HOME
The Info List - Juche





Juche
Juche
(/dʒuːˈtʃeɪ/[2]; Korean: 주체, lit. 'subject'; Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe]), usually left untranslated,[1] or translated as "self-reliance") is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".[3] It postulates that "man is the master of his destiny",[4] that the North Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction" and that by becoming self-reliant and strong a nation can achieve true socialism.[4] Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(1912–1994) developed the ideology, originally viewed as a variant of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
until it became distinctly "Korean" in character[3] whilst incorporating the historical materialist ideas of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
and strongly emphasising the individual, the nation state and its sovereignty.[3] Consequently, Juche
Juche
was adopted into a set of principles that the North Korean government
North Korean government
has used to justify its policy decisions from the 1950s onwards. Such principles include moving the nation towards claimed jaju ("independence"),[3] through the construction of jarip ("national economy") and an emphasis upon jawi" ("self-defence") in order to establish socialism.[3] The practice of Juche
Juche
is firmly rooted in the ideals of sustainability through agricultural independence and a lack of dependency. The Juche ideology has been criticized by many scholars and observers as a mechanism for sustaining the totalitarian rule of the North Korean regime[5][full citation needed] and justifying the country's heavy-handed isolationism and oppression of the North Korean people.[5] It has also been described as a form of Korean ethnic nationalism, but one which promotes the Kim family as the saviours of the "Korean race" and acts as a foundation of the subsequent personality cult surrounding them.[3][5][6]

Contents

1 Official state definition of Juche 2 Etymology 3 History

3.1 Origin 3.2 Development 3.3 International outreach

4 Concepts

4.1 Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism 4.2 Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style 4.3 "Great Leader" theory 4.4 The "masses" 4.5 Songun

5 Juche
Juche
in practice

5.1 Diplomacy 5.2 Economics 5.3 Defense

6 Religious features of Juche

6.1 Presence of a Sacred Leader 6.2 Rituals 6.3 Familism

7 Criticism 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

9.2.1 Journal articles 9.2.2 Books

10 Further reading 11 External links

Official state definition of Juche[edit] According to the North Korea's official English language website, the Juche
Juche
ideology is described as the following:[7]

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is guided in its activities by the Juche
Juche
idea authored by President Kim Il Sung. The Juche
Juche
idea means, in a nutshell, that the masters of the revolution and construction are the masses of the people and that they are also the motive force of the revolution and construction. The Juche
Juche
idea is based on the philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything. It is the man-centred world outlook and also a political philosophy to materialize the independence of the popular masses, namely, a philosophy which elucidates the theoretical basis of politics that leads the development of society along the right path. The Government of the DPRK steadfastly maintains Juche
Juche
in all realms of the revolution and construction. Establishing Juche
Juche
means adopting the attitude of a master towards the revolution and construction of one's country. It means maintaining an independent and creative standpoint in finding solutions to the problems which arise in the revolution and construction. It implies solving those problems mainly by one's own efforts and in conformity with the actual conditions of one's own politics country. The realization of independence in politics, selfsufficiency in the economy and self-reliance in national defence is a principle the Government maintains consistently. The Korean people value the independence of the country and nation and, under the pressure of imperialists and dominationsts, have thoroughly implemented the principle of independence, self-reliance and self-defence, defending the country's sovereignty and dignity firmly. It is an invariable policy of the Government of the Republic, guided by the Juche
Juche
idea, to treasure the Juche
Juche
character and national character and maintain and realize them. The Government of the Republic always adheres to the principle of Juche, the principle of national independence, and thus is carrying out the socialist cause of Juche.[8] Etymology[edit] Juche
Juche
comes from a Sino-Japanese word 主體 whose Japanese reading is shutai. The word was coined in 1887 to translate the concept of Subjekt in German philosophy
German philosophy
(subject, meaning "the entity perceiving or acting upon an object or environment") into Japanese. The word migrated to the Korean language
Korean language
at around the turn of the century and retained this meaning.[9] Shutai went on to appear in Japanese translations of Karl Marx's writings.[10] North Korean editions of Marx used the word Juche
Juche
even before the word was attributed to Kim Il-sung in its supposedly novel meaning in 1955.[11] In today's political discourse on North Korea, Juche
Juche
has a connotation of "self-reliance", "autonomy" and "independence".[12][13][14] It is often defined in opposition to the Korean concept of Sadae, or reliance on the great powers.[15] South Koreans use the word without reference to the North Korean ideology.[16] History[edit] Origin[edit]

Part of a series on

Marxism–Leninism

Concepts

Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Commanding heights of the economy Communist society Communist state Democratic centralism Economic planning Marxist–Leninist atheism One-party state People's democracy Popular front Proletarian internationalism Socialist patriotism Socialist state Theory of the productive forces Third Period Vanguardism

Variants

Guevarism
Guevarism
(Foco) Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Thought Hoxhaism Husakism Juche Kadarism Khrushchevism Maoism Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Prachanda Path Titoism Stalinism

