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Naja
Naja
Naja
is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja
Naja
are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as "true" cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja
Naja
had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly.[1] Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision[2] that synonymised the genera Boulengerina
Boulengerina
and Paranaja
Paranaja
with Naja
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Razi Vaccine And Serum Research Institute
The Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute
Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute
is an Iranian pharmaceutical company. It is located in the Hessarak district in Karaj, Iran. The Institute was built as a national center with the purpose of countering epidemics in domestic animals during Reza Shah era. Further departments were installed, including those dedicated to human medicines. In modern years, the Institute has focused primarily on nanomedicine and biotechnology.[1][2] The Institute is known for its anti-venom serums derived from snake and scorpion venom
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Proteroglypha
A snake skeleton consists primarily of the skull, vertebrae, and ribs, with only vestigial remnants of the limbs.Contents1 Skull1.1 Joints of the snake skull 1.2 Snake
Snake
dentition1.2.1 Aglyph 1.2.2 Opisthoglyph 1.2.3 Proteroglyph 1.2.4 Solenoglyph 1.2.5 Exceptions 1.2.6 Informal or popular terminology1.3 Taxonomic key of skull modifications2 Vertebrae
Vertebrae
and ribs 3 Vestigial limbs 4 References 5 External linksSkull[edit]The skull of Python reticulatus.The skull of a snake is a very complex structure, with numerous joints to allow the snake to swallow prey far larger than its head. The typical snake skull has a solidly ossified braincase, with the separate frontal bones and the united parietal bones extending downward to the basisphenoid, which is large and extends forward into a rostrum extending to the ethmoidal region. The nose is less ossified, and the paired nasal bones are often attached only at their base
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Cognate (etymology)
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] For example, the English word dish and the German word Tisch ("table"), are cognates because they both come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings. But, in most cases, there are some similar letters in the word. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root. These are called false cognates and are described in more detail below. In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative".[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Across languages 3 Within the same language 4 False cognates 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Manfred Mayrhofer
Manfred Mayrhofer (26 September 1926 – 31 October 2011) was an Austrian Indo-Europeanist
Indo-Europeanist
who specialized in Indo-Iranian languages. Mayrhofer served as professor emeritus at the University of Vienna. He is noted for his etymological dictionary of Sanskrit. Mayrhofer was born in Linz
Linz
and studied Indo-European and Semitic linguistics and philosophy at the University of Graz, where he received his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in 1949. From 1953 to 1963 he taught at the University of Würzburg, and from 1963 to 1966 he was a professor at Saarland University. In 1966 he returned to Austria, serving as professor at the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
until his retirement in 1990
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Subcutis
The subcutaneous tissue (from Latin
Latin
subcutaneous, meaning 'beneath the skin'), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (from Greek, meaning 'beneath the skin'), subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.[2] The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants. The hypodermis is beneath dermis which is beneath epidermis. It is used mainly for fat storage. A layer of tissue lies immediately below the dermis of vertebrate skin. It is often referred to as subcutaneous tissue though this is a less precise and anatomically inaccurate term
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Neurotoxin
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).[3] Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults[4] that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.[5] The term can also be used to classify endogenous compounds, which, when abnormally contacted, can prove neurologically toxic.[4] Though neurotoxins are often neurologically destructive, their ability to specifically target neural components is important in the study of nervous systems.[6] Common examples of neurotoxins include lead,[7] ethanol (drinking alcohol), manganese[8] glutamate,[9] nitric oxide,[10] botulinum toxin (e.g
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Cytotoxin
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa).Contents1 Cell physiology 2 Measurement 3 Prediction 4 In cancer 5 Immune system 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCell physiology[edit] Treating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates. The cells may undergo necrosis, in which they lose membrane integrity and die rapidly as a result of cell lysis. The cells can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death (apoptosis). Cells undergoing necrosis typically exhibit rapid swelling, lose membrane integrity, shut down metabolism and release their contents into the environment
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Necrosis
Necrosis
Necrosis
(from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.[1] Necrosis
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Cardiotoxicity
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage. The heart becomes weaker and is not as efficient in pumping and therefore circulating blood. Cardiotoxicity may be caused by chemotherapy[1] treatment, complications from anorexia nervosa, adverse effects of heavy metals intake, or an incorrectly administered drug such as bupivacaine.[citation needed] One of the ways to detect cardiotoxicity at early stages when there is a subconical dysfunction is by measuring changes in regional function of the heart using strain. See also[edit]Batrachotoxin Heart failure Drug interactionReferences[edit]^ Huang, C.; Zhang, X.; Ramil, J. M.; Rikka, S.; Kim, L.; Lee, Y.; Gude, N. A.; Thistlethwaite, P. A.; Sussman, M. A. (2010). "Juvenile Exposure to Anthracyclines Impairs Cardiac Progenitor Cell Function and Vascularization Resulting in Greater Susceptibility to Stress-Induced Myocardial Injury in Adult Mice
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Hypodermic Needle
A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps,[1] is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end. It is commonly used with a syringe, a hand-operated device with a plunger, to inject substances into the body (e.g., saline solution, solutions containing various drugs or liquid medicines) or extract fluids from the body (e.g., blood). They are used to take liquid samples from the body, for example taking blood from a vein in venipuncture. Large bore hypodermic intervention is especially useful in catastrophic blood loss or treating shock. A hypodermic needle is used for rapid delivery of liquids, or when the injected substance cannot be ingested, either because it would not be absorbed (as with insulin), or because it would harm the liver
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Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Asia
or Southeastern Asia
Asia
is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia
Asia
is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia
Asia
and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania
Oceania
and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia
Australia
and Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere
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Rifling
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting. This spin serves to gyroscopically stabilize the projectile by conservation of angular momentum, improving its aerodynamic stability and accuracy over smoothbore designs. Rifling
Rifling
is often described by its twist rate, which indicates the distance the rifling takes to complete one full revolution, such as "1 turn in 10 inches" (1:10 inches), or "1 turn in 254 mm" (1:254 mm)
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Subcutaneous Injection
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis,[1] the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis. Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin. Subcutaneous, as opposed to intravenous, injection of recreational drugs is referred to as "skin popping". Subcutaneous administration may be abbreviated as SC, SQ, sub-cu, sub-Q, SubQ, or subcut
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Median Lethal Dose
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen. The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927.[1] The term semilethal dose is occasionally used with the same meaning, in particular in translations from non-English-language texts, but can also refer to a sublethal dose; because of this ambiguity, it is usually avoided. LD50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice. In 2011, the U.S
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