource
Wikisource
is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource
Wikisource
is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l'Homme), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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United Kingdom General Election, 1945
Winston Churchill ConservativeAppointed Prime Minister Clement Attlee Labour1931 election MPs1935 election MPs1945 election MPs1950 election MPs1951 election MPsThe 1945 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.[1] The results were counted and declared on 26 July, to allow time to transport the votes of those serving overseas. The result was an unexpected landslide victory for Clement Attlee's Labour Party, over Winston Churchill's Conservatives.[2] It was the first time the Conservatives had lost the popular vote since the 1906 election; they would not win it again until 1955
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Casablanca Conference
The Casablanca
Casablanca
Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II. In attendance were United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Also attending and representing the Free French forces
Free French forces
were Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud, though they played minor roles and were not part of the military planning
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Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies during his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill oversaw British victory in the Second World War. Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924 before joining the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. Born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to an aristocratic family, Churchill was the son of an English politician and an American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer
Boer
War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns
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Provisional Government Of The French Republic
The Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic
(gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France
Free France
between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France
France
after Operations Overlord and Dragoon, and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic. Its establishment marked the official restoration and re-establishment of a provisional French Republic, assuring continuity with the defunct French Third Republic. It succeeded the French Committee of National Liberation
French Committee of National Liberation
(CFLN), which had been the provisional government of France
France
in the overseas territories and metropolitan parts of the country (Algeria and Corsica) that had been liberated by the Free French
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Munich Agreement
The Munich
Munich
Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined. The agreement was signed in the early hours of 30 September 1938 (but dated 29 September) after being negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe, excluding the Soviet Union. Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland in the face of demands made by Adolf Hitler. The agreement was signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Italy
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Treaty Of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
Versailles
(French: Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I
World War I
to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly lead to World War I. The other Central Powers
Central Powers
on the German side of World War I
World War I
signed separate treaties.[8] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty
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Silesian Uprisings
The Silesian Uprisings
Silesian Uprisings
(German: Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Polish: Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles
Poles
and Polish Silesians
Silesians
of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I
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