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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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Homo Erectus
Homo
Homo
erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.9 million years ago. It likely originated in East Africa
East Africa
and spread from there, beginning 1.8 million years ago, migrating throughout Eurasia.[2][3] There is an ongoing debate regarding the classification, ancestry, and progeny of Homo
Homo
erectus, especially in relation to Homo
Homo
ergaster, with two major positions: 1) H. erectus is the same species as H. ergaster, and thereby H. erectus is a direct ancestor of the later hominins including Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis, Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens; or, 2) it is in fact an Asian species distinct from African H
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Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa
Africa
that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara.[2] It contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab
Arab
states within the Arab world
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Tumulus
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb
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Eurasia
Eurasia
Eurasia
/jʊəˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.[3][4][5] The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
and Asia)
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Pleistocene
The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
( /ˈplaɪstəˌsiːn, -toʊ-/,[2] often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations
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Agricultural
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Northwest Europe
Northwestern Europe, or Northwest Europe, is a loosely defined region of Europe, overlapping northern and western Europe
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Archaeology Of China
The archaeology of China is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the region's civilizations. The application of scientific archaeology to Chinese sites began in 1921, when Johan Gunnar Andersson first excavated the Yangshao Village sites in Henan.[1] Excavations from 1928 at Anyang, also in northern Henan, by the newly formed Academia Sinica by anthropologist Li Ji uncovered a literate civilization identified with the late stages of the Shang dynasty of early Chinese records. Earlier cities in northern Henan were discovered at Zhengzhou in 1952 and Erlitou in 1959
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Archaeology Of India
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains. Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study
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Clarence Van Riet Lowe
Clarence Van Riet Lowe (4 November 1894 – 7 June 1956[1]) was a South African civil engineer and archaeologist.[1][2] See also[edit]Kingdom of Mapungubwe Henri Breuil Makapansgat Canteen Kopje Driekops EilandSelected publications[edit]Van Riet Lowe, C. and Malan, B.D. (editors). 1949. Die gedenkwaardighede van Suid-Afrika. Pretoria: Staatsdrukkery. The Stone Age Cultures of South Africa. Trustees of the South African Museum. 1929.  Van Riet Lowe, C. 1929. Further notes on the archaeology of Sheppard Island, South African Journal of Science 26. Van Riet Lowe, C. 1937. Prehistoric rock engravings in the Vaal River basin, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 24. Van Riet Lowe, C. 1944. Notes on Dr. Francis Cabu's collection of stone implements from the Belgian Congo, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 30. Van Riet Lowe, C. 1952. The Pleistocene Geology and Prehistory of Uganda, Geological Survey of Uganda Memoir no. 6. Colchester Van Riet Lowe, C
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Lithic Stage
In the sequence of cultural stages first proposed for the archaeology of the Americas by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage
Lithic stage
was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, as post-glacial hunters and collectors spread through the Americas.[1][2] The stage derived its name from the first appearance of Lithic flaked stone tools.[3] The term Paleo-Indian is an alternative, generally indicating much the same period. This stage was conceived of as embracing two major categories of stone technology: (1) unspecialized and largely unformulated core and flake industries, with percussion the dominant and perhaps only technique employed, and (2) industries exhibiting more advanced "blade" techniques of stoneworking, with specialized fluted or unfluted lanceolate points the most characteristic artifact types
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Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
nakayamai is a prehistoric ape species that lived in modern-day Kenya
Kenya
early in the Late Miocene, 10 million years ago (mya).[1][2] It is the type species of the new genus Nakalipithecus. The name of the genus refers to Nakali, the region where the fossil was found, while the species is named after Japanese geologist Katsuhiro Nakayama who died while working on the project.[3]Contents1 Provenance 2 Anatomy and relationships 3 Significance 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 External linksProvenance[edit] This ape was described from a fossil jawbone and eleven isolated teeth excavated in 2005 by a team of Japanese and Kenyan researchers in mud flow deposits in the Nakali region of northern Kenya's Rift Valley Province,[1][2] giving the genus its scientific name which means "Nakali ape"
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Ouranopithecus
†Ouranopithecus macedoniensis †Ouranopithecus turkae Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
is an extinct genus of Eurasian great ape represented by two species, Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
macedoniensis, a late Miocene (9.6–8.7 mya) hominoid from Greece[1] and Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
turkae, also from the late Miocene
Miocene
(8.7–7.4 mya) of Turkey.[2]Contents1 Systematics 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSystematics[edit] Based on O. macedoniensis's dental and facial anatomy, it has been suggested that Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
was actually a dryopithecine. However, it is probably more closely related to the Ponginae.[3][4] Some researchers consider O. macedoniensis to be the last common ancestor of apes and humans,[5] and a forerunner to australopithecines and humans,[6] although this is very controversial and not widely accepted
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