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Chanyu
Chanyu
(Chinese: 單于; Chinese: 单于; pinyin: Chányú; short form for Chengli Gutu Chanyu
Chanyu
(Chinese: 撐犁孤塗單于; pinyin: Chēnglí Gūtu Chányú)) was the title used by the nomadic supreme rulers of Inner Asia for eight centuries and was superseded by the title "Khagan" in 402 CE.[1] The title was used by the ruling Luandi clan of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
during the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(221-206 BCE) and Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 List of Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Chanyus

2.1 Northern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(北匈奴) 2.2 Southern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(南匈奴)

3 Da Chanyu
Chanyu
(大單于) 4 Chanyu
Chanyu
family trees 5 See also 6 References

Etymology[edit] According to Book of Han, Chēnglí 撐犁 means "heaven", gūtu 孤塗 "son" and chányú 單于 "immense appearance".[2] List of Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Chanyus[edit]

NB: Chanyu
Chanyu
names do not always obey Chinese convention

Chinese name Pinyin
Pinyin
/ Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note

Touman
Touman
Chanyu
Chanyu
(頭曼單于/头曼单于) Tóumàn / t'ou-man

240–209 BC

Modu Chanyu
Modu Chanyu
(冒頓單于/冒顿单于) mòdú / mou-tun

Luandi Modu (攣鞮冒頓 / 挛鞮冒顿) 209–174 BC a.k.a. Batur (Baγatur) [3]

Laoshang (老上單于/老上单于) lǎoshàng / lao-shang

174–161 BC

Gunchen (軍臣單于/军臣单于) jūnchén / chün-ch'en

161–126 BC

Ichise (伊稚斜單于/伊稚斜单于) yīzhìxié / i-chih-hsieh

126–114 BC

Uwei

(烏維/乌维) 114–105 BC

Ushylu (兒單于/儿单于)

(烏師廬/乌师庐) 105–102/101 BC "Err Chanyu" (underage) [4]

Guilihu

(呴犛湖/呴犁湖) 102/101–101/100 BC

Chedi (且鞮侯)

(且鞮侯) 101/100–96 BC a.k.a. Quidi, Chedihou

Hulugu (狐鹿姑單于/狐鹿姑单于) húlùgū / hu-lu-ku

96–85 BC

Huandi (壺衍鞮單于/壺衍鞮单于) húyǎndī / hu-yen-ti

85–68 BC

Hyuilui-Juankui (虛閭權渠單于/虚闾权渠单于) xūlǘquánqú / hsü-lü-ch'üan-ch'ü

68–60 BC

Uyan-Guidi (握衍朐鞮單于/握衍朐鞮单于) wòyǎnqúdī / wo-lu-ch'ü-ti

(屠耆堂/ 屠耆堂) 60–58 BC

Huhanye (呼韓邪單于/呼韩邪单于) hūhánxié / hu-han-hsieh

Giheushyan [5] ( 稽侯狦) 58 – 31 BC 屠耆單于, 58–56 BC 呼揭單于, 57 BC 車犂單于, 57–56 BC 烏籍單于, 57 BC 閏振單于, 56–54 BC Zhizhi Chanyu
Zhizhi Chanyu
郅支單于, 55 – 36 BC 伊利目單于, 49 BC

Fujulei [6] (復株纍若鞮單于/复株累若鞮单于) fùzhūléiruòdī/fu-chu-lei-je-ti

Dyaotao-mogao [7] (彫陶莫皋/雕陶莫皋) 31–20 BC "Jodi" in Hunnic means "respectful to parents" [8]

Seuxie [9] (搜諧若鞮單于/搜谐若鞮单于)

Juimixui [10] (且麋胥) 20–12 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu

Guia [11] (車牙若鞮單于/车牙若鞮单于)

Juimigui [12] (且莫車/挛鞮且莫车) 12–8 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu

Uchjulu [13] (烏珠留若鞮單于/乌珠留若鞮单于)

Nengzhiyasi [14] (囊知牙斯) 8 BC – 13 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu

Ulei Hyan [15] (烏累若鞮單于/乌累若鞮单于)

(鹹/挛鞮咸) 13–18 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu

Yui [16] (呼都而尸道皋若鞮單于/呼都而尸道皋若鞮单于)