People

Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Ernst Thälmann Earl Browder Enver Hoxha Gonchigiin Bumtsend Ho Chi Minh Mao Zedong Abimael Guzmán José Díaz Josip Broz Tito Enver Hoxha Palmiro Togliatti Che Guevara Kim Il-sung Mathieu Kérékou Agostinho Neto Samora Machel Thomas Sankara Fidel Castro Alfonso Cano

Literature

Wage Labour and Capital Materialism and Empirio-criticism Imperialism   What Is to Be Done? The State and Revolution

Dialectical and Historical Materialism

Guerrilla Warfare

Fundamentals of Marxism–Leninism

History

October Revolution Soviet Union Comintern Hungarian Soviet Republic Spanish Civil War World War II Warsaw Pact Greek Civil War Chinese Revolution Korean War Cuban Revolution De-Stalinization Non-Aligned Movement Sino-Soviet split Vietnam War Portuguese Colonial War Black Power movement Nicaraguan Revolution Nepalese Civil War Naxalite insurgency Internal conflict in Peru

Related topics

Bolshevism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism

Communism
Communism
portal Socialism
Socialism
portal

v t e

Official statements by the North Korean government
North Korean government
attribute the origin of Juche
Juche
to Kim Il-Sung's experiences in the Anti-Imperialist Youth League in 1930 in his "liberation struggle" against Japan.[4][17] The first documented reference to Juche
Juche
as an ideology appeared in 1955 in a speech given by Kim Il Sung entitled "On Eliminating Dogmatism and Formalism and Establishing Juche
Juche
in Ideological Work". The speech had been delivered to promote a political purge similar to the earlier Yan'an Rectification Movement in China.[18] Hwang Jang-yop, Kim's top adviser on ideology, discovered Kim's 1955 speech in the late 1950s when Kim, having established a cult of personality,[19] sought to develop his own version of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
into a North Korean ideology.[20][21] Development[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of North Korea

Soviet Civil Administration 1945–48

Provisional People's Committee for North Korea 1946–48

Kim Il-sung's rule 1948–94

 Korean War 1950–53

 Korean DMZ Conflict 1966–69

 Juche 1972

 Death and state funeral of Kim Il-sung 1994

Kim Jong-il's rule 1994–2011

 North Korean famine 1994–98

 Songun 1998

 Sunshine Policy 1998–2010

 Six-party talks 2003

 ROKS Cheonan sinking 2010

 Death and state funeral of Kim Jong-il 2011

Kim Jong-un's rule 2011–present

 State Affairs Commission 2016

  North Korean crisis 2017

  DPRK-US summit 2018

North Korea
North Korea
portal

v t e

In his 1955 speech, the first known to refer to Juche, Kim Il-sung said:

To make revolution in Korea we must know Korean history and geography as well as the customs of the Korean people. Only then is it possible to educate our people in a way that suits them and to inspire in them an ardent love for their native place and their motherland.[22]

In the speech On Socialist Construction and the South Korean Revolution in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea given on April 14, 1965, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
outlined the three fundamental principles of Juche:

Political independence (Chosŏn'gŭl: 자주; RR: jaju; MR: chaju) Economic self-sustenance (Chosŏn'gŭl: 자립; RR: jarip; MR: charip) Self-reliance in defence (Chosŏn'gŭl: 자위; RR: jawi; MR: chawi)

