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Medallion
A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides. They typically have a commemorative purpose of some kind, and many are given as awards. They may be intended to be worn, suspended from clothing or jewellery in some way. They are traditionally struck like a coin by dies. A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, military, scientific, cultural, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations
Military awards and decorations
are more precise terms for certain types of state decoration. Medals may also be created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, or as works of artistic expression in their own right
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Medal (band)
Medal were an English alternative rock band from Oxford.Contents1 History 2 Discography2.1 Singles 2.2 Albums3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The band grew out of earlier band The Daisies, who had been active since the early 1990s and released the album "Kowloon House" in the US on Capitol Records
Capitol Records
and the single "If I Was Barry White" in 1996 on Regal Recordings
Regal Recordings
in the UK
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Platinum
Platinum
Platinum
is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, meaning "little silver".[3][4] Platinum
Platinum
is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Platinum
Platinum
is one of the least reactive metals
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Latinisation (literature)
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Stamping (metalworking)
Stamping (also known as pressing) is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape. Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes, such as punching using a machine press or stamping press, blanking, embossing, bending, flanging, and coining.[1] This could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produces the desired form on the sheet metal part, or could occur through a series of stages. The process is usually carried out on sheet metal, but can also be used on other materials, such as polystyrene. Stamping is usually done on cold metal sheet
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Casting (metalworking)
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold that contains a hollow cavity (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape. The metal and mold are then cooled, and the metal part (the casting) is extracted. Casting
Casting
is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] Casting
Casting
processes have been known for thousands of years, and have been widely used for sculpture (especially in bronze), jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include lost-wax casting (which may be further divided into centrifugal casting and vacuum assist direct pour casting), plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting
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Molding (process)
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.[1] This itself may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object. A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid or pliable material such as plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw material.[2] The liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the counterpart to a cast. The very common bi-valve molding process uses two molds, one for each half of the object. Articulated moulds have multiple pieces that come together to form the complete mold, and then disassemble to release the finished casting; they are expensive, but necessary when the casting shape has complex overhangs.[3][better source needed] Piece-molding uses a number of different molds, each creating a section of a complicated object
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Relief
Relief
Relief
is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.[1] What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone (relief sculpture) or wood (relief carving) is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone
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Motto
Heraldry
Heraldry
portalv t eA motto (derived from the Latin
Latin
muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence')[1][2][3] is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.[2][3] Mottos are usually not expressed verbally,[clarification needed] unlike slogans, but are expressed in writing and usually stem from long traditions of social foundations, or also from significant events, such as a civil war or a revolution. A motto may be in any language, but Latin
Latin
has been widely used, especially in the Western world.Contents1 Heraldry 2 Literature 3 See also 4 ReferencesHeraldry[edit] In heraldry, a motto is often found below the shield in a banderole; this placement stems from the Middle Ages, in which the vast majority of nobles possessed a coat of arms and a motto
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Privy Mark
A privy mark was originally a small mark or differentiation in the design of a coin for the purpose of identifying the mint, moneyer, or some other aspect of the coin's production or origin, for control purposes. Nowadays it is mainly used as a design and marketing feature. Though some privy marked coins – such as the Canadian Silver Privy Marked Maple Leaf – may sell at a premium. See also[edit]Mint markWikimedia Commons has media related to Privy marks.This coin-related article is a stub
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Metallurgical Assay
A metallurgical assay is a compositional analysis of an ore, metal, or alloy. Some assay methods are suitable for raw materials; others are more appropriate for finished goods. Raw precious metals (bullion) are assayed by an assay office. Silver
Silver
is assayed by titration, gold by cupellation and platinum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES).[1][2] Precious metal
Precious metal
items of art or jewelry are frequently hallmarked (depending upon the requirements of the laws of either the place of manufacture or the place of import). Where required to be hallmarked, semi-finished precious metal items of art or jewelry pass through the official testing channels where they are analyzed or assayed for precious metal content
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Silver
Silver
Silver
is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin
Latin
argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver
Silver
has long been valued as a precious metal
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Gold
Gold
Gold
is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold
Gold
often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium
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Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
Latin
or Sermō Vulgāris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin
Latin
(as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire. It is from Vulgar Latin
Latin
that the Romance languages
Romance languages
developed; the best known are the national languages Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and French. Works written in Latin
Latin
during classical times and the earlier Middle Ages used Classical Latin
Latin
rather than Vulgar Latin, with very few exceptions (most notably sections of Gaius Petronius' Satyricon). Because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin
Latin
had no official orthography
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Alloy
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character.[1] An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength
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