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Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
(Dari/Pashto: مزار شریف‎; Mazâre Šarif; [ˌmæˈzɒːr ˌi ʃæˈriːf]), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN—Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000.[3] It is the capital of Balkh province
Balkh province
and is linked by highways with Kunduz
Kunduz
in the east, Kabul
Kabul
in the southeast, Herat
Herat
in the west and Samarkand
Samarkand
in Uzbekistan in the north. It is about 55 km (34 mi) from the Uzbek border. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites. The ancient city of Balkh
Balkh
is also nearby. The name Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
means "Noble Shrine", a reference to the large, blue-tiled sanctuary and mosque in the center of the city known as the Shrine of Ali
Shrine of Ali
or the Blue Mosque. Some Hazaras
Hazaras
believe that the tomb of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is at this mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif, after Ali's remains were transferred to Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
as per request of Ja'far as-Sadiq.[citation needed]. This is however rejected by non-Hazara Muslims, as the majority believe he is buried in Najaf, Iraq. The region around Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
has been historically part of Greater Khorasan and was controlled by the Tahirids followed by the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Ilkhanates, Timurids, and Khanate of Bukhara until the mid-18th century when it became part of the Durrani Empire after a friendship treaty was signed between emirs Murad Beg and Ahmad Shah Durrani. Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
is also known for the famous Afghan song Bia ke berem ba Mazar (Come let's go to Mazar) by Sarban.[4] Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
is the regional hub of northern Afghanistan, located in close proximity to both Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan. It is also home to an international airport. It has the highest percentage of built-up land (91%)[5] of all the Afghan provincial capitals, and it has additional built-up area extending beyond the municipal boundary but forming a part of the larger urban area. It is also the lowest-lying major city in the country, about 357 metres (1,171 ft) above sea level. The city was spared of the devastation that occurred in the country's other large cities during the Soviet-Afghan War
Soviet-Afghan War
and subsequent civil war, and is today regarded one of the safest cities in the country.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 9th century until 1919 1.2 Late 20th century 1.3 Since 2001

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Notable places

3 Demography 4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Transportation

4.1.1 Rail 4.1.2 Air 4.1.3 Road

5 Twin towns – sister cities 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] 9th century until 1919[edit] The region around Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
has been historically part of Greater Khorasan and was controlled by the Tahirids followed by the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Ilkhanates, Timurids, and Khanate of Bukhara. According to tradition, the city of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
owes its existence to a dream. At the beginning of the 12th century, a local mullah had a dream in which the 7th century Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, appeared to reveal that he had been secretly buried near the city of Balkh.

Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
& surroundings from ISS, 2016

The famous Jalal al-Din Rumi
Rumi
was born in this area but like many historical figures his exact location of birth cannot be confirmed. His father Baha' Walad was descended from the first caliph Abu Bakr and was influenced by the ideas of Ahmad Ghazali, brother of the famous philosopher. Baha' Walad's sermons were published and still exist as Divine Sciences (Ma'arif). Rumi
Rumi
completed six books of mystical poetry and tales called Masnavi before he died in 1273. After conducting researches in the 12th century, the Seljuk sultan Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
ordered a city and shrine to be built on the location, where it stood until its destruction by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his Mongol army in the 13th century. Although later rebuilt, Mazar stood in the shadow of its neighbor Balkh. During the nineteenth century, due to the absence of drainage systems and the weak economy of the region, the excess water of this area flooded many acres of the land in the vicinity of residential areas causing a malaria epidemic in the region. Thus the ruler of North Central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
decided to shift the capital of the city of Mazar-i-Sharif.[7] The Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
means "the noble shrine". This name represents the Blue Mosque which is widely known to be the grave of Ali
Ali
(Muhammad's son-in-law).[8] The city along with the region south of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
became part of the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
in around 1750 after a treaty of friendship was reached between Mohammad Murad Beg and Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founding father of Afghanistan. In the late 1870s, Emir Sher Ali
Ali
Khan ruled the area from his Tashkurgan Palace in Mazar-i Sharif. This northern part of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was un-visited by the British-led Indian forces during the Anglo-Afghan wars of the 19th century. Late 20th century[edit]

