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Manila
Manila
(/məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]), officially the City of Manila
Manila
(Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ], Spanish: Ciudad de Manila), is the capital of the Philippines
Philippines
and the most densely populated city proper in the world.[3] It was the first chartered City by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949.[9] It is home to many of the Philippines' firsts, including the first university (1590),[10] water system (1878), hotel (1889), electricity (1895), oceanarium (1913),[11] stock exchange (1927), flyover (1930s), zoo (1959), pedestrian underpass (1960),[12] science high school (1963),[13] city-run university (1965), city-run hospital (1969), and rapid transit system (1984; also considered as the first rapid transit system in Southeast Asia).[14] The Spanish City of Manila
Manila
was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, which was regarded as the official foundation date of the city. Manila
Manila
was also the seat of power for most of the country's colonial rulers. It is the home to many historic sites, some of which were built during the 16th century. In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
listed Manila
Manila
as an alpha- global city.[15] The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015[6], and is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. The term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially defined metropolitan area called Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City
Quezon City
and the Makati Central Business District. It is the most populous region of the country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world,[16] and is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia.[17][18] With about 71,000 people per square kilometer, Manila
Manila
is also the most densely populated city proper in the world. [6][7] The City of Manila
Manila
is located on the eastern shores of the Manila
Manila
Bay. The Pasig River
Pasig River
flows through the middle of the city, dividing it into the north and south. Manila
Manila
is made up of 16 districts: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa
Santa Mesa
and Tondo. Manila
Manila
is also made up of Six Congressional Districts that represents the city on the Lower House of the Philippine Congress.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Precolonial history 2.2 Spanish period 2.3 American period 2.4 Japanese occupation and World War II 2.5 Contemporary period

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Natural hazards 3.3 Pollution

4 Cityscape

4.1 Architecture

5 Demographics

5.1 Crime 5.2 Religion

5.2.1 Christianity 5.2.2 Other faiths

6 Economy

6.1 Tourism 6.2 Shopping

7 Culture

7.1 Museums 7.2 Sports 7.3 Festivities and holidays

8 Law and government

8.1 Finance 8.2 Barangays and Districts

9 Infrastructure

9.1 Transportation 9.2 Utilities

9.2.1 Water and electricity

10 Healthcare 11 Education 12 Sister cities

12.1 Asia
Asia
Pacific 12.2 Europe 12.3 Americas

13 International relations

13.1 Consulates

14 Pending transboundary nominations 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Sources 19 External links

Etymology[edit] Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word nilà, referring to a flowering mangrove tree that grew on the delta of the Pasig River
Pasig River
and the shores of Manila
Manila
Bay. The flowers were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on religious altars or in churches.[19] As nilà products were distributed in other places, people came to refer to the area as Sa may Nilà, Tagalog for "the place where there are nilàs". The word nilà itself is probably from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nila (नील), meaning "indigo tree".[20] History[edit] Main articles: History of Manila
History of Manila
and Timeline of Manila Precolonial history[edit]

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
is the oldest historical record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

Rajah Sulayman

The earliest evidence of human life around present-day Manila
Manila
is the nearby Angono Petroglyphs, dated to around 3000 BC. Negritos, an Australoid
Australoid
people who became the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, lived across the island of Luzon, where Manila
Manila
is located, before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them.[21] The polity of Tondo flourished during the latter half of the Ming dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. The Tondo district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. They were addressed variously as panginuan in Maranao or panginoón in Tagalog ("lords"); anák banwa ("son of heaven"); or lakandula ("lord of the palace"). The Emperor of China
China
considered the Lakans—the rulers of ancient Manila—"王", or kings.[22] In the 13th century, Manila
Manila
consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter on the shore of the Pasig
Pasig
River. It was then settled by the Indianized empire of Majapahit, as recorded in the epic eulogy poem "Nagarakretagama", which described the area's conquest by Maharaja
Maharaja
Hayam Wuruk.[22] Selurong (षेलुरोङ्), a historical name for Manila, is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka.[22] During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah
Bolkiah
from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo's trade with China by attacking its environs and establishing the Muslim Rajahnate of Maynilà (كوتا سلودوڠ; Kota Seludong). The rajahnate was ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
as a satellite state.[23] It established a new dynasty under the local leader, who accepted Islam
Islam
and became Rajah Salalila or Sulaiman I. He established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan Dula in Tondo. Islam
Islam
was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Asia.[24] In 1574, Manila was temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate Lim Hong, who was ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. The city then became the seat of the Spanish colonial government. Spanish period[edit]

The newly rebuilt Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
in 1880 before the earthquake of July 20, 1880, which knocked down the over-a-century old bell tower.

On June 24, 1571, the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
arrived in Manila
Manila
and declared it a territory of New Spain, establishing a city council in what is now the district of Intramuros.[25] López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy, a plot wherein an alliance between datus, rajahs, Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
would band together to execute the Spaniards, along with their Latin American recruits and Visayan allies. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the capital of the Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies
and of the Philippines, which their empire would control for the next three centuries. Manila
Manila
became famous during the Manila– Acapulco
Acapulco
galleon trade, which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe, Africa
Africa
and Hispanic America across the Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
(which was already an entrepôt for goods coming from India, Indonesia
Indonesia
and China), and vice versa. Silver
Silver
that was mined in Mexico
Mexico
and Peru
Peru
was exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems and the spices of Southeast Asia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in Europe
Europe
and North Africa
Africa
were shipped via Mexico
Mexico
to Manila.[26] The city was captured by Great Britain in 1762 as part of the European Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
between Spain, France
France
and Great Britain.[27] The city was then occpuied by the British for almost two years from 1762 to 1764 and remained the capital of the Philippines.[28] Eventually, the British withdrew in accordance with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. An unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoys, who came with the British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal, which explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents.[29][30] The Chinese were then punished for supporting the British invasion, and the fortress city of Intramuros, initially populated by 1200 Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish troops,[31] kept its cannons pointed at Binondo, the world's oldest Chinatown.[32] The Mexican population was concentrated at the south part of Manila,[33][34] and also at Cavite, where ships from Spain's American colonies docked, and at Ermita, an area so named because of a Mexican hermit that lived there.[35] After Mexico
Mexico
gained independence in 1821, Spain
Spain
began to govern Manila directly.[36] Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and education flourished more than they had in the previous two centuries.[37] The opening of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
in 1869 facilitated direct trade and communications with Spain. The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous people, Chinese, Indians, Latinos, and Europeans from the surrounding provinces[38] and facilitated the rise of an ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution, which sought independence from Spain. American period[edit]

Tram
Tram
running along Manila
Manila
during the American period.

After the 1898 Battle of Manila, Spain
Spain
ceded Manila
Manila
to the United States. The First Philippine Republic, based in nearby Bulacan, fought against the Americans for control of the city.[39] The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
and captured President Emilio Aguinaldo, who declared allegiance to the United States
United States
on April 1, 1901. Upon drafting a new charter for Manila
Manila
in June 1901, the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila consisted not of Intramuros
Intramuros
alone but also of the surrounding areas. The new charter proclaimed that Manila
Manila
was composed of eleven municipal districts: presumably Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz and Tondo. In addition, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognized five parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic, Santa Mesa
Santa Mesa
and Singalong—as part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut and San Andres.[40]

The Burnham Plan of Manila.

Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented Insular Government headed by Governor-General William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
invited city planner Daniel Burnham
Daniel Burnham
to adapt Manila
Manila
to modern needs.[41] The Burnham Plan included the development of a road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and the beautification of Manila
Manila
with waterfront improvements and construction of parks, parkways and buildings.[42][43] The planned buildings included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Rizal Park
Rizal Park
to the present Taft Avenue. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue
Taft Avenue
end of the field, facing toward the sea. Along with buildings for various government bureaus and departments, it would form a quadrangle with a lagoon in the center and a monument to José Rizal
José Rizal
at the other end of the field. Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and Agricultural Departments—were completed when World War II
World War II
erupted. Japanese occupation and World War II[edit]

The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila
Manila
in 1945

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations were removed on December 24, 1941. General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
declared Manila
Manila
an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it. Manila
Manila
was occupied by Japanese forces on January 2, 1942. From February 3 to March 3, 1945, Manila
Manila
was the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater of World War II. Some 100,000 civilians were killed in February.[44] At the end of the battle, Manila
Manila
was recaptured by joint American and Philippine troops. It was the second most devastated city in the world, after Warsaw, during the Second World War. Almost all of the structures in the city, particularly in Intramuros, were destroyed. Contemporary period[edit]

Rizal Avenue
Rizal Avenue
in the 1970s before the construction of LRT Line 1

In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
moved the seat of government of the Philippines
Philippines
to Quezon
Quezon
City, a new capital in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1939 during the administration of President Manuel L. Quezon.[45] The move ended any implementation of the Burnham Plan's intent for the government centre to be at Luneta. With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson
Arsenio Lacson
as its first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were appointed before this), Manila
Manila
underwent The Golden Age,[46] once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After Lacson's term in the 1950s, Manila
Manila
was led by Antonio Villegas
Antonio Villegas
for most of the 1960s. Ramon Bagatsing
Ramon Bagatsing
(an Indian-Filipino) was mayor for nearly the entire 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as the "Big Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila. During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, the region of Metro Manila
Manila
was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit of government.[47] On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation on June 24, 1976, Manila
Manila
was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the Philippines
Philippines
for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila
Manila
has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines
Philippines
being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.[48] During the martial law era, Manila
Manila
became a hot-bed of resistance activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime. After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution (predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain in Europe), ousted the authoritarian Marcos from power.[49] In 1992, Alfredo Lim
Alfredo Lim
was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino
Chinese-Filipino
to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienza, who served as his vice mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) "Buhayin ang Maynila" (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities. He was the city's mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office. Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects[50] claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza. Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008 over human rights,[51] charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools,[52] and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal Park
Rizal Park
hostage taking incident, one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Later on, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors filed another case against Lim in 2012, stating that Lim's statement in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them.[53]

The 119th commemoration of Rizal Day
Rizal Day
at the Rizal Park
Rizal Park
with the controversial Torre de Manila
Torre de Manila
in the background.

In 2012, DMCI Homes began constructing Torre de Manila, which became controversial for ruining the sight line of Rizal
Rizal
Park.[54] The tower is infamously known as "Terror de Manila" or the "national photobomber".[55] The Torre de Manila controversy
Torre de Manila controversy
is regarded as one of the most sensationalized heritage issues of the country. In 2017, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines
Philippines
erected a 'comfort woman' statue along Roxas Boulevard, which made Japan expressed regret that such statue was erected in the city despite the healthy relationship between Japan
Japan
and the Philippines.[56][57] In the 2013 elections, former President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
defeated Lim in the mayoral race. During his term, Estrada has paid more than ₱5 billion in city debts and increased the city's revenues from ₱6.2 billion in 2012 to ₱14.6 billion by 2016, resulting in increased infrastructure spending and the betterment of the welfare of the people of Manila. In 2015, the city became the most competitive city in the Philippines, making the city the best place for doing business and for living in. However, despite these achievements, Estrada only narrowly won over Lim in their electoral rematch in 2016.[58] Recently, the City Government is planning to revise existing curfew ordinance since the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional on August 2017. Out of the three cities reviewed by the Supreme Court, namely: the City of Manila, Navotas
Navotas
and Quezon
Quezon
City; only the curfew ordinance of Quezon City was approved.[59][60] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Manila

The iconic Manila Bay
Manila Bay
sunset

ISS photo of Manila
Manila
(just left of center) and surrounding cities

The City of Manila
Manila
is situated on the eastern shore of Manila
Manila
Bay, on the western edge of Luzon, 1300 km from mainland Asia.[61] One of Manila's greatest natural resources is the protected harbor upon which it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia.[62] The Pasig
Pasig
River flows through the middle of city, dividing it into the north and south.[3][4] The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. Almost all of Manila
Manila
sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig
Pasig
River and on some land reclaimed from Manila
Manila
Bay. Manila's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the city's natural variations in topography have been evened out. As of 2013[update], Manila
Manila
had a total area of 42.88 square kilometers.[3][4] In 2017, the City Government approved five reclamation projects: the New Manila Bay–City of Pearl
New Manila Bay–City of Pearl
(New Manila Bay
Manila Bay
International Community) (407.43 hectares), Solar City (148 hectares), the Manila Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares), Manila
Manila
Waterfront City (318 hectares)[63] and Horizon Manila
Manila
(419 hectares). Once completed, it will increase the city's total area from 42.88 km2 (4,288 ha) to 58.3 km2 (5,830 ha). Another reclamation project is possible and when built, it will contain the in-city housing relocation projects.[64] Reclamation projects have been criticized by environmental activists and the Philippine Catholic Church, claiming that these are not sustainable and would put communities at risk of flooding.[65][66] In line of the upcoming reclamation projects, the Philippines
Philippines
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
forged a cooperation to craft the ₱250 million Manila Bay
Manila Bay
Sustainable Development Master Plan to guide future decisions on programs and projects on Manila
Manila
Bay.[67] Climate[edit]

Manila, Philippines

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    14     30 22

    7.3     30 22

    21     32 24

    19     33 25

    139     33 26

    284     32 25

    364     31 25

    476     30 24

    334     31 25

    201     31 24

    111     31 24

    56     30 23

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.5     85 72

    0.3     86 72

    0.8     89 74

    0.7     92 77

    5.5     92 78

    11     90 78

    14     88 77

    19     87 76

    13     87 76

    7.9     88 76

    4.4     87 75

    2.2     85 73

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system, Manila
Manila
has a tropical savanna climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Aw). Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila
Manila
lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that temperatures are hot year-round, rarely going below 21°C or above 39°C. Temperature extremes have ranged from 17.5°C on January 11, 1914,[68] to 39.6°C on May 7, 1915.[69] Humidity levels are usually very high all year round. Manila
Manila
has a distinct dry season from December through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.[70]

Climate data for Port Area, Manila

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.5 (85.1) 30.2 (86.4) 31.9 (89.4) 33.3 (91.9) 33.4 (92.1) 32.1 (89.8) 31.2 (88.2) 30.4 (86.7) 30.6 (87.1) 30.9 (87.6) 30.5 (86.9) 29.6 (85.3) 31.13 (88.04)

Daily mean °C (°F) 25.9 (78.6) 26.3 (79.3) 27.7 (81.9) 29.1 (84.4) 29.5 (85.1) 28.7 (83.7) 28.0 (82.4) 27.4 (81.3) 27.5 (81.5) 27.6 (81.7) 27.1 (80.8) 26.2 (79.2) 27.58 (81.66)

Average low °C (°F) 22.3 (72.1) 22.4 (72.3) 23.6 (74.5) 25.0 (77) 25.7 (78.3) 25.3 (77.5) 24.8 (76.6) 24.4 (75.9) 24.5 (76.1) 24.3 (75.7) 23.8 (74.8) 22.9 (73.2) 24.08 (75.33)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.5 (0.531) 7.3 (0.287) 21.4 (0.843) 18.7 (0.736) 138.6 (5.457) 283.8 (11.173) 364.1 (14.335) 476.3 (18.752) 334.1 (13.154) 200.5 (7.894) 111.4 (4.386) 56.0 (2.205) 2,025.7 (79.753)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.10 mm) 4 2 3 3 10 16 22 22 20 18 14 9 143

Average relative humidity (%) 72 73 66 64 68 76 80 83 81 78 76 75 74.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 176.7 197.8 225.8 258.0 222.7 162.0 132.8 132.8 132.0 157.6 153.0 151.9 2,103.1

Percent possible sunshine 51 61 61 70 57 42 34 34 36 44 45 44 48

Source #1: PAGASA[71]

Source #2: Climatemps.com (sunshine)[72]

Natural hazards[edit] See also: List of earthquakes in the Philippines Swiss Re
Swiss Re
ranked Manila
Manila
as the second riskiest capital city to live in, citing its exposure to natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, typhoons and floods.[73] The seismically active Marikina
Marikina
Valley Fault System poses a threat of a large-scale earthquake with an estimated magnitude between 6–7 and as high as 7.6[74] to Metro Manila
Metro Manila
and nearby provinces.[75] Manila
Manila
has endured several deadly earthquakes, notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick medieval city.[76] The Earthquake
Earthquake
Baroque style was used by architects during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent earthquakes.[77] Manila
Manila
is hit with five to seven typhoons yearly.[78] In 2009, Typhoon Ketsana (Ondoy) struck the Philippines. It led to one of the worst floodings in Metro Manila
Metro Manila
and several provinces in Luzon
Luzon
with an estimated damages worth ₱11 billion ($237 million).[79][80] The floodings caused 448 deaths in Metro Manila
Metro Manila
alone. Following the aftermath of Typhoon
Typhoon
Ketsana, the city began to dredge its rivers and improve its drainage network. Pollution[edit]

