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Pasteurellaceae
Actinobacillus Aggregatibacter Avibacterium Basfia Bibersteinia Bisgaardia Chelonobacter Cricetibacter Frederiksenia Gallibacterium Haemophilus Histophilus Lonepinella Mannheimia Mesocricetibacter Muribacter Necropsobacter Nicoletella Otariodibacter Pasteurella Phocoenobacter Seminibacterium Terrahaemophilus Testudinibacter Ursidibacter Vespertiliibacter VolucribacterThe Pasteurellaceae
Pasteurellaceae
comprise a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. Most members live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of birds and mammals, especially in the upper respiratory tract.[1] Pasteurellaceae are typically rod-shaped, and are a notable group of facultative anaerobes
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Conserved Signature Indels
Conserved signature inserts and deletions (CSIs) in protein sequences provide an important category of molecular markers for understanding phylogenetic relationships.[1][2] CSIs, brought about by rare genetic changes, provide useful phylogenetic markers that are generally of defined size and they are flanked on both sides by conserved regions to ensure their reliability. While indels can be arbitrary inserts or deletions, CSIs are defined as only those protein indels that are present within conserved regions of the protein.[2][3][4][5] The CSIs that are restricted to a particular clade or group of species, generally provide good phylogenetic markers of common evolutionary descent.[2] Due to the rarity and highly specific nature of such changes, it is less likely that they could arise independently by either convergent or parallel evolution (i.e. homoplasy) or synapomorphy
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Vibrionales
Aliivibrio Allomonas Beneckea Enhydrobacter Listonella Lucibacterium Photobacterium Salinivibrio VibrioThe Vibrionaceae
Vibrionaceae
are a family of Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
given their own order. Inhabitants of fresh or salt water, several species are pathogenic, including the type species Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae, which is the agent responsible for cholera. Most bioluminescent bacteria belong to this family, and are typically found as symbionts of deep-sea animals.[1] Vibrionaceae
Vibrionaceae
are Gram-negative
Gram-negative
organisms and facultative anaerobes, capable of fermentation. They contain oxidase and have one or more flagella, which are generally polar. Originally, these characteristics defined the family, which was divided into four genera
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Meningitis
Meningitis
Meningitis
is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.[2] The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness.[1] Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises.[1] Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding.[1] If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Integrated Taxonomic Information System
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
(ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.[1] ITIS was originally formed in 1996 as an interagency group within the US federal government, involving several US federal agencies, and has now become an international body, with Canadian and Mexican government agencies participating. The database draws from a large community of taxonomic experts. Primary content staff are housed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and IT services are provided by a US Geological Survey
US Geological Survey
facility in Denver
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Polyphyly
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor. The term is often applied to groups that share characteristics that appear to be similar but have not been inherited from common ancestors; these characteristics are known as homoplasies, and the development and phenomenon of homoplasies is known as convergent evolution. The arrangement of the members of a polyphyletic group is called a polyphyly. Alternatively, polyphyletic is simply used to describe a group whose members come from multiple ancestral sources, regardless of similarity of characteristics
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Monophyly
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Sensu Stricto
Sensu is a Latin
Latin
word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology, geology, linguistics, semiotics, and law. Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular concept, but it also appears in expressions that indicate the convention or context of the usage.Contents1 Common qualifiers 2 Qualifiers and contexts 3 Circumscription 4 Examples in practical taxonomy 5 See also 6 ReferencesCommon qualifiers[edit] Sensu is the ablative case of the noun sensus, here meaning "sense". It is often accompanied by an adjective (in the same case)
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Aeromonadales
Aeromonadaceae SuccinivibrionaceaeThe Aeromonadales
Aeromonadales
are an order of Proteobacteria, with 10 genera in two families.[1] The species are anaerobic.[2] The cells are rod-shaped. Some species of this order are motile by a single polar flagellum; others are not motile. References[edit]^ Aeromonadales
Aeromonadales
Archived April 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature ^ George M. Garrity: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2. Auflage. Springer, New York, 2005, Volume 2: The Proteobacteria, Part B: The Gammaproteobacteria.Taxon identifiersWd: Q489845 EoL: 3281 EPPO: 1AEROO GBIF: 1387 iNaturalist: 152361 ITIS: 956188 NCBI: 135624 WoRMS: 570244This Gammaproteobacteria-related article is a stub
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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
The Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet
Internet
using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the world; GBIF's information architecture makes these data accessible and searchable through a single portal. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes for the world, and scientific names data. The mission of the Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
information Facility (GBIF) is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development
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Alteromonadales
Alteromonadaceae Colwelliaceae Ferrimonadaceae Idiomarinaceae Moritellaceae Pseudoalteromonadaceae Psychromonadaceae ShewanellaceaeThe Alteromonadales are an order of Proteobacteria. Although they have been treated as a single family, the Alteromonadaceae, they were divided into eight by Ivanova et al. in 2004. The cells are straight or curved rods. They are motile by the use of a single flagellum. Most of the species are marine. References[edit]George M. Garrity: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2. Auflage. Springer, New York, 2005, Volume 2: The Proteobacteria, Part B: The Gammaproteobacteria Elena P. Ivanova, Sebastien Flavier, and Richard Christen. (2004). Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and proposal of Pseudoalteromonadaceae fam. nov., Colwelliaceae fam. nov., Shewanellaceae fam. nov., Moritellaceae fam. nov., Ferrimonadaceae fam. nov., Idiomarinaceae fam. nov
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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