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Modu Chanyu
Modu, Modun, or Maodun (simplified Chinese: 冒顿单于; traditional Chinese: 冒頓單于; pinyin: Màodùn Chányú Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar;Turkic: Baghatur[1] c. 234 – c. 174 BC) was the fourth known Xiongnu
Xiongnu
ruler[1] and the founder of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire. He became the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
ruler after he ordered the execution of his father Touman
Touman
in 209 BC.[2][3] Modu ruled from 209 BC to 174 BC
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Attila The Hun
Attila
Attila
(/ˈætɪlə, əˈtɪlə/; fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila
Attila
the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns
Huns
from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans
Alans
among others, on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube
Danube
twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople
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Nikita Bichurin
Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin (Никита Яковлевич Бичурин) (August 29, 1777 – May 11, 1853), better known under his monastic name Hyacinth, or Iakinf (Иакинф), was one of the founding fathers of Sinology. He was born to a family of Chuvash priests and studied in the Kazan
Kazan
seminary.Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksBiography[edit]Bichurin's map of Lhasa.In 1802 he was tonsured with the name Hyacinth and sent to promote Christianity
Christianity
in Beijing, where he spent the next 14 years. The genuine objects of his interest were Chinese history
Chinese history
and language. He was forthwith accused of lacking religious zeal, stripped of his abbot's rank and incarcerated in the Valaam Monastery. There he translated a number of ancient and medieval Chinese manuscripts, which had previously been unknown in Europe
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Iranian Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Bey
“Bey” (Ottoman Turkish: بك‎ “Beik”, Albanian: bej, Bosnian: beg, Arabic: بيه‎ “Beyeh”, Persian: بیگ‎ “Beyg” or Persian: بگ‎ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire. The feminine equivalent title was Begum. The regions or provinces where "beys" ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning "khanate", "emirate" or "principality" in the first case and "province" or "governorate" in the second (the equivalent of duchy in other parts of Europe). Today, the word is still used formally as a social title for men
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Sima Qian
Sima Qian
Sima Qian
(/ˈsiːmɑː ˈtʃɪən/;[1] Chinese: 司馬遷; Wade–Giles: Ssu-ma Ch'ien /ˈsuːmɑː ˈtʃɪən/),[2] was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220)
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Mator Language
Mator or Motor was a Uralic language
Uralic language
belonging to the group of Samoyedic languages, extinct since the 1840s. It was spoken in the northern region of the Sayan Mountains
Sayan Mountains
in Siberia, close to the Mongolian north border. The speakers of Mator lived in a wide area from the eastern parts of the Minusinsk
Minusinsk
District (okrug) along the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
to the region of Lake Baikal. Three dialects of Mator were recorded: Mator proper as well as Taygi and Karagas (occasionally portrayed as separate languages, but their differences are few). Today the term "Mator people" is simply an alternate name of the Koibal, one of the five territorial sub-division groups of the Khakas. (Note that the name "Koibal" likewise derives from the related Samoyedic Koibal language.) Mator has been frequently grouped together with Selkup and Kamassian as "South Samoyedic"
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Hungarians
Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary
Hungary
(as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians
Hungarians
live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine
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Hungarian People
Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary
Hungary
(as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians
Hungarians
live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine
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Abu Al-Ghazi Bahadur
Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur (Uzbek: Abulgʻozi Bahodirxon Abulgazi, Ebulgazi, Abu-l-Ghazi, August 24, 1603 – 1663) was a khan of the Khanate of Khiva
Khiva
from 1643 to 1663. He spent ten years in Persia
Persia
before becoming khan, and was very well educated, writing two historical works in the Khiva
Khiva
dialect of the Chagatai language.[1] He was born in Urgench, Khanate of Khiva, the son of ruler 'Arab Muhammad Khan. He fled to the Safavid
Safavid
court in Isfahan after a power struggle arose among him and his brothers. He lived there in exile from 1629 until 1639 studying Persian and Arabic history. In 1644 or 1645 he acceded to the throne, a position he would hold for twenty years
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Turkic People
Islam (Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites) Irreligion (Agnosticism · Atheism) Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, ManiThe Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia
Western Asia
as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[27] As racial purity has never been a Turkic membership criterion, many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
through language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion in a process called Turkification
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Husayni Al-Isfahani
Ghiyath al-Din Ali ibn Amirin Husayni Isfahani (a.k.a. Hondemir) was a 15th-century Persian physician and scientist from Isfahan, Iran. He is best known for a Persian encyclopedia of the natural sciences entitled Danish'namah-i Jahaan, which he completed in either 1474 or 1466. The encyclopedia was concerned with meteorology, mineralogy, botany, and anatomy. A small treatise on foodstuffs, in table format, is preserved in the National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine
collection. Sources[edit] For his writings and the date of composition his encyclopedia, see:Fateme Keshavarz, A Descriptive and Analytical Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the Library of the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine (London: Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 1986), pp 386–7. Storey PL II,3 C.A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-Bibliographical Survey. Volume II, Part 3: F. Encyclopaedias and Miscellanies, G. Arts and Crafts, H
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (Persian: رشیدالدین طبیب‎), also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī (Persian: رشیدالدین فضل‌الله همدانی‎, 1247–1318), was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran.[1] He was born into a Persian Jewish family from Hamadan. Having converted to Islam
Islam
by the age of 30, Rashid al-Din became the powerful vizier of the Ilkhan, Ghazan
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Manuscript
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.[1] More recently, it is understood to be an author's written, typed, or word-processed copy of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same.[2] Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in book form, scrolls or in codex format
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Turko-Persian Tradition
The composite Turco-Persian tradition[1] refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Kazakhstan).[2] It was Persianate
Persianate
in that it was centered on a lettered tradition of Iranian origin and it was Turkic insofar as it was founded by and for many generations patronized by rulers of Turkic heredity
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