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Marxism–Leninism
In political science, Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(CPSU), of the Communist International, and of Stalinist political parties.[1][2] The purpose of Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the revolutionary development of a bourgeois state into a socialist state, realised through the leadership of a party vanguard, composed of professional revolutionaries from the working class
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Anti-imperialism
Anti-imperialism
Anti-imperialism
in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist
Marxist–Leninist
discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism
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Husakism
Husakism (Czech: husákismus; Slovak: husákizmus) is an ideology connected with the Communist Slovak and Czechoslovak politician Gustáv Husák
Gustáv Husák
which has two different meanings and it was first used by Karol Bacílek (cs; de; sk) to denounce the alleged "bourgeois nationalism" of Husák in 1950s.[1] The later and more frequent use is for the ideology of Czechoslovak normalization, the Czechoslovak official ideology from about 1969 to about 1989, formulated by Husák, Vasil Biľak, and others.[2] References[edit]^ Dismissals In Slovakia Reflect Still Prevailing "Bourgeois Nationalism"[permanent dead link] ^ Bohumil Pečinka: Listopad 1989 byl kontrarevoluceThis Czechoslovakia-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about politics is a stub
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Thomas Sankara
Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (French pronunciation: ​[tɔma izidɔʁ nɔɛl sɑ̃kaʁa]; 21 December 1949 – 15 October 1987) was a Burkinabé military captain, Marxist revolutionary, pan-Africanist and President of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
from 1983 to 1987.[1][2] Viewed by supporters as a charismatic and iconic figure of revolution, he is commonly referred to as "Africa's Che Guevara".[1][3][4] Sankara seized power in a popularly-supported coup in 1983, aged just thirty-three, with the goal of eliminating corruption and the dominance of the former French colonial power.[1][5] He immediately launched one of the mo
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Agostinho Neto
António Agostinho Neto
Agostinho Neto
(17 September 1922 – 10 September 1979) served as the 1st President of Angola
President of Angola
(1975–1979), having led the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
(MPLA) in the war for independence (1961–1974). Until his death, he led the MPLA
MPLA
in the civil war (1975–2002). Known also for his literary activities, he is considered Angola's preeminent poet
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Mathieu Kérékou
Mathieu Kérékou
Mathieu Kérékou
(French pronunciation: ​[ma.tjø ke.ʁe.ku]) (2 September 1933 – 14 October 2015) was a Beninese politician who served as President of Benin
President of Benin
from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006. After seizing power in a military coup, he ruled the country for 19 years, for most of that time under an officially Marxist–Leninist ideology, before he was stripped of his powers by the National Conference of 1990. He was defeated in the 1991 presidential election but was returned to the presidency in the 1996 election and controversially re-elected in 2001.Contents1 Military background 2 1972 coup and single-party rule 3 Transition to democracy 4 1996 presidential election 5 Disputed re-election, 2001 6 Religion and symbolism 7 Retirement and death 8 ReferencesMilitary background[edit] Kérékou was born in 1933 in Kouarfa village,[1] in north-west French Dahomey
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Palmiro Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
(Italian: [palˈmiːro toʎˈʎatti]  listen (help·info); 26 March 1893 – 21 August 1964) was an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
from 1927 until his death. He was nicknamed by his supporters Il Migliore ("The Best").[1] In 1930 he became a citizen of the Soviet Union[2] and later he had a city in the country named after him; Tolyatti. Togliatti was a founding member of the Communist Party of Italy (Partito Comunista d’Italia, PCI), and from 1927 until his death, he was the Secretary and the undisputed leader of the Italian Communist Party, except for a period from 1934 to 1938 in which he had been the representative in the Comintern, the international organization of the communist parties
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José Díaz (politician)
José Díaz Ramos (3 May 1895[1] – March 19, 1942) was a Spanish trade unionist and communist politician. He was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain
Communist Party of Spain
during the Spanish Civil War.Contents1 Trade unionism 2 Leadership in Spain 3 In the Soviet Union 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksTrade unionism[edit] Born in Sevilla
Sevilla
and a baker by trade since age eleven, at 18 joined La Aurora, the Union of Seville
Seville
bakers, who soon after joined the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. he became known as the leader of a strike in 1917 and in 1920 participated in the general strike called by the leadership of the CNT, which ended in failure. After the start of Miguel Primo de Rivera's dictatorship, Díaz continued his labor activism in clandestinity being arrested in Madrid in 1925
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Gonchigiin Bumtsend
Gonchigiin Bumtsend
Gonchigiin Bumtsend
(Mongolian: Гончигийн Бумцэнд; 11 September 1881 – 23 September 1953) was a Mongolian revolutionary who held several high level positions within the Mongolian government in the 1940s and early 1950s. He was Chairman of the Presidium of the State Little Khural (titular head of state) of the People's Republic of Mongolia