On the Juche
Juche
Idea, the main work on Juche, was published in North Korea in Kim Jong-il's name in 1982.[23] In North Korea
North Korea
it functions as "the authoritative and comprehensive explanation of Juche".[23] According to the treatise, the Workers' Party of Korea
Workers' Party of Korea
(WPK) is responsible for indoctrinating the masses in the ways of Juche thinking.[23] According to the treatise, Juche
Juche
is inexorably linked with Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
and it "represents the guiding idea of the Korean Revolution [...] we are confronted with the honorable task of modeling the whole society on the Juche
Juche
idea".[23] Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
states in the work that Juche
Juche
is not a creative application of Marxism–Leninism, but rather "a new era in the development of human history"[23] while criticizing the "communists and nationalists" of the 1920s for their elitist posture, claiming that they were "divorced from the masses".[24] The WPK's break with basic premises of Marxism–Leninism emerges more clearly in the article Let Us March Under the Banner of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
and the Juche
Juche
Idea.[24] In August 1997, the Central People's Committee of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea promulgated regulations regarding use of the Juche
Juche
Era calendar. Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
dates are used for years before 1912 while years from 1912 (the year of Kim Il-sung's birth) are described as " Juche
Juche
years". The Gregorian year 2018, for example, is " Juche
Juche
107", as 2018-1911=107. When used, " Juche
Juche
years" are often accompanied by the Gregorian equivalent, i.e. " Juche
Juche
107, 2018" or " Juche
Juche
107 (2018)".[25] International outreach[edit] According to Kim's regime, these principles were applicable around the world, not just in Korea.[26] Since 1976 North Korea
North Korea
has organized international seminars on Juche. The International Scientific Seminar on the Juche
Juche
Idea took place in Antananarivo
Antananarivo
from September 28 to 30, 1976, under the sponsorship of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. The seminar was attended by many prominent party and government officials, public figures, representatives of revolutionary and progressive organizations, scientists, and journalists from more than 50 countries. Malagasy President Didier Ratsiraka expressed strong sympathies and support for North Korea; an excerpt from the opening speech says: "Regardless of the opposition forces, the determination of the people and their strength and conviction are not measured by territorial dimensions, possession of advanced technology, still less, opulence or riches. For those who wish to forget the lesson of history so easily and so quickly, Algeria, Viet Nam, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola – and closer to us – Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Azania are excellent examples which make them deeply reflect on. What we want is not the perfection of political independence alone. The evil forces craftily manipulate the economic levers in order to perpetuate their supremacy and reduce us to vassals and eternal mendicants.[27] The "International Institute of the Juche
Juche
Idea" was established in Tokyo
Tokyo
in 1978 in order to supervise international Juche
Juche
research groups.[28] The Juche
Juche
Tower, completed in 1982, incorporated commemorative plaques from supporters and " Juche
Juche
Study Groups" from around the world.[13] In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Black Panther Party of the US expressed sympathy for the ideology.[29][30] The Nepal Workers Peasants Party
Nepal Workers Peasants Party
identifies Juche
Juche
as its guiding idea in its governance of Bhaktapur.[31] Concepts[edit] Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism[edit] Kimilsungism was first mentioned by Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
in the 1970s[32] and was introduced alongside the Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System.[32] Not long after the term's introduction into the North Korean lexicon, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
allegedly launched a "Kimilsungism-isation [sic] of the Whole Society" campaign.[32] These campaigns were introduced so as to strengthen Kim Jong-il's position within the Workers' Party of Korea.[32] According to political analyst Lim Jae-cheon, "Kimilsungism refers to the thoughts of Kim Il-sung. It is interchangeable with the juche [sic] idea".[32] However, in his 1976 speech "On Correctly Understanding the Originality of Kimilsungism" he said that Kimilsungism comprises the " Juche
Juche
idea and a far-reaching revolutionary theory and leadership method evolved from this idea".[33] In the past Kim Il-sung's thoughts had been described by the official media as "contemporary Marxism–Leninism", but by calling it Kimilsungism Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
was trying to elevate it to the same level as Maoism, Hoxhaism
Hoxhaism
and Stalinism.[34] The younger Kim further argued that Kim Il-sung's thoughts had evolved, and they therefore deserved their own distinct name.[34] He further added that "Kimilsungism is an original idea that cannot be explained within the frameworks of Marxism–Leninism. The idea of Juche
Juche
which constitutes the quintessence of Kimilsungism is an idea newly discovered in the history of mankind".[34] Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
went further, stating that Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
had become obsolete and needed to be replaced by Kimilsungism:[35]

The revolutionary theory of Kimilsungism is a revolutionary theory which has provided solutions to problems arising in the revolutionary practice in a new age different from the era that gave rise to Marxism–Leninism. On the basis of Juche
Juche
(idea), the leader gave a profound explanation of the theories, strategies and tactics of national liberation, class emancipation and human liberations in our era. Thus, it can be said that the revolutionary theory of Kimilsungism is a perfect revolutionary theory of Communism
Communism
in the era of Juche.[35]

According to analyst Shin Gi-wook, the ideas of Juche
Juche
and Kimilsungism were, in essence, the "expressions of North Korean particularism over supposedly more universalistic Marxism–Leninism".[35] In many ways, it signaled a move from socialism to nationalism.[35] This was made very clear in a speech in 1982, when North Korea
North Korea
celebrated Kim Il-sung's 70th birthday, when love for the nation came before love for socialism.[36] This particularism gave birth to such concepts as A Theory of the Korean Nation as Number One and Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style.[37] Following the death of Kim Jong-il, Kimilsungism was turned into Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism at the 4th Conference of the Workers' Party of Korea.[38] As well as stating that the WPK was "the party of Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
and Kim Jong-il", Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism was made "the only guiding idea of the party".[38] In the 4th Conference's aftermath, the Korean Central News Agency
Korean Central News Agency
(KCNA) stated that "the Korean people have long called the revolutionary policies ideas of the President [Kim Il-sung] and Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
as Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism and recognized it as the guiding of the nation."[39] Kim Jong-un, the WPK First Secretary, said that "Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism is an integral system of the idea, theory and method of Juche
Juche
and a great revolutionary ideology representative of the Juche
Juche
era. Guided by Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism, we should conduct Party building and Party activities, so as to sustain the revolutionary character of our Party and advance the revolution and construction in line with the ideas and intentions of the President and the General."[40] Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style[edit] Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style, also referred to as Korean-style socialism and our-style socialism within North Korea, is an ideological concept introduced by Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
on 27 December 1990 in his speech Socialism of Our Country is a Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style as Embodied by the Juche idea.[37] Speaking after the revolutions of 1989 which brought down regimes in the Eastern Bloc, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
explicitly stated that North Korea needed, and survived because of, Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style.[37] He argued that socialism in Eastern Europe failed because they "imitated the Soviet experience in a mechanical manner".[37] They failed to understand that the Soviet experience was based on specific historical and social circumstances and could not be used by other countries aside from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself.[37] He added that "if experience is considered absolute and accepted dogmatically it is impossible to build Socialism
Socialism
properly, as the times change and the specific situation of each country is different from another".[37] Kim Jong-il went on to criticize "dogmatic application" of Marxism–Leninism, stating:[41]

Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
presented a series of opinions on building of Socialism
Socialism
and Communism, but it confined itself to presupposition and hypothesis owing to the limitations of the conditions of their ages and practical experiences ... But many countries applied the principles of Marxist–Leninist materialistic conception of history dogmatically, failing to advance revolution continually after the establishment of the socialist system.[41]

North Korea
North Korea
would not encounter such difficulties because of the conceiving of Juche.[42] In his words, North Korea
North Korea
was "a backward, colonial semifeudal society" when the communists took over, but since the North Korean communists did not accept Marxism, because it was based on European capitalist experiences, or Leninism, which was based on Russia's experience, they conceived of Juche.[42] The situation in North Korea
North Korea
was also more complex because of the American presence in South Korea.[42] Thanks to Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
argued, the revolution had "put forward original lines and policies suited to our people's aspirations and the specific situation of our country".[42] "The Juche
Juche
idea is a revolutionary theory which occupies the highest stage of development of the revolutionary ideology of the working class", Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
said, further stating that the originality and superiority of the Juche
Juche
idea defined and strengthened Korean socialism.[42] He then conceded by stating that " Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style" was "a man-centered Socialism", explicitly making a break with basic Marxist–Leninist thought which argues that material forces are the driving force of historical progress, not people.[42] Socialism
Socialism
of Our Style was presented as an organic sociopolitical theory, using the language of Marxism–Leninism, saying:[43]

The political and ideological might of the motive force of revolution is nothing but the power of single-hearted unity between the leader, the Party, and the masses. In our socialist society, the leader, the Party, and the masses throw in their lot with one another, forming a single socio-political organism. The consolidation of blood relations between the leader, the Party and the masses is guaranteed by the single ideology and united leadership.[43]