(輿/挛鞮舆) 18–46 AD

Wudadi-hou [17] Wudadi

(烏達鞮侯/乌达鞮侯) 46 AD

Northern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(北匈奴)[edit]

Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note

Punu (蒲奴) Punu

46–? AD

Youliu [18] (優留) Youliu

?–87 AD

Bey/Bi (北單于) Běi Chányú

88–? AD

Yuchujian [19] (於除鞬單于) Yuchujian

91–93 AD

Feng-hou (逢侯) Feng, a.k.a. Finghey

94–118 AD

Southern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(南匈奴)[edit]

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign

Hu, Han-Sie/Hanxie (呼韓邪) Di II (第二)醢落尸逐鞮 a.k.a. Bey/Bi (KhuKheniy II) of the East partition brought the southern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
into tributary relations with Han China in AD 50

48–56/55 AD

Chiu-Fu Yu-Ti (丘浮尤提) Chupu-NoTi

55/56–56/57 AD

I-Fa Wu Yu-Ti (伊伐於慮提) ???

56/57–59 AD

XienTung ShiSuQuTi (醢僮尸逐侯提) Shtongsi SuyGhuTi

59–63 AD

丘除車林提 Kuchi QilinTi

63 AD

HuYeh ShiSuQuTi (湖邪尸逐侯提) Ghushi Shisu Quti

63–85 AD

I-Tu-Yi-Lu-Ti (伊屠於閭提) Iltu UluTi

85–88 AD

Tuntuhe [20] Siuan [21] XiuLan ShiSuQuTi (休蘭尸逐侯提) Shulan

88–93 AD

Anguo [22] (安國) a.k.a. Arqu started a large scale rebellion against the Han

93–94 AD

Shizi-hou [23] (尸逐) Tindu ShiSuQuTi (亭獨尸逐侯提)

94–98 AD

Wanchi ShiSuQuTi (萬氏尸逐侯提) opposed by... ...Feng a.k.a. Finghey

98-124AD 98–118 AD

Wuzhi ShiSuQuTi (烏稽尸逐侯提) ???

124–127/128 AD

Xiuli [24] Kuti NoShiSuChin (去特若尸逐就)[citation needed], committed suicide under Chinese pressure

127/128–140/142?

Cheniu [25] Chu-Xiu ???[citation needed], popularly elected not from Hunnic dynastic lines

140–143 AD

Deuleuchu [26] Ghoran, Hulan NoShiSuChin (呼蘭若尸逐就)[citation needed], pin. Touluchu,[27] puppet fictitious appointee at the Chinese court

143–147 AD

Guiguir [28] Illin, I-Ling NoShiSuChin (伊陵若尸逐就)[citation needed], pin. Jucheer;[29] puppet Chinese appointee that escaped Chinese control; incarcerated by Chinese in 158 AD

147–158 AD (d. 172 AD)

Tude-joshy-zhuogu [30] Dotuk NoShiSuChin (屠特若尸逐就)[citation needed], a.k.a. Utno Shisu Quti

158–178 AD

Huzheng [31](呼徵) a.k.a. Hu, Ching; Ghuzhin

178–179 AD

Qiangqui (羌渠) a.k.a. Qiangquy, Qiangqu,[32] Jiangqu; killed in Xiuchuge Huns rebellion

179–188 AD

Yufuluo (於扶羅) a.k.a. Qizi ShiSuQu (特至尸逐侯)[citation needed]. The last ShiSu. Homeless puppet Chanyu, overthrown in the Ordos by the unnamed Chanyu of Xiluo 醯落 and Tu'ge 屠各. Led dozens of refugee Xiongnu
Xiongnu
tribes to Pingyang (平阳) in Shanxi.

188–195 AD

Huchuquan (呼廚泉) Yufuluo's brother,[33] he ruled over the Pingyang Xiongnu after Yufuluo died.