Flag of the Junbish-e Milli
Junbish-e Milli
party

During the 1980s Soviet-Afghan War, Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
was a strategic base for the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
as they used its airport to launch air strikes on mujahideen rebels. Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
was also the main city that links to Soviet territory in the north, especially the roads leading to the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. As a garrison for the Soviet-backed Afghan Army, the city was under the command of General Abdul Rashid Dostum. Mujahideen
Mujahideen
militias Hezbe Wahdat
Hezbe Wahdat
and Jamiat-e Islami both attempted to contest the city but were repelled by the Army. Dostum mutinied against Mohammad Najibullah's government on March 19, 1992, shortly before its collapse, and formed his new party and militia, Junbish-e Milli. The party took over the city the next day. Afterwards Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
became the de facto capital of a relatively stable and secular proto-state in northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under the rule of Dostum. The city remained peaceful and prosperous, whilst rest of the nation disintegrated and was slowly taken over by fundamentalist Taliban
Taliban
forces.[9] The city was called at the time a "glittering jewel in Afghanistan's battered crown". Money rolled in from foreign donors Russia, Turkey, newly independent Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and others, with whom Dostum had established close relations.[10] He printed his own currency for the region and established his own airline. This peace was shattered in May 1997 when he was betrayed by one of his generals, warlord Abdul Malik Pahlawan who allied himself with the Taliban, forcing him to flee from Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
as the Taliban
Taliban
were getting ready to take the city through Pahlawan. Afterwards Pahlawan himself mutinied the Taliban
Taliban
on the deal and it was reported that between May and July 1997 that Pahlawan executed thousands of Taliban members, that he personally did many of the killings by slaughtering the prisoners as a revenge for the 1995 death of Abdul Ali
Ali
Mazari. "He is widely believed to have been responsible for the brutal massacre of up to 3,000 Taliban
Taliban
prisoners after inviting them into Mazar-i-Sharif."[11] Several of the Taliban
Taliban
escaped the slaughtering and reported what had happened. Meanwhile, Dostum came back and took the city again from Pahlawan. However the Taliban
Taliban
retaliated in 1998 attacking the city and killing an estimated 8,000 (see Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
(1997–98)). At 10 am on 8 August 1998, the Taliban
Taliban
entered the city and for the next two days drove their pickup trucks "up and down the narrow streets of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
shooting to the left and right and killing everything that moved—shop owners, cart pullers, women and children shoppers and even goats and donkeys."[12] More than 8000 noncombatants were reported killed in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
and later in Bamiyan.[13] In addition, the Taliban
Taliban
were criticized for forbidding anyone from burying the corpses for the first six days (contrary to the injunctions of Islam, which demands immediate burial) while the remains rotted in the summer heat and were eaten by dogs.[14] The Taliban
Taliban
also reportedly sought out and massacred members of the Hazara, while in control of Mazar.[12] Since 2001[edit] Further information: Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and International Security Assistance Force Following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001, Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
was the first Afghan city to fall to the U.S.-backed Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
(United Front). The Taliban's defeat in Mazar quickly turned into a rout from the rest of the north and west of Afghanistan. After the Battle of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
in November 2001, the city was officially captured by forces of the Northern Alliance. They were joined by the United States Special
Special
Operations Forces and supported by U.S. Air Force aircraft. As many as 3,000 Taliban
Taliban
fighters who surrendered were reportedly massacred by the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
after the battle, and reports also place U.S. ground troops at the scene of the massacre.[15] The Irish documentary Afghan Massacre: The Convoy of Death investigated these allegations. Filmmaker Doran claims that mass graves of thousands of victims were found by United Nations
United Nations
investigators.[16] The Bush administration reportedly blocked investigations into the incident.[17]

Camp Marmal, located south of the city next to Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Airport

The city slowly came under the control of the Karzai administration after 2002, which is led by President Hamid Karzai. The 209th Corps (Shaheen) of the Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
is based at Mazar-i-Sharif, which provides military assistance to northern Afghanistan. The Afghan Border Police headquarters for the Northern Zone is also located in the city. Despite all the security put in place, there are reports of Taliban
Taliban
activities and assassinations of tribal elders. Officials in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
reported that between 20 and 30 Afghan tribal elders have been assassinated in Balkh Province
Balkh Province
in the last several years. There is no conclusive evidence as to who is behind it but majority of the victims are said to have been associated with the Hezb-i Islami political party.[18]

Thomas de Maizière, German Minister of Defense, with Balkh
Balkh
Governor Atta Muhammad
Muhammad
Nur in 2010.

U.S. Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
at Balkh
Balkh
University in May 2011.