Mongolia
from July 1940 until his death. Early life and career[edit] Bumtsend was born on 11 September 1881 in Züünbürenhanuul Hoshuu, Tüsheet Khan
Tüsheet Khan
Province (present day Yeröö district, Selenge Province). The son of a poor herding family, Bumtsend taught himself to read and write Mongolian script
Mongolian script
at age 13 and helped illiterate herdsmen in his area write petitions to the government
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Socialist Patriotism
Patriotism
Patriotism
is the ideology of attachment to a homeland. This attachment can be a combination of many different features relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, cultural, political or historical aspects
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Ernst Thälmann
Ernst Thälmann
Ernst Thälmann
(16 April 1886 – 18 August 1944) was the leader of the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
(KPD) during much of the Weimar Republic. He was arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
in 1933 and held in solitary confinement for eleven years, before being shot in Buchenwald on Adolf Hitler's orders in 1944.[1]Contents1 Family and early years 2 Leaving home; World War I 3 Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD)3.1 KPD vs SPD4 Imprisonment and execution 5 Legacy 6 Writings (selection) 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksFamily and early years[edit] Ernst Thälmann's father was Johannes Thälmann (called 'Jan'; 11 April 1857 – 31 October 1933),[2] born in Weddern in Holstein, working there as a farmworker. Thälmann's mother, Mary-Magdalene (née Kohpeiss ; 8 November 1857 – 9 March 1927),[2] was born in Kirchwerder
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Economic Planning
Economic planning
Economic planning
is a resource allocation mechanism that is contrasted with the market mechanism. As a coordinating mechanism for socialist economics, economic planning substitutes factor markets and is defined as a direct allocation of resources. This is contrasted with the indirect allocation mechanism of a market economy. There are various types that economic planning procedures and forms planning can take.[1] The level of centralization in decision-making in planning depends on the specific type of planning mechanism employed. As such, one can distinguish between centralized planning and decentralized planning.[2] An economy primarily based on central planning is referred to as a planned economy
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Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
or Kim Il Sung (/ˈkɪm ˈɪlˈsʌŋ, ˈsʊŋ/;[1] Chosŏn'gŭl: 김일성, Korean: [kimils͈ʌŋ]; born Kim Sŏng-ju (김성주); 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea
North Korea
from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.[2] He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994. He was also the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea
Korea
(WPK) from 1949 to 1994 (titled chairman from 1949 to 1966 and general secretary after 1966). Coming to power after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea
South Korea
in 1950, triggering a defense of South Korea
South Korea
by the United Nations
United Nations
led by the United States. Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a cease-fire was signed on 27 July 1953
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Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз, pronounced [jǒsip brôːz]; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (/ˈtiːtoʊ/;[1] Cyrillic: Тито, pronounced [tîto]), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.[2] During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe.[3] While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian[4][5] and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator.[6] He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad.[7] Viewed as a unifying symbol,[8] his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation
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Enver Hoxha
Enver Halil Hoxha (Albanian pronunciation: [ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa] ( listen); 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985)[1] was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania
Albania
from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania
Albania
and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Albania
Albania
from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defence minister as well. Born in Gjirokastër
Gjirokastër
in 1908, Hoxha became a teacher in grammar school in 1936. Following Italy's invasion of Albania, he entered into the Party of Labour of Albania
Party of Labour of Albania
at its creation in 1941
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Earl Browder
Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891 – June 27, 1973) was an American political activist and leader of the Communist Party USA
Communist Party USA
(CPUSA). Browder is best remembered as the General Secretary of the CPUSA during the 1930s and first half of the 1940s. During World War I, Browder served time in federal prison as a conscientious objector to conscription and the war. Upon his release, Browder became an active member of the American Communist movement, soon working as an organizer on behalf of the Communist International and its Red International of Labor Unions
Red International of Labor Unions
in China
China
and the Pacific region. In 1930, following the removal of a rival political faction from leadership, Browder was made General Secretary of the CPUSA
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