195–215/6 AD

Da Chanyu
Chanyu
(大單于)[edit]

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign

Liu Bao (劉豹) Yufuluo's son. He changed the Chanyu
Chanyu
clan name from Luanti to Liu – meaning Dragon in the Xiongnu Language. He bore the title 匈奴 單于 but ruled only over the West partition in Jiuyuan (九原) of the Pingyang Xiongnu
Xiongnu
newly partitioned into North, South, left (West), right (East), and Centre by Cao Cao

216–260AD

劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi Huchuquan's son. Cao Cao
Cao Cao
ordered him to rule over the north partition of Pingyang Xiongnu
Xiongnu
as Tiefu Right Virtuous King (鐵弗 右贤王).

260–272

劉誥升爰 Liú Gàoshēngyuán Son of 劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi. Bore the title 鐵弗 右贤王

272–309

Liu Yuan (劉淵) Han Zhao
Han Zhao
state, a.k.a. Emperor Guangwen (光文). Son of Liu Bao (劉豹). Bore the title Hun Chanyu
Chanyu
匈奴 單于. Of Hun tribe Yuanhai, so Chinese annals use Yuanhai as his name [34]

309–310

Liu He, ch. 劉和 py. liú hé Han Zhao
Han Zhao
state, personal name Xuantai 玄泰

7 days in 310

Liu Cong, ch. 劉聰 py. liú cōng Han Zhao
Han Zhao
state, a.k.a. Emperor Zhaowu, ch. 昭武, personal name Xuanmen 玄門, nickname Zai 載

310–318

Liu Can, ch. 劉粲 py. liú càn Han Zhao
Han Zhao
state, a.k.a. Emperor Yin, ch. 隱, personal name Shiguang 士光

a month and days in 318

Liu Yao ch. Liu Yao 劉曜 py. liú yaò Han Zhao
Han Zhao
state, a.k.a. Emperor Hou Zhu 後主, personal name Yongming 永明

318–329

Liu Xi ch. Liu Xi 劉熙 Last ruler of Han Zhao; statutory Chanyu, probably never raised to the throne

329

Liu Hu 劉虎 Liu Qubei's grandson. He was not allowed to call himself Chanyu

329–341

劉務恒 Liú Wùhéng ???

341–356

劉閼陋頭 Liú èlòutóu ???

356–358

劉悉勿祈 Liú Xīwùqí ???

358–359

劉衛辰 Liú Wèichén Posthumously named "Emperor Huan"

359–391

劉勃勃 Liú Bóbó a.k.a. Wulie (武烈 Wǔliè) established Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Xia 407 and in 413 reverted surname to 赫連 Hèlián

391–425

赫連昌 Hèlián Chāng ???

425–428

赫連定 Hèlián Dìng Last native ruler of Huns in China

428–431

Chanyu
Chanyu
family trees[edit]