A carpet seller in Mazar

Small-scale clashes between militias belonging to different commanders persisted throughout 2002, and were the focus of intensive UN peace-brokering and small arms disarmament programme. After some pressure, an office of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission opened an office in Mazar in April 2003. There were also reports about northern Pashtun civilians being ethnic cleansed by the other groups, mainly by ethnic Tajiks, Hazaras
Hazaras
and Uzbeks.[19] There are also NATO-led peacekeeping forces in and around the city providing assistance to the Afghan government. ISAF Regional Command North, led by Germany, is stationed at Camp Marmal
Camp Marmal
which lies next to Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Airport. Since 2006, Provincial Reconstruction Team Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
had unit commanders from Sweden, on loan to ISAF. The unit is stationed at Camp Northern Lights, located 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) west of Camp Marmal. Camp Nidaros, located within Camp Marmal, has soldiers from Latvia
Latvia
and Norway, and is led by an ISAF-officer from Norway. In 2006, the discovery of new Hellenistic
Hellenistic
remains was announced.[20] On April 1, 2011, as many as ten foreign employees working for United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(UNAMA) were killed by angry demonstrators in the city (see 2011 Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
attack). The demonstration was organized in retaliation to pastors Terry Jones and Wayne Sapp's March 21 Qur'an-burning in Florida, United States.[21] Among the dead were five Nepalese, a Norwegian, Romanian and Swedish nationals, two of them were said to be decapitated.[22][23][24] Terry Jones, the American pastor who was going to burn Islam's Holy Book, denied his responsibility for incitement.[25] President Barack Obama strongly condemned both the Quran burning, calling it an act of "extreme intolerance and bigotry", and the "outrageous" attacks by protesters, referring to them as "an affront to human decency and dignity." "No religion tolerates the slaughter and beheading of innocent people, and there is no justification for such a dishonorable and deplorable act."[26] U.S. legislators, including Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, also condemned both the burning and the violence in reaction to it.[27] By July 2011 violence became at a record high in the insurgency.[28] In late July 2011, NATO troops also handed control of Mazar-i-Sharif to local forces amid rising security fears just days after it was hit by a deadly bombing. Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
is the sixth of seven areas to transition to Afghan control, but critics say the timing is political and there is skepticism over Afghan abilities to combat the Taliban insurgency. On November 10, 2016 a suicide attacker rammed a truck bomb into the wall of the German consulate in Mazar-i-Sharif. At least four people were killed and more than one hundred others were injured.[29][30] On 21 April 2017, a coordinated Taliban
Taliban
attack killed more than 100 people at Camp Shaheen, the Afghan Army
Afghan Army
base in Mazar-i-Sharif.[31] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
has a cold steppe climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is low, and mostly falls between December and April. The climate in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
is very hot during the summer with daily temperatures of over 40 °C (104 °F) from June to August. The winters are cold with temperatures falling below freezing; it may snow from November.[32]

Climate data for Mazar-i-Sharif

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 24.0 (75.2) 28.6 (83.5) 32.4 (90.3) 37.8 (100) 43.0 (109.4) 45.6 (114.1) 48.1 (118.6) 46.0 (114.8) 39.5 (103.1) 37.0 (98.6) 29.8 (85.6) 24.4 (75.9) 48.1 (118.6)

Average high °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 10.7 (51.3) 16.3 (61.3) 24.3 (75.7) 31.2 (88.2) 37.0 (98.6) 38.9 (102) 36.9 (98.4) 31.9 (89.4) 24.7 (76.5) 16.4 (61.5) 10.8 (51.4) 23.93 (75.06)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 5.1 (41.2) 10.8 (51.4) 17.9 (64.2) 24.5 (76.1) 29.9 (85.8) 33.3 (91.9) 29.9 (85.8) 23.9 (75) 16.7 (62.1) 9.1 (48.4) 5.1 (41.2) 17.4 (63.32)

Average low °C (°F) −2.1 (28.2) 0.0 (32) 5.1 (41.2) 11.3 (52.3) 16.6 (61.9) 22.5 (72.5) 25.9 (78.6) 23.8 (74.8) 17.1 (62.8) 9.4 (48.9) 3.2 (37.8) 0.0 (32) 11.07 (51.92)

Record low °C (°F) −22.3 (−8.1) −24.0 (−11.2) −6.1 (21) −0.8 (30.6) 1.0 (33.8) 11.4 (52.5) 11.1 (52) 13.7 (56.7) 2.6 (36.7) 4.5 (40.1) −8.7 (16.3) −15.5 (4.1) −24 (−11.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 28.9 (1.138) 34.8 (1.37) 43.8 (1.724) 28.3 (1.114) 11.2 (0.441) 0.2 (0.008) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (0.004) 3.9 (0.154) 13.5 (0.531) 21.7 (0.854) 186.4 (7.338)

