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Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif (Dari/ Pashto language">Pashto: مزار شریف‎; Mazâre Šarif; [ˌmæˈzɒːr ˌi ʃæˈriːf]), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 United Nations Human Settlements Programme">UN—Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000. It is the capital of Balkh province"> Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the west and Samarkand in Uzbekistan in the north. It is about 55 km (34 mi) from the Uzbek border. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites
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ISS
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in Earth orbit">low Earth orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, the last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, and the station is expected to be used until 2028. Development and assembly of the station continues, with components scheduled for launch in 2018 and 2019. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components
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Timurid Dynasty
The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol origin descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derives from "Gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "Kuragan" meaning "son-in-law". This was an honourific title used by the dynasty as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,founder of the Mongol Empire"> Mongol Empire, as Timur had married Saray Mulk Khanum, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan
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Ja'far As-Sadiq
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎‎; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Islam">Shia Shia doctrine)">Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence. He was a descendant of Ali on the side of his father, Muhammad al-Baqir"> Muhammad al-Baqir, and of Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr"> Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr on the side of his mother, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim
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Najaf
Najaf (Arabic: اَلـنَّـجَـف‎; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (Arabic: النّجف الأشرف‎) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2013 was 1,000,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate"> Najaf Governorate
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan (Middle Persian Middle Persian language text" xml:lang="pal">xwarāsān, Persian: خراسانḪurāsān About this sound listen ), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise") and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sindh. During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories. The boundary between these two was the region surrounding the cities of Gurgan and Qumis (modern Damghan)
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Tahirid Dynasty
The Tahirid dynasty (Persian: طاهریان‎, Tâhiriyân) was a dynasty, of Persian dihqan origin, that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873 and the city of Baghdad from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv but was later moved to Nishapur
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Saffarid Dynasty
The Saffarid dynasty (Persian: سلسله صفاریان‎) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan). Khorasan, Afghanistan and Sistan from 861 to 1003. The dynasty, of Persian origin, was founded by Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan - a native of Sistan and a local ayyar, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord
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Samanids
The Samanid Empire (Persian: سامانیان‎, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was mostly centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana during its existence, but at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, and large parts of Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Pakistan. The Samanid state was founded by four brothers; Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas—each of them ruled their own territory under Abbasid suzerainty. In 892, Isma'il ibn Ahmad (892–907) united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus effectively putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids
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Ghurid Dynasty
The Ghurids or Ghorids (Persian: سلسله غوریان‎; self-designation: Pashto language text" xml:lang="ps">شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid emperor Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011
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Khanate Of Bukhara
The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (Persian: خانات بخارا‎; Uzbek: Buxoro Xonligi) was a Central Asian state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century. Bukhara became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid empire during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan (1533–1540). The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II (r. 1577–1598). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty (Astrakhanids or Hashtarkhanids). They were the last Genghisid descendants to rule Bukhara. In 1740, it was conquered by Nadir Shah, the Shah of Iran. After his death in 1747, the khanate was controlled by the non-Genghisid descendants of the Uzbek emir Khudayar Bi, through the prime ministerial position of ataliq
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Ali Ibn Abi Talib
Ali (/ˈɑːli, ɑːˈl/; Arabic: علي‎, translit. ʿAlī, pronounced [ʕaliː]) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam
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Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire ( Pashto language">Pashto: د درانیانو واکمني‎), also called the Afghan Empire ( Pashto language text" xml:lang="ps">د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani. At its maximum extent, the empire covered the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, the region of Kandahar was claimed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. From there he began conquering Ghazni followed by Kabul. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Shahrokh Shah
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