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Pomerania
Pomerania
(Polish: Pomorze; German, Low German
Low German
and Swedish: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
in Central Europe, split between Germany
Germany
and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea".[1] Pomerania
Pomerania
stretches roughly from the Recknitz
Recknitz
and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula
Vistula
river in the east.[2][3] The largest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and towns. The region was strongly affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts, with most of its pre-war inhabitants leaving or being expelled after 1945.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Borders 1.2 Landscape 1.3 Subregions

2 Etymology

2.1 Terminology

3 History

3.1 Prehistory and Early Middle Ages 3.2 High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to Early Modern Age 3.3 Modern Age

4 Demographics

4.1 Hither Pomerania 4.2 Cities and towns with more than 50,000 inhabitants

5 Culture

5.1 Languages and dialects 5.2 Cuisine 5.3 Museums

6 Economy 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 External links

9.1 Internet directories 9.2 Culture and history 9.3 Maps of Pomerania

Geography[edit]

Historical Pomerania

Borders[edit] Pomerania
Pomerania
is the area along the Bay of Pomerania
Bay of Pomerania
of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz
Recknitz
and Trebel in the west and Vistula
Vistula
in the east.[2][3] It formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north.[citation needed] Landscape[edit] Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene. Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is generally rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy.[2] The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas (such as Darß–Zingst) and islands (including Rügen, Usedom, and Wolin) enclosing numerous bays (Bodden) and lagoons (the biggest being the Lagoon of Szczecin). The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Bay (with the Bay of Puck) and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel peninsula
Hel peninsula
and the Vistula
Vistula
peninsula jutting out into the Baltic. Subregions[edit] The Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions:

Hither Pomerania
Hither Pomerania
(Vorpommern) in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz
Recknitz
river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The southernmost part of historical Vorpommern
Vorpommern
(the Gartz
Gartz
area) is now in Brandenburg, while its historical eastern parts (the Oder
Oder
estuary) are now in Poland. Vorpommern
Vorpommern
comprises the historical regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians,[citation needed] otherwise the Principality of Rügen
Rügen
and the County of Gützkow. The West Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
(Zachodniopomorskie) in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line
Oder–Neisse line
to the Wieprza
Wieprza
river, encompassing most of historical Pomerania
Pomerania
in the narrow sense (as well as the northern half of Neumark). The Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza
Wieprza
river to the Vistula
Vistula
delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk. The northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land.

The bulk of Farther Pomerania
Farther Pomerania
is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts (the Słupsk
Słupsk
area) now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania
Pomerania
in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, and also the Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
(the last, however, is sometimes regarded as a part of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
or Kashubia). Parts of Pomerania
Pomerania
and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995. The Pomerania euroregion
Pomerania euroregion
comprises Hither Pomerania
Pomerania
and Uckermark
Uckermark
in Germany, West Pomerania
Pomerania
in Poland, and Scania
Scania
in Sweden.

Typical Pomeranian beach (West Pomeranian Voivodeship)

Wdzydze Lake
Wdzydze Lake
(Pomeranian Voivodeship)

Wolin
Wolin
National Park (West Pomeranian Voivodeship)

Słowiński National Park
Słowiński National Park
(Pomeranian Voivodeship)

Usedom/Uznam (Vorpommern)

Cape Arkona
Cape Arkona
(Vorpommern)

Etymology[edit] "Pomerania" and its cognates in other languages are derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and more, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" literally means "seacoast" or "land by the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea.[4] Pomerania
Pomerania
was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Zemuzil, Duke of the Pomeranians).[5] Pomerania
Pomerania
is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
(c. 1070) and Gallus Anonymous (ca. 1113). Terminology[edit] The term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania
Hither Pomerania
(in historical[6] and German usage) or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
(in common Polish usage). The term "East Pomerania" may similarly carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania
Farther Pomerania
(in historical[6] and German usage), or to Pomerelia
Pomerelia
or the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
(in Polish usage).