"Great Leader" theory[edit] Unlike Marxism–Leninism, which considers material forces to be the driving force of historical progress (known as historical materialism), Juche
Juche
in North Korea
North Korea
considers human beings in general to be the driving force in history.[44] It is summarized as "the popular masses are placed in the center of everything, and the leader is the center of the masses".[44] Juche, North Korea's government states, is a "man-centered ideology" in which the "man is the master of everything and decides everything".[44] In contrast to Marxist–Leninist thought, in which people's decisions are inextricably linked to their relations to the means of production (a concept referred to as "relations of production"), in Juche
Juche
thought man is independent and decides everything.[44] Just like Marxist–Leninist thought, Juche
Juche
believes history is law-governed, but that it is only man who drives progress: "the popular masses are the drivers of history".[45] However, for the masses to be successful, they need a "Great Leader".[45] Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
argues that the popular masses will lead (on the basis of their relation to production); in North Korea, the role of a Great Leader should be essential for leadership.[46] This theory allegedly helped Kim Il-sung establish a unitary, one-man rule over North Korea.[46] The theory turns the Great Leader into an absolutist, supreme leader.[47] The working class is not to think for themselves, but instead to think through the Great Leader.[47] The Great Leader is the "top brain" (i.e., "mastermind") of the working class, meaning that he is the only legitimate representative of the working class.[47] Class struggle can be realized only through the Great Leader, and difficult tasks in general and revolutionary changes in particular can be introduced only through, and by, the Great Leader.[47] Thus, in historical development, it is the Great Leader who is the leading force of the working class.[47] The Great Leader is also a flawless human being, who never commits mistakes, who is always benevolent, and who always rules for the masses.[48] The leader is incorruptible.[48] For the Great Leader system to function, a unitary ideological system has to be in place.[49] In North Korea, that unitary ideological system is known as the Ten Principles for a Monolithic Ideological System.[49] The "masses"[edit] Unlike the Joseon dynasty, where there was a huge gap between the upper and lower classes, North Korea
North Korea
had adopted the concept of a gathered-together "people". Instead of a strict social hierarchy, North Korea
North Korea
had, in theory, divided the union into three classes — peasant, worker and samuwon (intellectuals and professionals), where each was just as important as the other. The samuwon class consisted of clerks, small traders, bureaucrats, professors and writers. This was a unique class that was created in order to increase the education and literacy of North Korea's population. Normally, Communist nations would value only the farmers or laborers, thus in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the intelligentsia was not defined as an independent class of its own, but rather as a "social stratum" that recruited itself from members of almost all classes: proletariat, petite bourgeoisie, and bourgeoisie. However, a "peasant intelligentsia" was never mentioned. Correspondingly, the "proletarian intelligentsia" was exalted for bringing forth progressive scientists and Marxist theoreticians, whereas the "bourgeois intelligentsia" was condemned for producing "bourgeois ideology", which were all non-Marxist worldviews. Language reforms followed revolutions more than once, such as the New Korean Orthography
New Korean Orthography
in North Korea
North Korea
(which failed, due to Korean ethnic nationalist fears of precluding Korean unification), or the simplification of Chinese characters under Mao (a consequence of the divergent orthographic choices of Taiwan and the People's Republic of China), or the simplification of the Russian language after the 1917 revolution in Russia and consequent struggle against illiteracy, known in Soviet Russia as Likbez
Likbez
(Likvidaciya Bezgramotnosti, liquidation of illiteracy). They believed in rapid industrialization through labor and in subjecting nature to human will. By restructuring social classes into a mass of people who are theoretically all equal, the North Korean government claimed it would be able to attain self-reliance or Juche in upcoming years. This is questionable, because the country suffers massive food shortages annually and is heavily dependent on foreign aid.[50] Songun[edit] Main article: Songun Songun
Songun
(literally, "military-first policy") was first mentioned on 7 April 1997 in Rodong Shinmun
Rodong Shinmun
under the headline "There Is a Victory for Socialism
Socialism
in the Guns and Bombs of the People's Army".[51] It defined the military-centered thinking of the time by stating; "the revolutionary philosophy to safeguard our own style of socialism under any circumstances."[51] The concept was credited to "Respected General Kim Jong-il".[51] Later, on 16 June 1998, in a joint editorial entitled "Our Party's Military-First Politics Will Inevitably Achieve Victory and Will Never Be Defeated" by Kulloja (the WPK theoretical magazine) and Rodong Sinmun, it was stated that Songun
Songun
meant "the leadership method under the principle of giving priority to the military and resolving the problems that may occur in the course of revolution and construction as well as establishing the military as the main body of the revolution in the course of achieving the total tasks of socialism."[52] While the article clearly referred to "our Party", this was not a reference to the WPK but rather to the personal leadership of Kim Jong-il.[52] On 5 September 1998, the North Korean constitution was revised, and it made clear that the National Defence Commission, the highest military body, was the supreme body of the state.[52] This date is considered the beginning of the Songun era.[52] Juche
Juche
in practice[edit] In the view of some observers, Juche
Juche
is not mere rhetoric, but rather an ideal of self-reliance that North Korea
North Korea
has attempted to put into practice.[53][54][55] Diplomacy[edit] Based On the Juche
Juche
Idea, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
argued that, "Independence is not in conflict with internationalism but is the basis of its strengthening."[56] He stated that North Korea
North Korea
co-operated with "socialist countries", the "international communist movement", and "newly-emerging nations" on the basis of non-interference, equality, and mutual benefit.[57] North Korea
North Korea
emerged from Soviet occupation and fought alongside the Chinese Communists in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and the Korean War. However, it soon asserted its independence from both the Soviet Union and China. Though it rejected de-Stalinization, it avoided taking sides in the Sino-Soviet split. As the Communist bloc
Communist bloc
split, introduced market reforms, and collapsed, North Korea
North Korea
increasingly emphasized Juche
Juche
in both theory and practice.[58][59][60] North Korea
North Korea
was admitted to the Non-aligned Movement
Non-aligned Movement
in 1975 and began to present itself as a leader of the Third World. It fostered diplomatic relations with developing countries and promoted Juche
Juche
as a model for others to follow.[61][62] National survival has been seen as a guiding principle of North Korea's diplomatic strategy.[63] Even in the midst of economic and political crises, North Korea
North Korea
continues to emphasize its independence on the world stage.[64] Economics[edit] In On the Juche
Juche
Idea, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
stated, "In order to implement the principle of economic self-sufficiency, one must build an independent national economy".[57] More specifically, he stated, "Heavy industry with the machine-building industry as its backbone is the pillar of an independent national economy".[65] He also emphasized the importance of technological independence[66] and self-sufficiency in resources.[67] However, he stated that this did not rule out international economic co-operation.[67] In 1956, Kim Il-Sung declared Juche
Juche