Chanyu
Chanyu
Xiongnu
Xiongnu
rulers family trees

Southern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
南匈奴

Northern Xiongnu
Xiongnu
北匈奴

Touman 头曼单于 r.220–209BC

Modu Chanyu 冒顿单于 r.209–174BC

Laoshang 老上单于 r.174–161BC

Gunchen 军臣单于 r.161-126BC

daughter Wife of Zhao Xin 赵信

Ichise 伊稚斜单于 r.126-114BC

涉安侯 於單

Uwei 烏維单于 r.114-105BC

Guilihu 呴犁湖单于 r.102/101– 101/100 BC

Chedihou 且鞮侯 r.101-96/99?BC

Ushylu 儿单于 r.104-102/101BC

Hulugu 狐鹿姑单于 r.96-85BC

daughter Wife of Li Ling 李陵 d.74 BC

左大将

左大都尉

右谷蠡王

Huandi 壺衍鞮单于 r.85-68BC

左谷蠡王

Hyuilui-Juankui 虚闾权渠单于 r.68-60BC

daughter Wife of Li Guangli 李廣利 d.88BC

daughter Wife of 乌禅幕

Cheli 車犂單于 r.57-56BC

先贤掸

Zhizhi 郅支单于 r.56-36BC

Huhanye 呼韩邪单于 r.58-31BC

右谷蠡王

驹于利受

Fujulei 搜谐若鞮单于 r.31–20BC

Seuxie 搜谐若鞮单于 r.20-12BC

Guia 车牙若鞮单于 r.12-8BC

右贤王 卢浑

Uchjulu 乌珠留若鞮单于 r.8-13AD

右贤王 铢娄渠堂

右谷蠡王 伊屠智牙师

Ulei Hyan 乌累若鞮单于 r.13-18AD

左贤王 乐

Yui 呼都而尸道皋若鞮單于 r.18-46AD

醯諧屠奴侯

须卜居次 云

须卜单于 当 r.18-21AD

当于居次

左祝都韩王 朐留斯侯

右於塗仇撣王 乌夷当

左日逐王 都

右大且 方

左於駼仇掸王 稽留昆

斩将王

Shun 顺单于 登 r.11-12

Shun 顺单于 助 r.11

Wudadi- hou 乌达鞮侯 r.46

Punu 蒲奴 r.46-?

Hu Hanxie 呼韓邪 r.48-56/55

右股奴王 乌鞮牙斯

ChiuFu YuTi 丘浮尤提 r.55/56-56/57

I-Fa Wu Yu-Ti 伊伐於慮提 r.56/57-59

XienTung ShiSuQuTi 醢僮尸逐侯提 r.59-63

HuYeh ShiSuQuTi 湖邪尸逐侯提 r.63-85

Tuntuhe/ Siuan 休兰尸逐侯鞮单于 r.88-93

丘除车林鞮单于 r.63

Yitu Yuludi 伊屠於閭鞮單于 r.85-88

Anguo 安国 r.93-94

Shizi-hou 尸逐 r.94-98'

Wanchi ShiSuQuTi 萬氏尸逐侯提 r.98-124

Wuzhi ShiSuQuTi 烏稽尸逐侯提 r.124-128

Xiuli 去特若尸逐就 r.127/128– 140/142?

左贤王

Feng-hou 逢侯 r.94-118

Tuqi Chanyu 屠耆單于 r.58–56BC

Yilimu Chanyu 伊利目單于 r.49BC

Runzhen Chanyu 閏振單于 r.56-54BC

Uyan-Guidi 握衍朐鞮單于 r.60-58BC

Shengzhi 胜之

You Xian wáng 右贤王

都涂吾西

姑瞀楼头

Aojian wang 奥鞬王

northern chanyu 北單于 r.89–91AD?

Youliu 優留 r.?–87 AD

Yuchujian 於除鞬單于 r.91–93AD

Guiguir 伊陵尸逐就單于 r.147-158/172; d.172

Tude-joshy-zhuogu 屠特若尸逐就單于 r.158/172–178AD

Huzheng 呼徵 r.178-179

?

Qiangqui 羌渠 r.179–188CE

Liu Qubei 劉去卑

Panliuxi 潘六奚

Chizhishizhuhou Chanyu 持至尸逐侯单于 b.150–d.196; r.188–195

Huchuquan 呼厨泉 r.195-216

? Tiefu/Xia state

Liu Bao 刘豹

Liu Qubei 劉去卑 d.272 Tiefu chieftain r.260-272

Han Zhao state

Liu Yuan 劉淵 d.310 Guangwen of Han (Zhao) 漢(趙)光文帝 r.304-310

Tiefu/Xia state rulers family tree

Han Zhao
Han Zhao
rulers family tree

See also[edit]

Mulan Tengrikut

References[edit]

^ Taskin V.S. "Materials on history of Dunhu group nomadic tribes", Moscow, 1984, p. 305,306, (Таскин В.С. "Mатериалы по истории древних кочевых народов группы Дунху") (in Russian) ^ Book of Han, Vol. 94-I, 匈奴謂天為「撐犁」,謂子為「孤塗」,單于者,廣大之貌也, ^ Hirth F. Sinologische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Turk-Volker. Die Ahnentafel Attila's nach Johannes von Thurocz. Bull. Imp. Acad, series V, vol. XIII, 1900, No 2, pp. 221–261. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 46 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 59 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 107 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", Australian National University Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.4, Canberra 1984, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-01. Retrieved 2010-12-17.  ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, p. 105–107 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 108–109 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 130–134 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 144 ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145 ^ R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984 ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145 (True name unknown; the Chinese moniker has negative connotation; confirmed by Chinese Court as Chanyu
Chanyu
in 172 AD) ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145 ^ R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984 ^ R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1

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