Pollution in Manila
Manila
Bay

Due to industrial waste and automobiles, Manila
Manila
suffers from air pollution,[81][82] affecting 98% of the population.[83] Air pollution alone causes more than 4,000 deaths yearly.[84] On a 1995 report, Ermita
Ermita
is regarded as Manila's most air polluted district due to open dump sites and industrial waste.[85] According to a report in 2003, the Pasig River
Pasig River
is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste dumped daily.[86] The city is the second biggest waste producer in the country with 1,151.79 tons (7,500.07 cubic meters) per day, after Quezon City
Quezon City
which yields 1,386.84 tons or 12,730.59 cubic meters per day. Both cities were cited as having poor management in garbage collection and disposal.[87] The Pasig River
Pasig River
Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River
Pasig River
and tributaries for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes.[88] Rehabilitation efforts have resulted in the creation of parks along the riverside, along with stricter pollution controls.[89][90] Cityscape[edit]

The bay skyline of Manila
Manila
as seen from Harbour Square.

Manila
Manila
is a planned city. In 1905, American Architect and Urban Planner Daniel Burnham
Daniel Burnham
was commissioned to design the new capital. His design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement, which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles. The city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic Act No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—the basis of which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city.[91] Two districts were later created, which are Santa Mesa
Santa Mesa
(partitioned off from Sampaloc) and San Andres (partitioned off from Santa Ana). Architecture[edit]

The Luneta Hotel, an example of French Renaissance architecture
French Renaissance architecture
with Filipino stylized beaux art

The façade of the Manila
Manila
Metropolitan Theater, designed by Juan M. Arellano

The façade of the Natividad Building

Manila
Manila
is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and Malay influences.[92] Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio Toledo, Felipe Roxas, Juan M. Arellano
Juan M. Arellano
and Tomás Mapúa
Tomás Mapúa
have designed significant buildings in Manila
Manila
such as churches, government offices, theaters, mansions, schools and universities. Manila
Manila
is also famed for its Art Deco theaters. Some of these were designed by National Artists for Architecture such as Juan Nakpil
Juan Nakpil
and Pablo Antonio. Unfortunately most of these theaters were neglected, and some of it have been demolished. The historic Escolta Street
Escolta Street
in Binondo
Binondo
features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural style, many of which were designed by prominent Filipino architects during the American Rule in the 1920s to the late 1930s. Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are pushing for the rehabilitation of Escolta Street, which was once the premier street of the Philippines.[93] Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive bombardment of the United States
United States
Air Force during World War II. Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed historic Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine Arts), Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau of the Treasury) and the currently under construction San Ignacio Church and Convent (as the Museo de Intramuros). There are plans to rehabilitate and/or restore several neglected historic buildings and places such as Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church and the Manila
Manila
Metropolitan Theater. Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of Binondo, Quiapo, and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of a movement to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful prewar state.[94][95] Since Manila
Manila
is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called Earthquake
Earthquake
Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted.[77] As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries barely affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding area. Modern buildings in and around Manila
Manila
are designed or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in accordance to the country's building code.[96] Demographics[edit]

Population Census of Manila

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1903 219,928 —    

1918 283,613 +1.71%

1939 623,492 +3.82%

1948 983,906 +5.20%

1960 1,138,611 +1.22%

1970 1,330,788 +1.57%

1975 1,479,116 +2.14%

1980 1,630,485 +1.97%

1990 1,601,234 −0.18%

1995 1,654,761 +0.62%

2000 1,581,082 −0.97%

2007 1,660,714 +0.68%

2010 1,652,171 −0.19%

2015 1,780,148 +1.43%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[97][98][99][100]

Binondo, established in 1594, is the world's oldest Chinatown.

People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.

According to the 2015 census, the population of the city was 1,780,148, making it the second most populous city in the Philippines.[6] Manila
Manila
is the most densely populated city in the world, with 71,263 inhabitants per km2 in 2015.[7] District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with 64,710, respectively. District 5 is the least densely populated area with 19,235.[101] In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 974,479 registered voters.[102] Manila's population density dwarfs that of Kolkata
Kolkata
(24,252 inhabitants per km2),[103] Mumbai
Mumbai
(20,482 inhabitants per km2), Paris
Paris
(20,164 inhabitants per km2), Dhaka
Dhaka
(29,069 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district, Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo
Tokyo
(10,087 inhabitants per km2).[101] Manila
Manila
has been presumed to be the Philippines' largest city since the establishment of a permanent Spanish settlement with the city eventually becoming the political, commercial and ecclesiastical capital of the country.[104] Its population increased dramatically since the 1903 census as the population tended to move from rural areas to towns and cities. In the 1960 census, Manila
Manila
became the first Philippine city to breach the one million mark (more than 5 times of its 1903 population). The city continued to grow until the population somehow "stabilized" at 1.6 million and experienced alternating increase and decrease starting the 1990 census year. This phenomenon may be attributed to the higher growth experience by suburbs and the already very high population density of city. As such, Manila exhibited a decreasing percentage share to the metropolitan population[105] from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5%[106] in 1980 and then to 13.8% in 2015. The much larger Quezon City
Quezon City
marginally surpassed the population of Manila
Manila
in 1990 and by the 2015 census already has 1.1 million people more. Nationally, the population of Manila
Manila
is expected to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan
Caloocan
and Davao City
Davao City
by 2020.[107] The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog language of surrounding areas, and this Manila
Manila
form of spoken Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout Metro Manila
Metro Manila
and the Philippines
Philippines
itself. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Korean Filipino, Indian Filipino, and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents' languages at home, aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. A variant of Southern Min, Hokkien (locally known as Lan'nang-oe) is mainly spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino community. Crime[edit]

A Toyota Vios
Toyota Vios
of the Manila
Manila
Police District

Crime in Manila
Manila
is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. Crime in the city is also directly related to the city's changing demographics and unique criminal justice system. Illegal drug trade is a major problem in the city. In Metro Manila alone, 92% of the barangays are affected by illegal drugs.[108] From 2010 to 2015, the city had the second highest index crime rates in the Philippines, with 54,689 cases.[109] By October 2017, the Manila Police District
Manila Police District
(MPD) reported a 38.7% decrease in index crimes, from as a high of 5,474 cases in 2016 to only 3,393 in 2017. MPD's crime solution efficiency also improved, wherein six to seven out of 10 crimes have been solved by the city police force.[110] MPD was cited was the Best Police District in Metro Manila
Metro Manila
in 2017 for registering the highest crime solution efficiency.[111] Religion[edit] Christianity[edit]

Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide
Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide
celebrating its anniversary in Quirino Grandstand, Burnham Green, Rizal
Rizal
Park

As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Manila
Manila
is a predominantly Christian city. As of 2010[update], Roman Catholics were 93.5% of the population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church (2.4%); Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
(1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%); and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of Islam
Islam
and other religions make up the remaining 1.4% of the city's population.[112] Manila
Manila
is the site of prominent Catholic churches and institutions. There are 113 Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral.[113] The Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
Manila
and the oldest established church in the country.[114] Aside from the Manila
Manila
Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the city: Quiapo Church, Binondo
Binondo
Church, and the Minor Basilica of San Sebastián. The San Agustín Church in Intramuros
Intramuros
is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic churches in the city. Manila
Manila
also has other parishes located throughout the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city serves as the base for numerous Catholic missions both within the Philippines
Philippines
and to Asia
Asia
beyond. Several Mainline Protestant
Mainline Protestant
denominations are headquartered in the city. St. Stephen's Parish pro-cathedral in the Sta. Cruz district is the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines' Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue
Taft Avenue
are the main cathedral and central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente
Iglesia Filipina Independiente
(also called the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the Philippine Revolution). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) has several churches in the city. The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
has several locales (akin to parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum) in Punta, Sta. Ana. Evangelical, Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and Seventh-day Adventist denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters of the Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise
Cathedral of Praise
is located along Taft Avenue. Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide also has several branches and campuses in Manila, and celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green and Quirino Grandstand in Rizal
Rizal
Park.

Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
is the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila

The Minor Basilica of San Sebastián is the only all-steel church in Asia.[115]

San Agustín Church in Intramuros, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

Binondo
Binondo
Church serves the Roman Catholic Chinese community

Quiapo Church is the home to the iconic Black Nazarene
Black Nazarene
which celebrates its feasts every January 9

Other faiths[edit] There are many Buddhist and Taoist
Taoist
temples in the city serving the Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
community. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population which worships at Masjid Al-Dahab. Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations Avenue. The National Spiritual Assembly
Spiritual Assembly
of the Bahá'ís of the Philippines, the governing body of the Filipino Bahá'í community, is headquartered near Manila's eastern border with Makati. Economy[edit]

The Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.

Aerial view of Binondo, the city's Chinatown
Chinatown
and business district.

Manila
Manila
is a major center for commerce, banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media, advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. Around 60,000 establishments operates in the city.[116] The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines
Philippines
which annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI, Manila
Manila
was the second most competitive city in the Philippines.[117] Manila
Manila
placed third in the Highly Urbanized City (HUC) category.[118] Manila
Manila
held the title country's most competitive city in 2015, and since then has been making it to the top 3, assuring that the city is consistently one of the best place to live in and do business.[119] Lars Wittig, the country manager of Regus Philippines, hailed Manila
Manila
as the third best city in the country to launch a start-up business.[120] The Port of Manila
Port of Manila
is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The Philippine Ports Authority
Philippine Ports Authority
is the government agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world[121][122] has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila. Another port operator, the Asian Terminal Incorporated, has its corporate office and main operations in the Manila
Manila
South Harbor and its container depository located in Santa Mesa. Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world, was the center of commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its medieval streets. Plans to make the Chinatown
Chinatown
area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street
Escolta Street
of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.[123] Divisoria
Divisoria
in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the Philippines". Numerous shopping malls are located in this place, which sells products and goods at bargain price. Small vendors occupy several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous landmark in Divisoria
Divisoria
is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall that is a part of the Philippine National Railways' Main Station. It attracts 1 million people every month, but is expected to add another 400,000 people when the LRT Line 2 West Extension is constructed, which is set to make it as Manila's busiest transfer station.[124]

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines

Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. The Pandacan
Pandacan
Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum industry, namely Caltex Philippines, Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corporation. The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns, including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil depot to be relocated outside the city by July 2015,[125][126] but it failed to meet this deadline. Most of the oil depot facility inside the 33 hectare compound have been demolished, and plans are put into place to transform it into a transport hub or even a food park. Manila
Manila
is a major publishing center in the Philippines.[127] Manila Bulletin, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros.[128] Other major publishing companies in the country like The Manila
Manila
Times, The Philippine Star
Philippine Star
and Manila Standard Today
Manila Standard Today
are headquartered in the Port Area. The Chinese Commercial News, the Philippines' oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper[129] is headquartered in Binondo. Manila
Manila
serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the Philippines
Philippines
which is located along Roxas Boulevard.[130] Some universal banks in the Philippines
Philippines
that has its headquarters in the city are the Landbank of the Philippines
Philippines
and Philippine Trust Company. Unilever
Unilever
Philippines
Philippines
has its corporate office along United Nations Avenue in Paco.[131] Toyota, a company listed in the Forbes
Forbes
Global 2000, also has its regional office along UN Avenue. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Manila

The historic Fort Santiago
Fort Santiago
in Intramuros.

Manila
Manila
welcomes over 1 million tourists each year.[127] Major tourist destinations include the historic Walled City of Intramuros, the Cultural Center of the Philippines
Philippines
Complex,[note 1] Manila
Manila
Ocean Park, Binondo
Binondo
(Chinatown), Ermita, Malate, Manila
Malate, Manila
Zoo, the National Museum Complex and Rizal
Rizal
Park. Both the historic Walled City of Intramuros and Rizal Park
Rizal Park
were designated as flagship destinations and as a tourism enterprise zones in the Tourism Act of 2009.[132] Rizal
Rizal
Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park and the largest urban park in Asia[133] with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres),[134] The park was constructed as an honor and dedication to the country's national hero José Rizal, who was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. The park was managed by the National Parks and Development Committee. The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled City of Intramuros
Intramuros
is the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the Intramuros
Intramuros
Administration, an attached agency of the Department of Tourism. It contains the famed Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
and the 18th Century San Agustin Church, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Kalesa
Kalesa
is a popular mode of transportation for tourists in Intramuros
Intramuros
and nearby places including Binondo, Ermita
Ermita
and Rizal
Rizal
Park.[135] Known as the oldest chinatown in the world, Binondo
Binondo
was established on 1521 and it was already a hub of Chinese commerce even before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines. Its main attractions are Binondo
Binondo
Church, Filipino-Chinese
Filipino-Chinese
Friendship Arch, Seng Guan Buddhist temple and authentic Chinese restaurants. Manila
Manila
is designated as the country's pioneer of medical tourism, expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually.[136] However, lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its growth.[137] Shopping[edit]

Divisoria
Divisoria
is a popular flea market for locals and tourists.

Manila
Manila
is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia.[138][139] Major shopping malls, department stores, markets, supermarkets and bazaars thrives within the city. One of the city's famous shopping destinations is Divisoria, home to numerous shopping malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban Center and the Lucky Chinatown
Chinatown
Mall. It is also dubbed as the shopping mecca of the Philippines
Philippines
where everything is sold at bargain price. There are almost 1 million shoppers in Divisoria
Divisoria
according to the Manila
Manila
Police District.[140] Binondo, the oldest Chinatown
Chinatown
in the world,[32] is the city's center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese
Filipino-Chinese
merchants with a wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants. Quiapo is referred to as the "Old Downtown", where tiangges, markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are common. C.M. Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
is where lots of department stores are located. Robinsons Place Manila
Robinsons Place Manila
is the largest shopping mall in the city.[141] The mall was the second and the largest Robinsons Malls
Robinsons Malls
built. SM Supermall operates two shopping malls in the city which are the SM City Manila
Manila
and SM City San Lazaro. SM City Manila
Manila
is located on the former grounds of YMCA Manila
Manila
beside the Manila City Hall
Manila City Hall
in Ermita, while SM City San Lazaro
SM City San Lazaro
is built on the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome in Sta. Cruz. The building of the former Manila
Manila
Royal Hotel in Quiapo, which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is now the SM Clearance Center that was established in 1972.[142] The site of the first SM Store is located at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague) Street in San Miguel. Culture[edit] Museums[edit]

The National Museum of Fine Arts.

As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila
Manila
is the home to a number of museums. The National Museum Complex of the National Museum of the Philippines, located in Rizal
Rizal
Park, is composed of the National Museum of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Anthropology and the National Museum of Natural History. The famous painting Juan Luna, the Spoliarium, can be found in the complex. The city also hosts the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources, the National Library. Museums established or run by educational institutions are the Mabini Shrine, the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, UST Museum of Arts and Sciences, and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas.

The National Museum of Natural History at Agrifina Circle, Rizal
Rizal
Park.

Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The Intramuros
Intramuros
Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila
Metropolitan Museum of Manila
is a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts exhibits the Filipino arts and culture. Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila, the city-owned museum that exhibits the city's culture and history, Museo Pambata, a children's museum and a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning, the Museum of Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable political events in the country, and Plaza San Luis, an outdoor heritage public museum that contains a collection of nine Spanish Bahay na Bató houses. Ecclesiastical museums in the located in the city are the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned in Santa Ana, the San Agustin Church Museum and the upcoming Museo de Intramuros
Intramuros
which was housed in the reconstructed San Ignacio Church and Convent. Sports[edit]

Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in Intramuros

The Intramuros
Intramuros
Golf Club

Sports in Manila
Manila
have a long and distinguished history. The city's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball, and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer (April to May). Manila
Manila
has many sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila
Manila
Metrostars.[143] The Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex houses the Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas). The Rizal
Rizal
complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the 1954 Asian Games
1954 Asian Games
and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games, most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship
1960 ABC Championship
and the 1973 ABC Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia
Asia
Championship, was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship
1978 FIBA World Championship
was held at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon
Quezon
City, Southeast Asia's largest indoor arena at that time. Manila
Manila
also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center
Enrique M. Razon Sports Center
and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines
Philippines
and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan's Filoil Flying V Arena
Filoil Flying V Arena
and the Araneta Coliseum
Araneta Coliseum
in Quezon City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball
Basketball
Association now holds their games at Araneta Coliseum
Araneta Coliseum
and Cuneta Astrodome
Cuneta Astrodome
at Pasay; the now defunct Philippine Basketball
Basketball
League played some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. The Manila Storm
Manila Storm
are the city's rugby league team training at Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains Field, Calamba, Laguna. Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Baseball
Baseball
Stadium. The stadium hosts games of Baseball
Baseball
Philippines; Lou Gehrig
Lou Gehrig
and Babe Ruth
Babe Ruth
were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934.[144] Another popular sport in the city are cue sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila.[145] The Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines
Philippines
hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before the match.[146] The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.[147] Festivities and holidays[edit] Further information: Public holidays in the Philippines

Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene
Black Nazarene
(Traslacíon)

Manila
Manila
celebrates civic and national holidays. Since most of the city's citizens are Roman Catholics as a result of the Spanish colonization,[148] most of the festivities are religious in nature. Manila
Manila
Day, which celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571 by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962. It has been annually commemorated under the patronage of John the Baptist, and has always been declared by the national government as a special non-working holiday through Presidential Proclamations. Each of the city's 897 barangays also have their own festivities guided by their own patron saint. The city is also the host to the Procession of the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon), held every January 9, which draws millions of Catholic devotees. Other religious festivities held in Manila
Manila
are the Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and Pandacan
Pandacan
held on the third Sunday of January, the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de Manila
Manila
(Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint of Santa Ana which was held every May 12, and the Flores de Mayo. Non-religious holidays include the New Year's Day, National Heroes' Day, Bonifacio Day and Rizal
Rizal
Day. Law and government[edit]

Manila
Manila
City Hall, the seat of city government.

The Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
is the official residence and office of the President of the Philippines.

Palacio del Gobernador in Intramuros
Intramuros
is home to the Philippine Commission on Elections and Intramuros
Intramuros
Administration.

The Supreme Court of the Philippines.

Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is the national capital of the Philippines
Philippines
and is classified as a Special
Special
City (according to its income)[149][150] and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC). The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor, the 36-member City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the Association of Barangay
Barangay
Captains, and the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan. The members of the City Council are elected as representatives of specific congressional districts within the city. The city, however, have no control over Intramuros
Intramuros
and the Manila North Harbor. The historic Walled City is administered by the Intramuros
Intramuros
Administration, while the Manila
Manila
North Harbor is managed by the Philippine Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies. The barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee the welfare of the city's constituents and cannot exercise their executive powers. The current mayor is Joseph Estrada, who served as the President of the Philippines
Philippines
from 1998 to 2001. He is currently on his second term in serving as the city mayor. The current vice mayor is Dr. Maria Shielah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former Manila
Manila
Vice Mayor Danny Lacuna. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for 3 years. Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park
Rizal Park
to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham
Daniel Burnham
to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon. A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon
Quezon
City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City
Quezon City
but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila
Manila
during World War II and by subsequent administrations. The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president's official residence. Aside from these, important government agencies and institutions such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call the city home. Manila
Manila
also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General Hospital. Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building. In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
Complex. When a new constitution restored the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System
Government Service Insurance System
at reclaimed land at Pasay. The Supreme Court will also transfer to its new campus at Bonifacio Global City, Taguig
Taguig
in 2019.[151] Finance[edit] In the 2016 Annual Financial Report for Local Government published by the Commission on Audit, it is stated that the City of Manila's total income was ₱12.8 billion.[152] It is one of the cities with the highest tax collection and internal revenue allotment.[153] Tax collection alone accounts for ₱8.6 billion out of the total ₱12.8 billion city income in 2016, while the city's total Internal Revenue Allotment from the National Treasury amounts to ₱2.086 billion. Its total asset was worth ₱36.1 billion in 2016.[152] The City of Manila has the highest budget allocation to healthcare among all the cities and municipalities in the Philippines. Manila
Manila
has a total of 14,586 personnel complement by the end of 2015.[154] Barangays and Districts[edit]

Unofficial Barangay
Barangay
Map of the City of Manila
Manila
produced by the City Planning and Development Office

Map of Manila
Manila
produced by the City Planning and Development Office.

Manila
Manila
is divided into 6 Congressional Districts as shown in the map.

District Map of Manila
Manila
that shows its 16 districts.

Manila
Manila
is made up of 897 barangays,[155] which are grouped into 100 Zones for statistical convenience. Manila
Manila
has the most number of barangays in the Philippines.[156] Attempts at reducing its number have not prospered despite local legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed on April 23, 1996—reducing the number from 897 to 150 by merging existing barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite.[157]

District I (2015 population: 415,906)[158] covers the western part of Tondo and is the most densely populated Congressional District. It is the home to one of the biggest urban poor communities. The Smokey Mountain in Balut Island is once known as the largest landfill where thousands of impoverished people lives in the slums. After the closure of the landfill in 1995, mid-rise housing buildings were built in place. This district also contains the Manila
Manila
North Harbour Centre, the Manila
Manila
North Harbor, and the Manila
Manila
International Container Terminal of the Port of Manila. District II (2015 population: 215,457)[158] covers the eastern part of Tondo known as Gagalangin. It contains Divisoria, a popular shopping place in the Philippines
Philippines
and the site of the Main Terminal Station of the Philippine National Railways. District III (2015 population: 221,780)[158] covers Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. It encompasses the so-called "Downtown Manila" or traditional business district of the city and the oldest Chinatown
Chinatown
in the world. District IV (2015 population: 265,046)[158] covers Sampaloc and some parts of Santa Mesa. It contains the University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia. District V (2015 population: 366,714)[158] covers Ermita, Malate, Paco, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Santa Ana. The historic Walled City is located here, along with Manila Cathedral and San Agustin Church, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. District VI (2007 population: 295,245)[158] covers Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Mesa
Santa Mesa
and a portion of Paco. Santa Ana district is known for its 18th Century Santa Ana Church
Santa Ana Church
and historic ancestral houses. Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Philippines
is located here, the most populous university in the Philippines.

Name District Area Population (2015) Density Barangays

km2 sq mi

/km2 /sq mi

Binondo 3 0.6611 0.2553 18,040 27,000 70,000 10

Ermita 5 1.5891 0.6136 10,523 6,600 17,000 13

Intramuros 5 0.6726 0.2597 5,935 8,800 23,000 5

Malate 5 2.5958 1.0022 86,196 33,000 85,000 57

Paco 5 & 6 2.7869 1.0760 82,466 30,000 78,000 43

Pandacan 6 1.66 0.64 87,405 53,000 140,000 38

Port Area 5 3.1528 1.2173 66,742 21,000 54,000 5

Quiapo 3 0.8469 0.3270 28,478 34,000 88,000 16

Sampaloc 4 5.1371 1.9834 265,046 52,000 130,000 192

San Andrés 5 1.6802 0.6487 128,499 76,000 200,000 65

San Miguel 6 0.9137 0.3528 17,464 19,000 49,000 12

San Nicolas 3 1.6385 0.6326 43,069 26,000 67,000 15

Santa Ana 6 1.6942 0.6541 66,656 39,000 100,000 34

Santa Cruz 3 3.0901 1.1931 118,903 38,000 98,000 82

Santa Mesa 6 2.6101 1.0078 110,073 42,000 110,000 51

Tondo 1 & 2 8.6513 3.3403 631,363 73,000 190,000 258

Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main articles: Transportation in Metro Manila, Public transport in Manila, and Major roads in Metro Manila

Jeepney
Jeepney
is one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila.

People waiting at the platform of Recto Terminal Station, the western terminus of LRT Line 2.