to be the guiding principle of the economy. After the devastation of the Korean War, North Korea
North Korea
began to rebuild its economy with a base in heavy industry, with the aim of becoming as self-sufficient as possible.[68] As a result, North Korea developed what has been called the "most autarkic industrial economy in the world".[53][69] North Korea
North Korea
received a lot of economic aid and technical assistance from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China, but did not join COMECON, the Communist common market.[70][55] In the 1990s, it had one of the world's lowest rates for dependence on petroleum, using hydroelectric power and coal instead of imported oil.[71] Its textile industry uses vinylon, known as the " Juche
Juche
fiber", which was invented by a Korean and which is made from locally available coal and limestone.[72][73] The history of the development of vinylon was often featured in propaganda in order to preach the virtues of technological self-reliance.[69] North Korea
North Korea
had 10,000 CNC
CNC
machines in 2010[74], first domestic homemade CNC
CNC
machine was introduced in 1995 and in 2017 it has around 15,000 machines.[75] Commentators, however, have often pointed out the discrepancy between the principle of self-sufficiency and North Korea's dependence on foreign aid, especially during its economic crisis in the 1990s.[76] The pursuit of economic autarky has been blamed for contributing to the crisis.[77] On this view, attempts at self-sufficiency led to inefficiency and to the neglect of export opportunities in industries where there was a comparative advantage.[78] Defense[edit] In On the Juche
Juche
Idea, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
stated, "Self-reliance in defense is a fundamental principle of an independent sovereign state".[79] He stated that it was possible to get aid from friends and allies, but that this would be effective only if the state was militarily strong in its own right.[80] He advocated a state where "all the people are under arms and the whole country becomes a fortress".[81] He also advocated the development of a local defense industry to avoid dependence on foreign arms suppliers.[82] North Korea
North Korea
has attempted to put this into practice.[83] The Korean People's Army is one of the largest on earth. It is currently developing its own nuclear ballistic missile.[84][85] Domestic production of UDMH fuel for liquid fueled missiles[86] and Tumansky RD-9 Turbojet
Turbojet
engine which powers Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19
and Shenyang J-6.[87] CNC
CNC
machines are used for production of missiles and centrifuges.[88] North Korea's propaganda since the Korean War
Korean War
has contrasted its military autonomy with the presence of US forces in the South.[69] Religious features of Juche[edit] Some South Korean scholars categorize Juche
Juche
as a national religion or they compare its facets to those of some religions. For instance, Juche
Juche
has been compared to pre-existing religions in Korea, notably neo-Confucianism and Korean shamanism
Korean shamanism
due to their shared familiar principles.[89] While the influence of traditional East Asian religions on Juche
Juche
is widely disputed, the ideology has been thought of by several academic studies as having aspects of a national and indigenous religious movement in addition to being a political philosophy due to the following features: the presence of a sacred leader, rituals, and familism.[90] Despite the religious features of Juche, it is a highly atheistic ideology that discourages the practice of mainstream religions. This draws from Juche's Marxist-Leninist origins. North Korea
North Korea
is officially an atheist state, much like the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
under Joseph Stalin. Those familiar with brainwashing would argue Juche
Juche
is more cult than religion, fitting cult expert and psychologist Dr. Steven Hassan's BITE (Behaviour, Information, Thought, Emotion) model of mind control.[91] Presence of a Sacred Leader[edit] Although the ideology appears to emphasize the central role of the human individual, Juche
Juche
can be fulfilled only through the masses’ subordination to a single leader and accordingly, his successor. The ideology teaches that the role of a Great Leader is essential for the popular masses to succeed in their revolutionary movement, because without leadership, they are unable to survive.[92] This is the foundation of North Korea's cult of personality
North Korea's cult of personality
surrounding Kim Il Sung. The personality cult explains how the Juche
Juche
ideology has been able to endure until today, even during the North Korean government's undeniable dependence on foreign assistance during its famine in the 1990s.[90] The concept of the "Sacred leader" in Juche, as well as the cult around the Kim family, has been compared to the State Shinto ideology of Imperial Japan, in which the Emperor was seen as a divine being.[93] Through the fundamental belief in the essential role of the Great Leader, the former North Korean leader Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
has become the "supreme deity for the people" and the Juche
Juche
doctrine is reinforced in North Korea's constitution as the country’s guiding principle.[94] The parallel relationship structure between Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
and his people to religious founders or leaders and their followers, has led many scholars to consider Juche
Juche
to be a religious movement as much as a political ideology.[89]. However, those familiar with cults would again posit that Juche
Juche
bypasses the tenants of religion completely and instead, meets the criteria of a totalitarian cult. [95] Juche's emphasis on the political and sacred role of the leader and the ensuing worshipping by the popular masses has been critiqued by various intellectual Marxists.[92] They argue that the North Korean working class or the proletariat has been stripped of their honor, and therefore, call the cult of personality non-Marxist and non-democratic.[96] Rituals[edit] The religious behavior of Juche
Juche
can also be seen in the perspectives of the North Korean people through refugee interviews from former participants in North Korea’s ritual occasions. One pertinent example is the Arirang Festival, which is a gymnastics and artistic festival held in the Rungnado May Day Stadium
Rungnado May Day Stadium
in Pyongyang, North Korea. All components of the festival, from the selection of performers, mobilization of resources, recruitment of the audience, and publicity for the show, have been compared to facets of a national religious event.[97] The Arirang Festival
Arirang Festival
has been described to demonstrate the power of the North Korean government
North Korean government
to arrange a form of religious gathering. It has done so by "appropriating a mass of bodies for calisthenic and performative arts representing the leader as the Father and his faithful followers."[98] The Festival's effectiveness in transforming its participants into loyal disciples of Juche
Juche
seems to originate from the collectivist principle of "one for all and all for one" and the ensuing emotional bond and loyalty to the leader.[98] According to the accounts of refugees who have been recruited to mass gymnastics, the collectivist principle has been nurtured through physical punishment, such as beatings, and more importantly, the organization of recruits into small units, whose performances were held accountable by larger units.[99] Thus, the Festival’s ritualistic components of collectivism serve to reinforce a “certain structure of sociality and affect,” establishing Kim Il Sung as the “Father” in both the body and psyche of the performers.[98] Familism[edit] Charles K. Armstrong argues that familism has transformed itself into a kind of political religion in the form of Juche. With the emergence of Juche
Juche
as North Korea's guiding political principle since the 1960s, the familial relationship within the micro-family unit has been translated into a national, macro-unit with Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
representing the father figure and the North Korean people representing his children. Thus, Juche
Juche
is based on the language of family relationships with its East Asian or neo-Confucian "resonances of filial piety and maternal love."[100]