Average rainy days 4 7 10 9 4 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 46

Average snowy days 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 10

Average relative humidity (%) 79 77 72 64 44 27 25 24 28 41 62 75 51.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 122.2 118.4 158.1 193.8 299.9 352.9 364.4 332.7 298.2 223.2 173.6 125.5 2,762.9

Source: NOAA (1959–1983)[33]

Notable places[edit] The modern city of Mazar-i Sharif is centred around the Shrine
Shrine
of Ali. Much restored, it is one of Afghanistan's most glorious monuments. Outside Mazar-i Sharif lies the ancient city of Balkh. The city is a centre for the traditional buzkashi sport, and the Blue Mosque is the focus of northern Afghanistan's Nowruz
Nowruz
celebration. Although most Muslims believe that the real grave of Ali
Ali
is found within Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq, others still come to Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to pay respect.

An American C-5 Galaxy at Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Airport.

The Blue Mosque is a destination for pilgrims.

Governor's Palace

Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Gate under construction (July 2012)

Airports

Mazar-i-Sharif Airport
Mazar-i-Sharif Airport
- serves the population of Balkh Province
Balkh Province
and is also used by NATO-led forces, including the Afghan Air Force. It is being expanded to become the 4th international airport in Afghanistan.

Mosques

Shrine
Shrine
of Ali

Parks and monuments

Maulana Jalaludin Cultural Park Tashkurgan Palace Governors Palace Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Gate Khalid Ibn-al Walid Park[34]

Stadiums

Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Cricket Stadium Buzkashi
Buzkashi
Stadium

Universities

Balkh
Balkh
University Aria University Sadat University Mawlana University Taj University

Hospitals

Regional Hospital of Mazar-i-Sharif Saleha Bayat Hospital Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
Regional Hospital at Camp Shaheen

Hotels

Serena Hotel Mazar-i-Sharif[citation needed] Aros-e-Shahr[citation needed] Mazar Hotel[citation needed] Farhat Hotel Kefayat hotel[citation needed] Barat Hotel[citation needed] Shinwari hotel[citation needed] Marco Polo hotel[citation needed]

Banks

Da Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Bank Afghanistan
Afghanistan
International Bank (AIB) Kabul
Kabul
Bank Azizi Bank Pashtany Bank

Social Organizations

Balkh
Balkh
Youth Conformity Association

Demography[edit] Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan

Locals of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
enjoying rides at a small family amusement park in 2012.

The city of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
has a total population of 693,000 (2015),[35] and is the third largest city of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in terms of population.[36] It has a total land area of 8,304 Hectares with 77,615 total number of dwellings.[37] Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
is a multiethnic and multilingual society of around 375,000 people. There is no official government report on the exact ethnic make-over but a map appeared in the November 2003 issue of the National Geographic magazine showing Tajiks 60%, Hazaras
Hazaras
10%, Pashtun 10%, Turkmen 10%, and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
10%.[38] Occasional ethnic violence have been reported in the region in the last decades, mainly between Pashtuns and the other groups.[19][39][40][41] Some latest news reports mentioned assassinations taking place in the area but with no evidence as to who is behind it.[18] The dominant language in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
is Dari, an eastern variety of Persian, followed by Uzbeki and Pashto. Majority of the population of Mazar-i Sharif practice Sunni Islam. Economy and infrastructure[edit] Further information: Economy of Afghanistan

Store in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
with Russian name in Cyrillic

Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
serves as the major trading center in northern Afghanistan. The local economy is dominated by trade, agriculture and Karakul sheep farming. Small-scale oil and gas exploitation have also boosted the city's prospects. It is also the location of consulates of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
for trading and political links. Transportation[edit] Further information: Transport in Afghanistan Rail[edit]

Railway terminal

It became the first city in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to connect itself by rail with a neighboring country. Rail service from Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to Uzbekistan began in December 2011 and cargo on freight trains arrive at a station near Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Airport,[42] where the goods are reloaded onto trucks or airplanes and sent to their last destinations across Afghanistan. Air[edit] As of June 2016 Mazar-i-Sharif Airport
Mazar-i-Sharif Airport
had direct air connections to Kabul, Mashad, Tehran, and Istanbul. Road[edit] Highway AH76 links Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to Sheberghan
Sheberghan
in the west, and Pul-e Khomri and Kabul
Kabul
to the south-east. Roads to the east link it to Kunduz. Roads to the north link it to the Uzbek border town Termez, where it becomes highway M39 going north to Samarkand
Samarkand
and Tashkent. Roads to the south link it to Bamiyan
Bamiyan
Province and the mountainous range of central Afghanistan. Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(since 1991)