Blumentritt Station of the LRT-1

One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila
Manila
is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S. Army jeeps, these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II.[159] The Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota
Toyota
Kijang, which competed directly with jeepneys and followed fixed routes for a set price, once plied the streets of Manila. All types of public road transport plying Manila
Manila
are privately owned and operated under government franchise. On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs, "tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and "trisikads" or "sikads", which are also known as "kuligligs" (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo
Binondo
and Intramuros. Manila
Manila
will phase out all gasoline-run tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles (e-trikes), and plans to distribute 10,000 e-trikes to qualified tricycle drivers from the city.[160][161] As of January 2018, the city has already distributed e-trikes to a number of drivers and operators in Binondo, Ermita, Malate and Santa Cruz.[162] The city is serviced by the LRT Line 1 and Line 2, which form the Manila
Manila
Light Rail Transit System. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line 1 was built, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. These systems are currently undergoing a multibillion-dollar expansion.[163] Line 1 runs along the length of Taft Avenue
Taft Avenue
(N170/R-2) and Rizal Avenue
Rizal Avenue
(N150/R-9), and Line 2 runs along Claro M. Recto Avenue (N145/C-1) and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (N180/R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon
Quezon
City, up to Masinag in Antipolo, Rizal. The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways
Philippine National Railways
lies within the city. One commuter railway within Metro Manila
Metro Manila
is in operation. The line runs in a general north-south direction from Tutuban (Tondo) toward the province of Laguna. The Port of Manila, located at the western section of the city at the vicinity of Manila
Manila
Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines. The Pasig River
Pasig River
Ferry Service which runs on the Pasig River
Pasig River
is another form of transportation. The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
and Clark International Airport. In 2006, Forbes
Forbes
magazine ranked Manila
Manila
the world's most congested city. According to Waze's 2015 "Global Driver Satisfaction Index", Manila
Manila
is the town with the worst traffic worldwide.[164] Manila
Manila
is notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities.[165] The government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in the city. Some of the projects include: the proposed construction of a new viaduct or underpass at the intersection of España Boulevard
España Boulevard
and Lacson Avenue,[166] the construction of the Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Skyway Stage 3, the proposed LRT Line 2 West Extension Project from Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
to Pier 4 of the Manila
Manila
North Harbor,[167] the proposed construction of the PNR East-West line which will run through España Boulevard
España Boulevard
up to Quezon
Quezon
City, and the expansion and widening of several national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.[168] The Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Dream Plan seeks to address these urban transport problems. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to 2030.[169][170] Utilities[edit] Water and electricity[edit] Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, which served 30% of the city with most other sewage being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open canals.[171] MWSS was privatized in 1997, which split the water concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone of which Manila
Manila
is a part. It now provides the supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila,[172] but it does not provide service to the southeastern part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water. Electric services are provided by Meralco, the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila. Healthcare[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila

The Philippine General Hospital, the largest medical center and the national referral center for health in the Philippines.

The Manila
Manila
Health Department is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city government. It operates 59 health centers and six city-run hospitals, which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The six public city-run hospitals are the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo, Sta. Ana Hospital, and Justice Jose Abad Santos General Hospital.[173] Manila
Manila
is also the site of the Philippine General Hospital, the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the University of the Philippines
Philippines
Manila. The city is also planning to put up an education, research and hospital facility for cleft-palate patients.[174][175] Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Private hospitals that operates in the city are the Manila
Manila
Doctors Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Metropolitan Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, and the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
Hospital. The Department of Health has its main office in Manila. The national health department also operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special referral tertiary hospital. Manila
Manila
is also the home to the headquarters of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for the Western Pacific and Country Office for the Philippines. The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically targeted against the seven major diseases – smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. As of 2016, a total of 31,115 children age one and below has been “fully immunized”.[176] The Manila
Manila
Dialysis Center that provides free services for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships as a model for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.[177][178] Education[edit] Main articles: List of universities and colleges in Manila and Division of City Schools–Manila

De La Salle University
De La Salle University
is a Lasallian educational institution established in 1911.

The campus of the University of the City of Manila
University of the City of Manila
and Baluarte de San Diego in Intramuros.

The University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
is the oldest existing university in Asia, established in 1611.

The center of education since the colonial period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
(1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Ateneo de Manila University
Ateneo de Manila University
(1859), Lyceum of the Philippines
Philippines
University and the Mapua Institute of Technology. Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
(1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros
Intramuros
for Loyola Heights, Quezon
Quezon
City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952. The University of the City of Manila
University of the City of Manila
(Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila) located at Intramuros, and Universidad de Manila
Universidad de Manila
located just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government. The University of the Philippines
Philippines
(1908), the premier state university, was established in Ermita, Manila. It moved its central administrative offices from Manila
Manila
to Diliman in 1949 and eventually made the original campus the University of the Philippines
Philippines
Manila
Manila
- the oldest of the University of the Philippines
Philippines
constituent universities and the center of health sciences education in the country.[179] The city is also the site of the main campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student population.[180] The University Belt
University Belt
refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
(formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig
Pasig
River, mostly at the Intramuros
Intramuros
and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the city limits such as the private co-educational institution of De La Salle University, the largest of all De La Salle University System of schools. The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city's three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools.[181] The city also contains the Manila
Manila
Science High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines. Sister cities[edit] See also: List of sister cities in the Philippines Asia
Asia
Pacific[edit]

Astana, Kazakhstan[182] Bacoor, Philippines[183] Bangkok, Thailand[184] Beijing, China[185][186] Dili, East Timor[187] Guangzhou, China[186] Haifa, Israel[188] Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam[189] Incheon, South Korea[190] Jakarta, Indonesia[191] Nantan, Kyoto, Japan[192] Osaka, Japan
Japan
(Business Partner)[193] Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands[194] Shanghai, China[195] Taipei, Taiwan[196] Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan[197][198] Yokohama, Japan[198][199]

Europe[edit]

Bucharest, Romania[182] Madrid, Spain[200] Màlaga, Spain[182] Moscow, Russia[182] Nice, France[201]

Americas[edit]

Acapulco, Mexico[202] Cartagena, Colombia[182] Havana, Cuba[182] Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[203][204] Lima, Peru[182] Maui County, Hawaii, United States[204] Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Montevideo, Uruguay[205] Montreal, Quebec, Canada[206] New York City, New York, United States
United States
(Global Partner)[207] Panama
Panama
City, Panama[208] Sacramento, California, United States[204] San Francisco, California, United States[204] Santiago, Chile[182] Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada[209]

International relations[edit] Consulates[edit]

Country Type Ref.

Canada Consular agency [210]

United States Consular agency [211]

The Russian Federation Honorary consul [212]

Finland Honorary consul [213]

France Honorary consul [214]

Philippines Honorary consul [215]

Poland Honorary consul [216]

Spain Honorary consul [217]

United Kingdom Honorary consul [218]

Pending transboundary nominations[edit]

The Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico
Mexico
in Intramuros.

In 2014, the idea to nominate the Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleon Trade Route was initiated by the Mexican ambassador to UNESCO
UNESCO
with the Filipino ambassador to UNESCO. An Experts' Roundtable Meeting was held at the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
on April 23, 2015 as part of the preparation of the Philippines
Philippines
for the possible transnational nomination of the Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleon Trade Route to the World Heritage List. The nomination will be made jointly with Mexico. The following are the experts and the topics they discussed during the roundtable meeting: Dr. Celestina Boncan on the Tornaviaje; Dr. Mary Jane A. Bolunia on Shipyards in the Bicol Region; Mr. Sheldon Clyde Jago-on, Bobby Orillaneda, and Ligaya Lacsina on Underwater Archaeology; Dr. Leovino Garcia on Maps and Cartography; Fr. Rene Javellana, S.J. on Fortifications in the Philippines; Felice Sta. Maria on Food; Dr. Fernando Zialcita on Textile; and Regalado Trota Jose on Historical Dimension. The papers presented and discussed during the roundtable meeting will be synthesized into a working document to establish the route's Outstanding Universal Value.[219] The Mexican side reiterated that they will also follow suit with the preparations for the route's nomination. Spain
Spain
has also backed the nomination of the Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Trade Route Route in the UNESCO World Heritage List
World Heritage List
and has also suggested the Archives of the Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleons to be nominated as part of a separate UNESCO list, the UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Register.[220]

Type (criteria) Site Location Description Image Ref

Mixed The Historic Manila‑ Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleon Trade Route Philippines
Philippines
and Mexico

White represents the route of the Manila
Manila
Galleons in the Pacific

[219]

See also[edit]

Manila
Manila
– book Cities of the Philippines Greater Manila
Manila
Area Imperial Manila Rajahnate of Maynila List of cities in the Philippines Mega Manila List of people from Manila SM Mall of Asia

Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal Philippines
Philippines
portal Manila
Manila
portal

Notes[edit]

^ The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the place south of the street belongs to Pasay. Buildings and structures in CCP that falls under the jurisdiction of Manila
Manila
includes the National Theater.