West Pomerania East

Stralsund

Anklam

Szczecin

Kołobrzeg

Słupsk

Gdynia

Gdańsk

Current regions Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomeranian Voivodeship) Pomeranian Voivodeship

German terminology (corresponding English term) Pommern[2] (Pomerania) Pomerellen, Pommerellen[2] (Pomerelia)[2] Westpreussen (West Prussia) Kaschubei[citation needed] (Kashubia)

Vorpommern in modern usage excluding Szczecin (Western Pomerania) (Hither Pomerania) Hinterpommern (Farther/Further Pomerania) Ostpommern (Eastern Pomerania)

Polish terminology (corresponding English term) Pomorze Zachodnie (Western Pomerania) Pomorze Wschodnie (Eastern Pomerania) Pomorze Gdańskie ( Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Pomerania) before World War II
World War II
Pomorze[2] (Pomerelia,[2] literally Pomerania)

Pomorze Przednie (Hither Pomerania) Pomorze Tylne (Farther/Further Pomerania)

Kashubian terminology (corresponding English term) Zôpadnô Pòmòrskô (Western Pomerania) Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô (Eastern Pomerania)

History[edit] Main article: History of Pomerania

Part of a series on the

History of Pomerania

Early history Early Middle Ages High Middle Ages Late Middle Ages Early Modern Age 1806–1933 1933–1945 1945–present

Pomerania
Pomerania
portal

v t e

Prehistory and Early Middle Ages[edit] Main articles: Early history of Pomerania
Early history of Pomerania
and Pomerania
Pomerania
during the Early Middle Ages Settlement in the area called Pomerania
Pomerania
for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula
Vistula
Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago.[7] Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and Veneti during the Iron Age
Iron Age
and, in the Middle Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings.[8][9][10][7][11][12][13] Starting in the 10th century, early Polish dukes on several occasions subdued parts of the region from the southeast, while the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and Denmark augmented their territory from the west and north.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to Early Modern Age[edit] Main articles: Pomerania
Pomerania
during the High Middle Ages, Pomerania
Pomerania
during the Late Middle Ages, and Pomerania
Pomerania
during the Early Modern Age In the 12th century, narrow Pomerania
Pomerania
became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg
Otto of Bamberg
(the Apostle of the Pomeranians); at the same time Pomerelia
Pomerelia
became a part of diocese of Włocławek. Since then, the Griffin
Griffin
Duchy of Pomerania
Duchy of Pomerania
stayed with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and the Principality of Rugia
Principality of Rugia
with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland.[21][22][22][23][24] Pomerania, during its alliance in the Holy Roman Empire, shared borders with Slavic state Oldenburg, as well as Poland
Poland
and Brandenburg. The Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
succeeded in integrating Pomerelia
Pomerelia
into their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania
Pomerania
into an increasingly German-settled area; the remaining Wends
Wends
and Polish people, often known as Kashubians, continued to settle within Pomerelia.[25][26] In 1325 the line of the princes of Rügen
Rügen
died out, and the principality was inherited by the Griffins.[27] In 1466, with the Teutonic Order's defeat, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
became again subject to the Polish Crown as a part of Royal Prussia.[28] While the German population in the Duchy of Pomerania
Pomerania
adopted the Protestant reformation
Protestant reformation
in 1534,[29][30][31] the Polish (along with Kashubian) population remained with the Roman Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
severely ravaged and depopulated narrow Pomerania; few years later this same happened to Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(the Deluge).[32] With the extinction of the Griffin
Griffin
house during the same period, the Duchy of Pomerania
Duchy of Pomerania
was divided between the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
and Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
in 1648, while Pomerelia remained in with the Polish Crown.

Stralsund, one of several Hanseatic cities built in typical Brick Gothic style.

Ruins of Augustinians' cloister in Jasienica, Police.

Teutonic Knights' castle in Gniew, Pomerelia.

Modern Age[edit] Main articles: History of Pomerania
History of Pomerania
(1806-1933), History of Pomerania (1933-1945), and History of Pomerania
History of Pomerania
(1945-present)

The Prussian Province of Pommerania within Prussia
Prussia
and the German Empire circa 1871.