North Korea
North Korea
claims that the Juche
Juche
idea has a wide international following which displays tributes from other socialist movements towards the idea in the entrance hall of the Juche
Juche
Tower

Armstrong also notes that North Korea
North Korea
has actually transferred the "filial piety of nationalism in the family of the leader himself"[clarification needed] by positioning Kim Il Sung as the universal patriarch.[101] He argues that while the official pursuit of the Juche
Juche
ideology in the 1960s signaled North Korea's desire to separate from the "fraternity of international socialism," the ideology also replaced Stalin as the father figure with Kim Il Sung.[102] In effect, North Korea's familial nationalism has supplanted the "rather abstract, class-oriented language of socialism with a more easily understandable and identifiable language of familial connections, love and obligations."[103] The cult of personality surrounding Kim expanded into a family cult when Kim Jong Il became the heir apparent after assuming important posts in the WPK and military in the early 1980s.[104] Armstrong calls this a ‘family romance,’ which is a term Freud had used to describe "the neurotic replacement of a child's real parents with fantasy substitutes."[105] Through the establishment of the North Korean family romance with the language, symbols, and rituals related to familism, Kim Il Sung has been consecrated even further posthumously as the Great Father.[89] Criticism[edit] Throughout the 1990s, the North Korean regime became increasingly nationalistic – at least, in its official pronouncements – leading Kim Chonghun to state that "Socialism of our Style" was really " Socialism
Socialism
without Socialism".[106] Speeches and official announcements made references to socialism, but neither to Marxist–Leninist thought nor to any basic communist concepts.[107] Shin Gi-wook argues that "there is no trace of Marxist– Leninism
Leninism
or the Stalinist notion of nationhood [in North Korea]. Instead, Kim stresses the importance of the Korean people's blood, soul and national traits, echoing earlier Korean nationalists such as Sin Chaeho, Yi Kwangsu and Choe Namson. He no longer has any interest in applying Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
to the North Korean situation; indeed it is no longer useful for the country."[107] Charles K. Armstrong says "North Korean Communism
Communism
would not only be quite distinctive from the Soviet model, it would in some respects turn Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
upside-down."[108] The key differences are that the North Koreans place the primacy of ideology over materialism, retaining the vocabulary of family lineage and nationalism and giving it primacy over class struggle, and supporting social distinction and hierarchy over classless society and egalitarianism.[108] He concluded that North Korea
North Korea
may look "Stalinist in form", but that it was "nationalist in content."[108] Brian Reynolds Myers dismisses the idea that Juche
Juche
is North Korea's leading ideology, regarding its public exaltation as designed to deceive foreigners and that it exists to be praised and not actually read.[109] Based on his own experiences living in North Korea, Felix Abt describes Myers' arguments as "shaky" and "questionable." Having seen the extent to which North Korean university students actually believe in Juche, Abt says it is "rather absurd" to describe the ideology as "window-dressing" for foreigners. He also questions how only three decades of Japanese occupation could simply upend the impact of "thousands of years" of history in Korea.[54] See also[edit]

Communism
Communism
portal North Korea
North Korea
portal Social and political philosophy portal

Ilminism Imperial cult Juchesasangpa – the South Korean representation of Juche
Juche
as a domestic political movement Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
bibliography Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
bibliography Political religion Songun Workers' Party of Korea

