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Nerbudda Incident
The Nerbudda incident
Nerbudda incident
was the execution of 197 personnel of the British transport ship Nerbudda and brig Ann in southern Taiwan, on 10 August 1842 during the First Opium War. An additional 87 prisoners died from ill-treatment in captivity. In September 1841, the Nerbudda became shipwrecked off northern Taiwan near Keelung. In March 1842, the Ann also became shipwrecked in central Taiwan near Tai An Harbour. Survivors from both ships were captured and marched south to the capital of Taiwan Prefecture, where they were imprisoned before being beheaded on 10 August. Out of the nearly 300 who landed in Taiwan, 11 survived captivity and execution
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First Opium War
British victoryTreaty of NankingTerritorial changes Hong Kong Island ceded to BritainBelligerents United Kingdom British East India Company China (Qing dynasty)Commanders and leadersLord Palmerston Charles Elliot George Elliot James Bremer Hugh Gough Henry Pottinger William Parker Humphrey Fleming SenhouseDaoguang Emperor Lin Zexu Qishan Guan Tianpei † Chen Huacheng † Ge Yunfei † Yishan Yijing Yang FangStrength19,000+ troops:[1]British Army: 5,000 Indian Army: 7,000 Royal Marines and seamen: 7,06937 ships:[1]14 sloops 8 frigates 3 ships of the line 12 other ships1222,212 troops:2Eight Banners: 16,708 Green Standard Army: 205,504Casualties and losses69 killed in battle[1] 451 wounded[1] 284 executed or died in captivity in Formosa[2][3] 18,000–20,000 killed and wounded3 (est.)[1]1 Comprising 5 troop ships, 3 brigs, 2 steamers, 1
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Manila
Manila (/məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]), officially the City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ], Spanish: Ciudad de Manila), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.[3] It was the first chartered City by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No
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Brig
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts. During the Age of Sail, brigs were seen as fast and maneuverable and were used as both naval warships and merchant vessels. They were especially popular in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Brigs fell out of use with the arrival of the steam ship because they required a relatively large crew for their small size and were difficult to sail into the wind. Their rigging differs from that of a brigantine which has a gaff-rigged mainsail, while a brig has a square mainsail with an additional gaff-rigged spanker behind the mainsail.Contents1 Rigging 2 Hull material 3 Development of the brig 4 Historic usage 5 Historic examples 6 Brigs in fiction 7 Modern recreations 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksRigging[edit]A typical brig sail planIn sailing, a full-rigged brig is a vessel with two square rigged masts (fore and main).[2] The main mast of a brig is the aft one
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Keelung
Keelung, officially known as Keelung City (Chinese: 基隆市; pinyin: Jīlóng Shì), is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan
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Daoguang Emperor
The Daoguang Emperor (16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty. The historian Jonathan Spence characterizes the Daoguang Emperor as a "well meaning but ineffective man," who promoted officials who "presented a purist view even if they had nothing to say about the domestic and foreign problems surrounding the dynasty."[1]Contents1 Early years 2 Reign2.1 Khoja rebellion in Xinjiang 2.2 First Opium War 2.3 Anti-Christianity 2.4 Nobility titles3 Death and legacy 4 Family 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingEarly years[edit] The Daoguang Emperor was born in the Forbidden City, Beijing, and was given the name Mianning (绵宁; 綿寧; Miánníng; Mien-ning)
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East India Company
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company,[1] was an English and later British joint-stock company,[2] that was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies"[citation needed] (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent. Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade[citation needed], particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.[3] The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming relatively late to trade in the Indies
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Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC, FRS (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century. Palmerston dominated British foreign policy during the period 1830 to 1865, when Britain was at the height of her imperial power. He held office almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865. He began his parliamentary career as a Tory, defected to the Whigs in 1830, and became the first Prime Minister of the newly formed Liberal Party in 1859. Palmerston succeeded to his father's Irish peerage in 1802. He became a Tory MP in 1807, and, from 1809 to 1828, served as Secretary at War, as which he was responsible for the organisation of the finances of the army. He first attained Cabinet rank in 1827, when George Canning became Prime Minister, but, like other Canningites, he resigned from office one year subsequently. He served as Foreign Secretary from 1830–4, from 1835–41, and from 1846–51
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Man-of-war
The man-of-war (pl. men-of-war; also man of war, man-o'-war, man o' war, or simply man)[1][2] was a British Royal Navy expression for a powerful warship or frigate from the 16th to the 19th century. The term often refers to a ship armed with cannon and propelled primarily by sails, as opposed to a galley which is propelled primarily by oars. The man-of-war was developed in Portugal in the early 15th century from earlier roundships with the addition of a second mast to form the carrack. The 16th century saw the carrack evolve into the galleon and then the ship of the line. The evolution of the term has been given thus:Man-of-war. "A phrase applied to a line of battle ship, contrary to the usual rule in the English language by which all ships are feminine. It probably arose in the following manner: 'Men of war' were heavily armed soldiers
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Taiwan Strait
The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China
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Penghu
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which is also named Magong
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Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island (Chinese: 香港島; Cantonese Yale: Hēunggóng dóu) is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km²,[1] as of 2008[update]. The island had a population of about 3,000 inhabitants scattered in a dozen fishing villages when it was occupied by the United Kingdom in the First Opium War. In 1842, the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the UK under the Treaty of Nanking and the City of Victoria was then established on the island by the British Force in honour of Queen Victoria. The Central area on the island is the historical, political and economic centre of Hong Kong
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Manchus
The Manchu[note 2] (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; Abkai: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.[16] They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats.[17][18] The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country.[1] They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region
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Battle Of Chinkiang
 United Kingdom British East India Company Qing ChinaCommanders and leaders Hugh Gough Hailing[1]Strength 6,907 troops[2] 3,000–4,000 troops (est.)[3]Casualties and losses Land:[4]34 killed107 wounded3 missingNaval:[5]3 killed21 wounded 1,000 killed or wounded[6] vteFirst Opium War Kowloon 1st Chuenpi 1st Chusan Barrier 2nd Chuenpi Bogue First Bar Whampoa Broadway 1st Canton 2nd Canton Sanyuanli Amoy Nerbudda 2nd Chusan Chinhai Ningpo Tzeki Chapu Woosung ChinkiangThe Battle of Chinkiang was fought between British and Chinese forces in Chinkiang (Zhenjiang), Jiangsu province, China, on 21 July 1842 during the First Opium War. It was the last major battle of the war. The Chinese force consisted of a garrison of Manchu and Mongol Bannermen.[7] In command of the British forces was Sir Hugh Gough
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Amoy
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away. Xiamen Island was considered to possess one of the world's great natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong
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