Prussia
Prussia
gained the southern parts of Swedish Pomerania
Swedish Pomerania
in 1720,[33]:341–343 invaded and annexed Pomerelia
Pomerelia
from Poland
Poland
in 1772, and gained the remainder of Swedish Pomerania
Swedish Pomerania
in 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars.[33]:363, 364 The former Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania
Pomerania
and the former Swedish parts were reorganized into the Prussian Province of Pomerania,[33]:366 while Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was made part of the Province of West Prussia. With Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire
German Empire
in 1871. Under the German rule the Polish minority suffered discrimination and oppressive measures aimed at eradicating its culture. Following the empire's defeat in World War I, however, Pomorze Gdańskie
Pomorze Gdańskie
Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was returned to the rebuilt Polish state (the region once called by the Germans
Germans
the Polish Corridor), while German-majority Gdansk/Danzig was transformed into the independent Free City of Danzig. Germany's Province of Pomerania was expanded in 1938 to include northern parts of the former Province of Posen–West Prussia, and in late 1939 the annexed Pomorze Gdańskie/ Polish Corridor
Polish Corridor
became part of the wartime Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis
Nazis
deported the Pomeranian Jews to a reservation near Lublin[34] and, in Pomerelia. The Polish population suffered heavily during the Nazi oppression; more than 40,000 died in executions, death camps, prisons and forced labour, primarily those who were teachers, businessmen, priests, politicians, former army officers, and civil servants.[35] Thousands of Poles
Poles
and Kashubians suffered deportation, their homes taken over by the German military and civil servants, as well as some Baltic Germans
Germans
resettled there between 1940-1943. After Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the German–Polish border was shifted west to the Oder–Neisse line, and all of Pomerania
Pomerania
was under Soviet military control.[33]:512–515[36]:373ff The German citizens of the former eastern territories of Germany
Germany
and Poles
Poles
of German ethnicity from Pomerelia
Pomerelia
were expelled, and the area was resettled primarily with Poles
Poles
of Polish ethnicity, (some themselves expellees from former eastern Poland) and some Poles
Poles
of Ukrainian ethnicity (resettled under Operation Vistula) and few Polish Jews.[36]:381ff[37][38] Most of Hither or Western Pomerania (Vorpommern) remained in Germany, and at first about 500,000 fled and expelled Farther Pomeranians found refuge there, later many moved on to other German regions and abroad. Today German Hither Pomerania forms the eastern part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, while the Polish part is divided between the West Pomeranian and Pomeranian voivodeships, with their capitals in Szczecin
Szczecin
and Gdańsk. During the 1980s, the Solidarity and Die Wende
Die Wende
("the change") movements overthrew the Communist regimes implemented during the post-war era; since then, Pomerania
Pomerania
is democratically governed. Pomerania
Pomerania
still lives in the country of Brazil
Brazil
in a colony where the language is still spoken. The arrival of Pomerania
Pomerania
immigrants with Germans
Germans
and Italians helped form the state of Espírito Santo
Espírito Santo
since the early 1930s,[39] from Gustavo Barreto. Their importance and respect are one of the cultural signatures of the area. Brazilian city Pomerode
Pomerode
(state os Santa Catarina) was founded by Pomeranian Germans in 1861 and is considered the most typically German of all German towns of southern Brazil. Demographics[edit]

Kashubians
Kashubians
in regional dress

See also: Historical demography of Pomerania Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
is inhabited by German Pomeranians. In the eastern parts, Poles
Poles
are the dominating ethnic group since the territorial changes of Poland
Poland
after World War II, and the resulting Polonization. Kashubians, descendants of the medieval Slavic Pomeranians, are numerous in rural Pomerelia.

Polish voivodeship/ German landschaft Capital Registration plates Area (km²) Population Polish 31 December 1999 German December 2010 Territorial code

Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (northern half) Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
(Voivod office) Toruń
Toruń
(Voivod council) C 17,969.72 2,100,771 04

Pomeranian Voivodeship Gdańsk G 18,292.88 2,192,268 22

West Pomeranian Voivodeship Szczecin Z 22,901.48 1,732,838 32

Polish Pomerania
Pomerania
and Kuyavia
Kuyavia
total 59,164.08 6,025,877

Vorpommern-Greifswald Greifswald VG and locally optional: ANK, GW, HGW, PW, SBG, UEM, WLG 3,927 245,733

Vorpommern-Rügen Stralsund VR and locally optional: GMN, HST, NVP, RDG, and RÜG 3,188 230,743

German Pomerania
Pomerania
total 7,115 476,476

Hither Pomerania[edit] German Hither Pomerania
Hither Pomerania
had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 (districts of Vorpommern- Rügen
Rügen
and Vorpommern-Greifswald
Vorpommern-Greifswald
combined) - while the Polish districts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012 (cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście
Świnoujście
and Police County combined). So overall, about 1 million people live in the historical region of Hither Pomerania
Hither Pomerania
today, while the Szczecin
Szczecin
metropolitan area reaches even further. Cities and towns with more than 50,000 inhabitants[edit] See also: List of towns in Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
and List of towns in Farther Pomerania Cities in the historical region of Pomerania
Pomerania
(with population figures for 2012):