See also[edit]

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal

Battle of Qala-i-Jangi Balkh
Balkh
Province

References[edit]

^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ https://en.qantara.de/content/on-tour-in-afghanistan-part-1-on-the-highway-from-kabul-to-mazar-i-sharif ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/apr/02/afghanistan-mazar-sharif-united-nations ^ Welcome afghanmagazine.com - Justhost.com ^ [1] Archived January 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Last Warlord: The Life and Legend of Dostum, the Afghan Warrior Who Led US Special
Special
Forces to Topple the Taliban
Taliban
Regime by Brian Glyn Williams, 2013 ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/oct/21/afghanistan.terrorism2 ^ "Afghan powerbrokers: Who's who". BBC News. November 19, 2001. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ a b Rashid, Taliban
Taliban
(2000), p.73. ^ Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless War, (2001), p.79. ^ THE MASSACRE IN MAZAR-I SHARIF, THE FIRST DAY OF THE TAKEOVER. ^ Harding, Luke (2002-09-14). " Afghan Massacre
Afghan Massacre
Haunts Pentagon". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ "As possible Afghan war-crimes evidence removed, U.S. silent". McClatchy Newspapers. 12-11-2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "US blocked probes into Afghan prisoner killings". AFP. 10-07-2009.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ a b Ehsas, Zabiullah (March 31, 2011). "Tribal elders in Balkh
Balkh
worry about assassinations". Afghanistan: Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ a b "Pashtuns say they're being brutalized". United States: USA Today. 05/12/2002. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ " Balkh
Balkh
Monument". BBC Persian. 6 July 2006. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ AFP: Koran burnt in Florida
Florida
church ^ "UN staff killed during protest in northern Afghanistan". BBC News. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ "10 UN workers killed, beheaded in Mazar attack". Pajhwok Afghan News. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ Boone, Jon (April 1, 2011). "UN staff killed in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
amid protests over Qur'an
Qur'an
burning". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ " Pastor
Pastor
Terry Jones: 'We are not responsible'". BBC News. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ "Obama condemns Quran burning 'bigotry'", Dawn, 3 April 2011 Archived April 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ US Legislators Condemn Quran Burning, Violent Reaction, Voice of America, 3 April 2011 ^ Enayat Najafizada (July 23, 2011). "NATO hands control of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to Afghans". AFP. Retrieved July 23, 2011.  ^ "German consulate in Afghanistan". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved November 11, 2016.  ^ Fahim, Hamid. " Taliban
Taliban
attack German consulate in Afghanistan's Mazar-i-Sharif". yahoo.com. Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
(AFP). Retrieved November 10, 2016.  ^ "Afghan casualties in Taliban
Taliban
Mazar-e Sharif attack pass 100". BBC News. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.  ^ "First snow of this winter covered North Afghanistan". Mazar-i-Sharif. Ariana News. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-01-25. Retrieved 25 January 2014.  ^ " Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
Climate Normals 1959-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2012.  ^ پارک تفریحی شهرک خالد ابن ولید رسانه Archived 2014-02-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Retrieved 20 October 2015.  ^ "2003 National Geographic Population Map" (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Studies, University of Nebraska
University of Nebraska
at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor. National Geographic Society. November 2003. Retrieved 2012-07-21.  ^ Recknagel, Charles (March 14, 2002). "UN Condemns Attacks On Ethnic Pashtuns". hewad.com. Prague: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ "Pashtuns attacked in brutal raids by rival ethnic groups". Guardian News. buzzle.com. 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-01. [dead link] ^ "Afghanistan: Situation in, or around, Aqcha (Jawzjan province) including predominant tribal/ethnic group and who is currently in control". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada/UNHCR. February 1, 1999. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.  ^ "Afghan railway: First train runs on new line in north". BBC News. December 21, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

'The Massacre in Mazar-i Sharif'. Report of Human Rights Watch, November 1998, Vol. 10, No. 7 (C). Retrieved 18 November 2017. "Mazar-i-Sharif". The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424.  Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mazar-e-Sharif.

Mazar-e Sharif travel guide from Wikivoyage "Mezar-i Sharif". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. 

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Fourteen largest cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by population

Kabul Kandahar Herat Mazari Sharif Jalalabad Kunduz Lashkargah Taloqan Puli Khumri Khost Ghazni Sheberghan Sa

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