References[edit]

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Manila
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Chinatown
Manila: Oldest in the world" Archived April 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Tradio86.com, July 8, 2006, accessed March 19, 2011. ^ "In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty Indians." ~Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p. 425. "In 1787 the garrison at Manila
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ABS-CBN
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Manila
Alfredo Lim
Alfredo Lim
in the coming 2010 elections.  ^ Legaspi, Amita (July 17, 2008). "Councilor files raps vs Lim, Manila execs before CHR". GMA News. Retrieved March 4, 2014.  ^ "Mayor Lim charged anew with graft over rehabilitation of public schools". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2012.  ^ "Isko Moreno, 28 councilors file complaint vs Lim". ABS-CBN
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to develop man-made island in Manila
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Bay". GMA News Online. Retrieved October 26, 2017.  ^ Talabong, Rambo (May 12, 2017). " Manila
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for new commercial district". Rappler. Retrieved June 12, 2017.  ^ See, Aie Balagtas (June 7, 2017). "Erap OKs fourth reclamation project in Manila
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Bay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 12, 2017.  ^ "PHILIPPINES, NETHERLANDS SIGN MOU ON MANILA BAY DEVELOPMENT". National Economic and Development Authority. January 22, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.  ^ "Temperatures drop further in Baguio, MM". Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2014.  ^ " Metro Manila
Metro Manila
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Memorial". Interaksyon.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2011.  ^ "Teams ready for RWC Qualifiers in Manila". Rugbyworldcup.com. April 14, 2012. Archived from the original on April 17, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2012.  ^ "Living in Manila". InterNations. Retrieved October 25, 2017.  ^ "Income Classification Per DOF Order No. 23-08, dated July 29, 2008" (PDF). Bureau of Local Government Finance. Retrieved December 31, 2016.  ^ "Position Classification and Compensation Scheme in Local Government Units" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management.  ^ Lopez, Virgil (April 25, 2017). "SC picks PHL flag-inspired design for new 'green' building in Taguig". GMA News. Retrieved April 27, 2017.  ^ a b "2016 Annual Financial Report of Local Government Units (Volume I)" (PDF). Commission on Audit. Retrieved October 25, 2017.  ^ " Quezon
Quezon
City, Makati
Makati
richest cities in RP". Philippine Today US. Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011.  ^ "2015 Annual Financial Report of Local Government Units". Commission on Audit. Retrieved December 1, 2016.  ^ "2015 Annual Financial Reports for Local Government Units (Volume III)". Commission on Audit. Retrieved December 1, 2016.  ^ Santos, Reynaldo Jr. (October 24, 2013). " Barangay
Barangay
in numbers". Rappler. Retrieved April 27, 2016.  ^ Macairan, Evelyn (2007-08-15). " Manila
Manila
councilor wants fewer barangays". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2016-04-27.  ^ a b c d e f "Population Counts by Legislative District (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2, 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ "Transportation in the Philippines". AsianInfo.org. Retrieved April 24, 2010.  ^ Clapano, Jose Rodel (September 18, 2016). "Manila: No more trikes, pedicabs next month". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 19, 2016.  ^ Coconuts Manila
Manila
(September 18, 2016). " Manila
Manila
will say goodbye to old school tricycles and pedicabs on Oct 15". Retrieved September 19, 2016.  ^ "City of Manila
Manila
to remove old, rusty tricycles from city streets". January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.  ^ Republic of the Philippines. Office of the President. (July 21, 2005). "SONA 2005 Executive Summary". Archived from the original on May 13, 2010.  ^ " Waze
Waze
– Official Blog: Global Driver Satisfaction Index". Retrieved August 12, 2016.  ^ "World's Densest Cities". Retrieved October 25, 2012.  ^ "Lacson-España flyover takes off despite protests". August 6, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.  ^ Tomas S. Noda III (January 28, 2015). "DMCI gets $51.5m rail contract in PH". Retrieved February 1, 2015.  ^ Rodel Rodis (October 23, 2014). "Manila's traffic jams cost $57 million a day". Retrieved March 20, 2015.  ^ (The Philippines) Mega Manila
Mega Manila
Infrastructure Roadmap (Long Version). JICAChannel02: The Official Global Channel of the Japan
Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Japan
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International Cooperation Agency (JICA), National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). June 10, 2014.  ^ Main Points of the Roadmap (PDF) (Report). Japan
Japan
International Cooperation Agency. September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2014.  ^ Orozco, G; Zafaralla, M, (2011), Socio-Economic Study of Two Major Metro Manila
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Esteros (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Journal of Environmental Science and Management, retrieved December 3, 2014  ^ Inocencio, A; David, C, (2001), Public-Private-Community Partnerships in Management and Delivery of Water to Urban Poor: The Case of Metro Manila
Metro Manila
(PDF), Makati, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies, retrieved December 3, 2014  ^ Joel E. Surbano (January 3, 2016). " Manila
Manila
hospital going for upgrade". The Standard. Retrieved January 3, 2016.  ^ Jaime Rose R. Aberia (August 6, 2017). "World-class hospital to rise in Manila
Manila
for cleft lip, palate patients". Manila
Manila
Bulletin. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Rosabell C. Toledo (August 6, 2017). " Manila
Manila
mayor eyes founding of PHL's first 'world-class' cleft-palate facility". BusinessMirror. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Cris G. Odronia (February 25, 2017). " Manila
Manila
intensifies free immunization program". Manila
Manila
Bulletin. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  ^ Rosabell C. Toledo (July 10, 2017). "UN lauds free dialysis center in Manila". BusinessMirror. Retrieved July 15, 2017.  ^ Dexter Cabalza (July 9, 2017). "Dialysis center for Manila's poor cited by UN body". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 15, 2017.  ^ "About UP Manila". University of the Philippines
Philippines
Manila. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.  ^ "PUP: Profile". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. March 30, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2014.  ^ Cabayan, Itchie G. (April 7, 2010). "Good education a right, not privilege – Lim". City Government of Manila. Retrieved April 24, 2010. NO one should be deprived of a sound education for being poor  ^ a b c d e f g h "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved November 24, 2016.  ^ Jaimie Rose Aberia (August 16, 2017). "Manila, Bacoor
Bacoor
sign sister city accord". Manila
Manila
Bulletin. Retrieved August 16, 2017.  ^ "Relationship with Sister Cities: Manila". Bangkok
Bangkok
Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved May 27, 2015.  ^ "Beijing's Sister Cities". eBeijing. Retrieved January 3, 2015.  ^ a b "Overview of China- Philippines
Philippines
Bilateral Relations: III. Exchanges and Cooperation in the Fields of Culture, Education, Science and the Military, etc". Embassy of the People's Republic of China
China
in the Republic of the Philippines. March 5, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2015. There are 24 pairs of sister-cities or sister-provinces between China
China
and the Philippines, namely: Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Baguio
Baguio
City, Guangzhou and Manila
Manila
City, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Metro Manila, Xiamen and Cebu
Cebu
City, Shenyang and Quezon
Quezon
City, Fushun and Lipa City, Hainan and Cebu Province, Sanya and Lapu-Lapu City, Shishi and Naya City, Shandong and Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Province, Zibo and Manduae City, Anhui and Nueva Ecija Province, Hubei and Leyte Province, Liuzhou and Muntinlupa
Muntinlupa
City, Hezhou and San Fernando City, Haerbin and Cagayan de Oro
Cagayan de Oro
City, Laibin and Laoag
Laoag
City, Beijing
Beijing
and Manila
Manila
City, Jiangxi and Bohol
Bohol
Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Davao City, Lanzhou and Albay Province, Beihai and Puerto Princessa City, Fujian Province and Laguna Province, Wuxi and Puerto Princessa City.  ^ "Sisterhood Agreement With Democratic Republic Of Timor Leste". City of Manila. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015.  ^ "Twin Cities". Hello Haifa. Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ "Sister Cities – Ho Chi Minh City". Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved February 7, 2015.  ^ "Sister and Friendship Cities". Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2015.  ^ "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved September 2, 2009.  ^ "Sister cities, towns and villages of Kyoto
Kyoto
Prefecture". Kyoto Prefecture Website. Retrieved February 5, 2015.  ^ "Business Partner Cities (BPC), the official website of Osaka
Osaka
city". Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved 2009-08-05.  ^ Todeno, Junhan B. (June 17, 2012). "Flores forges sister city ties with Manila". Marianas Variety. Retrieved November 10, 2015.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
Foreign Affairs". Shfao.gov.cn. Retrieved November 24, 2016.  ^ "International Sister Cities". Taipei
Taipei
City Council. Retrieved June 3, 2015.  ^ "Manila-Takatsuki sisterpact". City of Manila. Retrieved January 8, 2015.  ^ a b "List of Sister City Affiliations with Japan
Japan
(by country): Philippines". Singapore: Japan
Japan
Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR, Singapore). February 29, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2015.  ^ "How the Filipino hero found his samurai wife in Yokohama". Inquirer.net. Retrieved January 8, 2015.  ^ "Hermanamientos y Acuerdos con ciudades". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Retrieved November 24, 2016.  ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-24.  ^ "Sister Cities" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2017.  ^ "Manila, Philippines". Sister Cities International. Retrieved October 27, 2014.  ^ a b c d "US- Asia
Asia
Sister Cities by State". Asia
Asia
Matters for America. Honolulu, Hawaii: East West Center. Retrieved February 5, 2015.  ^ "Relaciones internacionales" (in Spanish). Intendencia Municipal de Montevideo. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011.  ^ Foreign Relations (June 24, 2005). "Manila- Montreal
Montreal
Sister City Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  ^ "NYC's Partner Cities". New York City
New York City
Global Partners. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2015.  ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12–10–82)" (PDF). October 12, 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2015.  ^ "Winnipeg's Sister Cities: Manila
Manila
(Maynila), Philippines
Philippines
(Republika ng Pilipinas)". Retrieved June 2, 2015.  ^ Canadá ^ Estados Unidos ^ Federación de Rusia ^ Finlandia ^ Francia ^ Filipinas ^ Polonia ^ España ^ Reino Unido ^ a b "PH, Mexico
Mexico
push to nominate Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleon Trade Route to World Heritage List". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. April 28, 2015. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2017.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ Galvez, Manny (July 5, 2015). " Spain
Spain
backs inclusion of galleon trade route to World Heritage List". PhilStar Global. Archived from the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017. 