Szczecin
Szczecin
(West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 408,913; up to 763,321 in the metropolitan area[40]) Stralsund- Greifswald
Greifswald
high level urban center of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (population 113,128), including:

Stralsund
Stralsund
(57,357) Greifswald
Greifswald
(Low German: Griepswohld) (55,771)

Koszalin
Koszalin
(West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 109,343) Słupsk
Słupsk
(Pomeranian Voivodeship, 94,849) Stargard
Stargard
(West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 69,724)

Szczecin

Stralsund

Other cities in the Pomeranian and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships:

Tricity metropolitan area (Pomeranian Voivodeship) (population in 2012: at least 1,035,000; area 1,332,51 km²), including:

Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(460,427) Gdynia
Gdynia
(248,726) Wejherowo
Wejherowo
(50,375)

Toruń
Toruń
(Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, 205,934) Grudziądz
Grudziądz
(Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, 96,042) Tczew
Tczew
(Pomeranian Voivodeship, 60,279)

Gdańsk

Culture[edit] Languages and dialects[edit]

Section of a detailed map from Meyers Kleiner Hand-Atlas published by Julius Meyer in Leipzig and Vienna in 1892.

In the German part of Pomerania, Standard German
Standard German
and the East Low German Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch and Central Pomeranian dialects are spoken, though Standard German
Standard German
dominates. Polish is the dominating language in the Polish part; Kashubian dialects are also spoken by the Kashubians
Kashubians
in Pomerelia. East Pomeranian, the East Low German
Low German
dialect of Farther Pomerania
Farther Pomerania
and western Pomerelia, Low Prussian, the East Low German
Low German
dialect of eastern Pomerelia, and Standard German
Standard German
were dominating in Pomerania east of the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
before most of its speakers were expelled after World War II. Slovincian was spoken at the Farther Pomeranian–Pomerelian frontier, but is now extinct. Kashubian and East Low German
Low German
are also spoken by the descendants of émigrées, most notably in the Americas (e.g. Argentina, Brazil, Chile
Chile
and Canada). Cuisine[edit] For typical food and beverages of the region, see Pomeranian cuisine. Museums[edit]

National Museum in Szczecin
Szczecin
(Pałac Sejmu Stanów Pomorskich, German Landeshaus)

The Pomeranian State Museum
Pomeranian State Museum
in Greifswald, dedicated to the history of Pomerania, has a variety of archeological findings and artefacts from the different periods covered in this article. At least 50 museums in Poland
Poland
cover history of Pomerania, the most important of them The National Museum in Gdańsk, Central Pomerania
Pomerania
Museum in Słupsk,[41] Darłowo
Darłowo
Museum,[42] Koszalin
Koszalin
Museum,[43] National Museum in Szczecin.[44] Economy[edit] Agriculture primarily consists of raising livestock, forestry, fishery and the cultivation of cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes. Industrial food processing is increasingly relevant in the region. Since the late 19th century, tourism has become an important sector of the economy, primarily in the numerous seaside resorts along the coast. Key producing industries are shipyards, mechanical engineering facilities (i.a. renewable energy components), sugar refineries, paper and wood fabricators.[2] Service industries today are an important economical factor in Pomerania, most notably with logistics, information technology, life sciences/biotechnology/health care and other high tech branches often clustering around research facilities of the Pomeranian universities. See also[edit]

Pomerania
Pomerania
portal

German exonyms (Pomorze) History of Pomerania Kashubian-Pomeranian Association Pomerania
Pomerania
State Museum Pomeranian (dog) Pomerode Pomeranian (other)

Footnotes[edit]