Sources[edit]

Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutManilaat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

Official Website of the City of Manila Geographic data related to Manila
Manila
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Quezon
Quezon
City Capital of the Philippines 1976–present Succeeded by Incumbent

Preceded by Malolos Capital of the Philippines 1901–1948 Succeeded by Quezon
Quezon
City

Places adjacent to Manila

Navotas South Caloocan Quezon
Quezon
City

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Manila
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Manila

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Pasay Makati

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Book Category Manila
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Articles related to Manila

 Geographic Locale

Lat. and Long. 14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583°N 121.000°E / 14.583; 121.000 Manila

v t e

Metro Manila

National Capital Region of the Philippines Manila
Manila
(capital city)

Local Government Units

Caloocan Las Piñas Makati Malabon Mandaluyong Manila Marikina Muntinlupa Navotas Parañaque Pasay Pasig Pateros Quezon
Quezon
City San Juan Taguig Valenzuela Barangays Legislative districts

Geography

Manila
Manila
Bay Pasig
Pasig
River Marikina
Marikina
River Laguna de Bay Sierra Madre La Mesa Watershed Reservation Marikina
Marikina
Valley Fault System Rivers and esteros Islands Parks Beaches Bay City Manggahan Floodway Greater Manila
Manila
Area Mega Manila

History

Prehistory Rajahnate of Maynila Tondo (historical polity) Namayan Intramuros Province of Manila Manila– Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleon British occupation of Manila 1880 Luzon
Luzon
earthquakes Battle of Manila
Manila
Bay Province of Rizal Greater Manila
Manila
Area Battle of Manila
Manila
(1945) Metropolitan Manila
Manila
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bombings Typhoon
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Makati
Makati
CBD Ortigas Center Bonifacio Global City Philippine Stock Exchange Manila
Manila
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Public services and utilities

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Manila
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Culture

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Transportation

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Manila
Manila
Mass Transit Network

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LRMC

Line 2

LRTA

Line 3

MRTC

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Mega Manila
Subway Metro South Commuter Line

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Bicutan AGT UP Diliman AGT

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Manila
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v t e

Cities of the Philippines

Highly Urbanized Cities

Angeles Bacolod Baguio Butuan Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro Caloocan Cebu
Cebu
City Davao City General Santos Iligan Iloilo
Iloilo
City Lapu-Lapu Las Piñas Lucena Makati Malabon Mandaluyong Mandaue Manila Marikina Muntinlupa Navotas Olongapo Parañaque Pasay Pasig Puerto Princesa Quezon
Quezon
City San Juan Tacloban Taguig Valenzuela Zamboanga City

Independent Component Cities

Cotabato
Cotabato
City Dagupan Naga Ormoc Santiago

Component Cities

Alaminos Antipolo Bacoor Bago Bais Balanga Batac Batangas
Batangas
City Bayawan Baybay Bayugan Biñan Bislig Bogo Borongan Cabadbaran Cabanatuan Cabuyao Cadiz Calamba Calapan Calbayog Candon Canlaon Carcar Catbalogan Cauayan Cavite
Cavite
City Danao Dapitan Dasmariñas Digos Dipolog Dumaguete El Salvador Escalante Gapan General Trias Gingoog Guihulngan Himamaylan Ilagan Imus Iriga Isabela Kabankalan Kidapawan Koronadal La Carlota Lamitan Laoag Legazpi Ligao Lipa Maasin Mabalacat Malaybalay Malolos Marawi Masbate
Masbate
City Mati Meycauayan Muñoz Naga, Cebu Oroquieta Ozamiz Pagadian Palayan Panabo Passi Roxas Sagay Samal San Carlos, Negros Occidental San Carlos, Pangasinan San Fernando, La Union San Fernando, Pampanga San Jose San Jose del Monte San Pablo San Pedro Santa Rosa Silay Sipalay Sorsogon
Sorsogon
City Surigao City Tabaco Tabuk Tacurong Tagaytay Tagbilaran Tagum Talisay, Cebu Talisay, Negros Occidental Tanauan Tandag Tangub Tanjay Tarlac
Tarlac
City Tayabas Toledo Trece Martires Tuguegarao Urdaneta Valencia Victorias Vigan

v t e

Largest cities in the Philippines PSA Census August 2015

Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.

Quezon
Quezon
City

Manila 1 Quezon
Quezon
City National Capital Region 2,936,116 11 Parañaque National Capital Region 665,822

Davao City

Caloocan

2 Manila National Capital Region 1,780,148 12 Dasmariñas Calabarzon 659,019

3 Davao City Davao Region 1,632,991 13 Valenzuela National Capital Region 620,422

4 Caloocan National Capital Region 1,583,978 14 Bacoor Calabarzon 600,609

5 Cebu
Cebu
City Central Visayas 922,611 15 General Santos Soccsksargen 594,446

6 Zamboanga City Zamboanga Peninsula 861,799 16 Las Piñas National Capital Region 588,894

7 Taguig National Capital Region 804,915 17 Makati National Capital Region 582,602

8 Antipolo Calabarzon 776,386 18 San Jose del Monte Central Luzon 574,089

9 Pasig National Capital Region 755,300 19 Bacolod Western Visayas 561,875

10 Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro Northern Mindanao 675,950 20 Muntinlupa National Capital Region 504,509

v t e

  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Regions

Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Autonomous

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities

List of cities in the Philippines

Municipalities

List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas

Historical

Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog

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Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

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Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

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World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

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National symbols of the Philippines

Official

Arnis Coat of arms Filipino language Flag "Lupang Hinirang" "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa" Narra Philippine eagle Philippine pearl Sampaguita

Unofficial

Adobo Anahaw Bakya Balangay Barong and Baro't saya "Bayan Ko" Carabao Cariñosa Jeepney Juan de la Cruz Lechon Malacañang Palace Mango Manila Milkfish National Seal Nipa hut Tinikling Sinigang Sipa Waling-waling

National heroes

Emilio Aguinaldo Melchora Aquino Andrés Bonifacio Marcelo H. del Pilar Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat Juan Luna Apolinario Mabini José Rizal Gabriela Silang

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128902416 LCCN: n79056525 ISNI: 0000 0003 9717 5415 GND: 4037344-7 SUDOC: 026392186 BNF: cb119450586 (d

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