^ Der Name Pommern (po more) ist slawischer Herkunft und bedeutet so viel wie „Land am Meer“. (Pommersches Landesmuseum, German) ^ a b c d e f g h i The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-07 Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania
Pomerania
[1] ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania
Pomerania
[2]: " Pomerania
Pomerania
is the medieval Latin form of German Pommern, itself a loanword in German from Slavic. The Polish word for Pomerania
Pomerania
is Pomorze, composed of the preposition po, "along, by," and morze, "sea." The Slavic word for sea, more, which becomes morze in Polish, comes from the Indo-European noun *mori–, "sea," the source of Latin mare, "sea," and the mer- of English mermaid." ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.23,24, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ a b e.g. here (Sheperd Atlas), or in old Enc Britannica ^ a b Johannes Hoops, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Walter de Gruyter, p.422, ISBN 3-11-017733-1 ^ From the First Humans to the Mesolithic Hunters in the Northern German Lowlands, Current Results and Trends - THOMAS TERBERGER. From: Across the western Baltic, edited by: Keld Møller Hansen & Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, 2006, ISBN 87-983097-5-7 OCLC 43087092, Sydsjællands Museums Publikationer Vol. 1 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2008-10-01.  ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.18ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 ^ Horst Wernicke, Greifswald, Geschichte der Stadt, Helms, 2000, pp.16ff, ISBN 3-931185-56-7 ^ A. W. R. Whittle, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.198, ISBN 0-521-44920-0 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.22,23, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.pp.237ff,244ff ^ Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.261,345ff ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.32, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092:pagan reaction of 1005 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.25, ISBN 3-88680-272-8: pagan uprising that also ended the Polish suzerainty in 1005 ^ A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs
Slavs
Christendom, CUP Archive, 1970, p.129, ISBN 0-521-07459-2: abandoned 1004 - 1005 in face of violent opposition ^ Nora Berend, Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe
Central Europe
and Rus' C. 900-1200, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.293, ISBN 0-521-87616-8, ISBN 978-0-521-87616-2 ^ David Warner, Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, Manchester University Press, 2001, p.358, ISBN 0-7190-4926-1, ISBN 978-0-7190-4926-2 ^ Michael Borgolte, Benjamin Scheller, Polen und Deutschland vor 1000 Jahren: Die Berliner Tagung über den "Akt von Gnesen", Akademie Verlag, 2002, p.282, ISBN 3-05-003749-0, ISBN 978-3-05-003749-3 ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.35ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092 ^ a b Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.40ff, ISBN 3-11-015435-8 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.34ff,87,103, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Jan M. Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.43, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092 ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.77ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.45ff, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.115,116, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.186, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.205–212, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Richard du Moulin Eckart, Geschichte der deutschen Universitäten, Georg Olms Verlag, 1976, pp.111,112, ISBN 3-487-06078-7 ^ Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.43ff, ISBN 3-11-015435-8 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.263,332,341–343,352–354, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ a b c d Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ Leni Yahil, Ina Friedman, Haya Galai, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945, Oxford University Press US, 1991, ISBN 0-19-504523-8, p.138: February 12/13, 1940, 1,300 Jews of all sexes and ages, extreme cruelty, no food allowed to be taken along, cold, some died during deportation, cold and snow during resettlement, 230 dead by March 12, Lublin reservation chosen in winter, 30,000 Germans
Germans
resettled before to make room [3] ^ "Poland". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ a b Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092 ^ Tomasz Kamusella in Prauser and Reeds (eds), The Expulsion of the German communities from Eastern Europe, p.28, EUI HEC 2004/1 [4] ^ Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak, Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948, 2001, p.114, ISBN 0-7425-1094-8, ISBN 978-0-7425-1094-4 ^ "Os pomeranos: um povo sem Estado finca suas raízes no Brasil" (in Portuguese).  ^ Entwicklungsprioritäten der Metropolregion Stettin (German PDF; 1,7 MB) ^ "Muzeum Pomorza Środkowego - Strona główna". Muzeum.slupsk.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.  ^ "Muzeum w Darłowie - Zamek Książąt Pomorskich zaprasza". Muzeumdarlowo.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.  ^ "Muzeum w Koszalinie". Muzeum.koszalin.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.  ^ "Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie - Aktualności". Muzeum.szczecin.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pomerania.

Internet directories[edit]

Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Pomerania
Pomerania
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Kuyavia
Kuyavia
and Pomerania
Pomerania
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Mecklenburg- Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Culture and history[edit]

Pomeranian dukes castle in Szczecin
Szczecin
(Polish, German, English) Pomeranian (German)  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pomerania". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Collection of historical eBooks about Pomerania
Pomerania
(German)  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pomerania". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Maps of Pomerania[edit]

Map of Pomerania
Pomerania
as in 1905, in German Woiewództwa Pomorskie i Małborskie oraz Pomerania
Pomerania
Elektorska, G.B.A.Rizzi-Zannoni 1772 FEEFHS Map Room: German Empire
German Empire
- East (1882) - Pommern (Pomerania), Prussia Pomerania
Pomerania
in 1789

v t e

Geography of Pomerania

Regions

Current

Western Pomerania West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomerelia

Kashubia Pomorskie

Pomerania
Pomerania
euroregion

Former

Farther Pomerania Circipania Lauenburg and Bütow Land Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

Administration

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Złotów County

Towns

Lists

List of towns in Vorpommern List of towns in Farther Pomerania List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania

A–H I–P Q–Z

Largest

>100,000

Tricity

Gdańsk Gdynia Sopot

Szczecin Koszalin

>50,000

Słupsk Stargard Stralsund Greifswald

Islands

Greifswalder Oie Hiddensee Rügen Ummanz Usedom Vilm Wolin

Peninsulae

Fischland-Darß-Zingst Jasmund Hela Mönchgut Wittow

Rivers

Dziwna Grabowa Ina Łeba Oder Parsęta Peene Peenestrom Randow Recknitz Rega Ryck Słupia Świna Tollense Trebel Uecker Vistula Wieprza

Lakes

Lake Dąbie Lake Gardno Kummerower See Lake Łebsko Lake Miedwie

Bays, lagoons

Bay of Gdańsk Bay of Greifswald Bay of Pomerania Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon

National parks

Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
Lagoon Area National Park Jasmund
Jasmund
National Park Lower Oder
Oder
Valley National Park Wolin
Wolin
National Park Słowiński National Park

v t e

History of Pomerania

10,000 BC – 600 AD 600–1100 1100–1300 1300–1500 1500–1806 1806–1933 1933–1945 1945–present

Administrative

Western Pomerania Farther Pomerania (before 1945)

Billung March Northern March Principality of Rügen Duchy of Pomerania

House of Pomerania List of Dukes Cammin Gützkow Schlawe-Stolp Lauenburg-Bütow Partitions Pomerania-Stolp

Swedish Pomerania Brandenburgian Pomerania
Pomerania
(Draheim) Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
1815–1945

Neumark Köslin Region Stettin Region Stralsund
Stralsund
Region Posen- West Prussia
West Prussia
Region List of placenames

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Zachodniopomorskie (after 1945)

Szczecin
Szczecin
Voivodeship Koszalin
Koszalin
Voivodeship Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Kashubia)

Medieval duchies (Samborides) State of the Teutonic Order Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
( Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1466–1772) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1807–1814 West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1919–1939 (Polish Corridor) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1920–1939 Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship

Ecclesiastical

Roman Catholic

Historical

Conversion of Pomerania Diocese of Kolberg (Congress of Gniezno) Diocese of Cammin Diocese of Culm Diocese of Roskilde Diocese of Włocławek
Diocese of Włocławek
(Leslau) Prelature of Schneidemühl

Extant

Archdiocese of Berlin Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg Diocese of Pelplin

Protestant

Protestant Reformation Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Pentecostal Church in Poland Evangelical State Church in Prussia
Prussia
(extinct) Pomeranian Evangelical Church
Pomeranian Evangelical Church
(extinct)

Demography

Archaeological cultures

Hamburg Maglemosian Ertebølle-Ellerbek Linear Pottery Funnelbeaker Havelland Corded Ware Comb Ceramic Nordic Bronze Age Lusatian Jastorf Pomeranian Oksywie Wielbark Gustow Dębczyn (Denzin)

Peoples

Gepids Goths Lemovii Rugii Vidivarii Vistula
Vistula
Veneti Slavic Pomeranians Prissani Rani Ukrani Veleti Lutici Velunzani German Pomeranians Kashubians Poles Slovincians

Major demographic events

Migration Period Ostsiedlung WWII flight and expulsion of Germans Post-WWII settlement of Poles
Poles
and Ukrainians

Languages and dialects

West Germanic

Low German

Low Prussian Central Pomeranian Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch East Pomeranian West Pomeranian

Standard German

West Slavic

Polabian Polish Pomeranian

Kashubian Slovincian

Treaties

1200–1500

Kremmen (1236) Landin (1250) Kępno (1282) Soldin (1309) Templin (1317) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1354) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1370) Thorn (1411) Soldin (1466) Thorn (1466) Prenzlau (1448 / 1472 / 1479) Pyritz (1493)

1500–1700

Grimnitz (1529) Stettin (1570) Franzburg (1627) Stettin (1630) Westphalia (1648) Stettin (1653) Labiau (1656) Wehlau and Bromberg (1657) Oliva (1660) Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679) Lund (1679)

1700–present

Stockholm (1719 / 1720) Frederiksborg (1720) Kiel (1814) Vienna (1815) Versailles (1919) Potsdam (1945)

Coordinates: 54°17′N 18°09′E / 54.29°N 18.15°E / 54.29; 18.15

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130764401 GN

.