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b Myers 2015, p. 14. ^ "How do you pronounce JUCHE". Answers.com. Retrieved 2017-12-07.  ^ a b c d e f Paul French (2014). North Korea: State of Paranoia. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-78032-947-5. [page needed] ^ a b c Juche
Juche
Idea: Answers to Hundred Questions. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 2014.  ^ a b c Victor Cha (2009). The Impossible State: North Korea
North Korea
Past and Future. Vintage Books.  ^ Kim Jong Il: The Great Man. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 2012.  ^ http://www.korea-dpr.com/about.html ^ http://www.korea-dpr.com/juche_ideology.html ^ Myers 2015, p. 11. ^ Myers 2015, p. 12. ^ Myers 2015, p. 13. ^ Cumings 1997, pp. 207, 403–04. ^ a b Abt 2014, pp. 73–74. ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.  ^ Lone, Stewart; McCormack, Gavan (1993). Korea since 1850. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire. p. 180.  ^ Myers 2015, pp. 13–14. ^ Hyung-chan Kim and Tong-gyu Kim. Human Remolding in North Korea: A Social History of Education. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 2005. p. 10. ^ 高麗大學校亞細亞問題硏究所 (1970). Journal of Asiatic Studies. 13 (3–4): 63. CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link) ^ Choe, Yong-ho., Lee, Peter H., and de Barry, Wm. Theodore., eds. Sources of Korean Tradition, Chichester, NY: Columbia University Press, p. 419, 2000. ^ Becker, Jasper (2005). Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea. New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-19-517044-X.  ^ French, Paul (2007). North Korea: The Paranoid Peninsula – A Modern History (2nd ed. Print. ed.). New York: Zed Books. p. 30.  ^ Cumings 2005, pp. 421–22. ^ a b c d e Kwak 2009, p. 19. ^ a b Kwak 2009, p. 20. ^ Rules on use of Juche
Juche
Era adopted Archived 2010-03-13 at the Wayback Machine. - KCNA. ^ Cumings 1997, p. 404. ^ Juche, the Banner of Independence. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 1977. p. 11. OCLC 4048345.  ^ Hyung Gu Lynn (2007). Bipolar Orders: The Two Koreas since 1989. Zed Books. pp. 107–08.  ^ "The Black Panther's Secret North Korean Fetish". NKNEWS.ORG. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.  ^ ""Our Common Struggle Against Our Common Enemy": North Korea
North Korea
and the American Radical Left" (PDF). WilsonCenter.org. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2015.  ^ Seulki Lee in (25 April 2016). "City of devotees devotes itself to development". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017.  ^ a b c d e Lim 2012, p. 561. ^ Shin 2006, p. 89. ^ a b c Shin 2006, pp. 89–90. ^ a b c d Shin 2006, p. 90. ^ Shin 2006, pp. 90–91. ^ a b c d e f Shin 2006, p. 91. ^ a b Rüdiger 2013, p. 45. ^ Alton & Chidley 2013, p. 109. ^ Kim Jong-un, Let Us Brilliantly Accomplish the Revolutionary Cause of Juche, Holding the Great Comrade Kim Jong Il in High Esteem as the Eternal General Secretary of Our Party, 6 April 2012. ^ a b Shin 2006, pp. 91–92. ^ a b c d e f Shin 2006, p. 92. ^ a b Shin 2006, p. 92–93. ^ a b c d Lee 2004, p. 4. ^ a b Lee 2004, p. 5. ^ a b Lee 2004, p. 6. ^ a b c d e Lee 2004, p. 7. ^ a b Lee 2004, p. 8. ^ a b Lee 2004, p. 9. ^ Cumings 2005, pp. 404–05. ^ a b c Kihl & Kim 2006, p. 63. ^ a b c d Kihl & Kim 2006, p. 64. ^ a b Cumings 1997, p. 419. ^ a b Abt 2014, pp. 62–63. ^ a b Bluth, Christoph (2008). Korea. Cambridge: Polity Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-07456-3357-2.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 42.  ^ a b Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 43.  ^ Hyung Gu Lynn (2007). Bipolar Orders: The Two Koreas since 1989. Zed Books. pp. 105–07.  ^ Michael E Robinson (2007). Korea's Twentieth Century Odyssey. University of Hawaii Books. pp. 159–60.  ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.  ^ Armstrong, Charles (April 2009). "Juche_and_North_Koreas_Global_Aspirations" (PDF). NKIDP Working Paper (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-07.  ^ Wertz, Daniel; Oh, JJ; Kim, Insung (2015). The DPRK Diplomatic Relations (PDF) (Report). National Committee on North Korea. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04.  ^ Jager, Sheila Miyoshi (2013). Brothers at War – The Unending Conflict in Korea. London: Profile Books. p. 434. ISBN 978-1-84668-067-0.  ^ Jager, Sheila Miyoshi (2013). Brothers at War – The Unending Conflict in Korea. London: Profile Books. pp. 471–72. ISBN 978-1-84668-067-0.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 45.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 46.  ^ a b Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 47.  ^ Bluth, Christoph (2008). Korea. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-07456-3357-2.  ^ a b c Michael E Robinson (2007). Korea's Twentieth Century Odyssey. University of Hawaii Books. p. 160.  ^ Cumings 1997, p. 420. ^ Cumings 1997, p. 426. ^ Abt 2014, p. 39. ^ Hyung Gu Lynn (2007). Bipolar Orders: The Two Koreas since 1989. Zed Books. pp. 134–35.  ^ " Vinylon
Vinylon
and CNC? What are they good for?". 18 March 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2017 – via DailyNK.  ^ "How a homemade tool helped North Korea's missile program". 13 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017 – via Reuters.  ^ Hyung Gu Lynn (2007). Bipolar Orders: The Two Koreas since 1989. Zed Books. p. 138.  ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. pp. 147–52. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.  ^ Jager, Sheila Miyoshi (2013). Brothers at War – The Unending Conflict in Korea. London: Profile Books. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-84668-067-0.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 49.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. pp. 49–50.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 51.  ^ Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1982). On the Juche
Juche
Idea. p. 52.  ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. p. 93. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.  ^ C. Kenneth Quinones (7 June 2008). "Juche's Role in North Korea's Foreign Policy" (PDF). www.ckquinones.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.  ^ Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga (3 December 2014). "Assessing North Korea's Nuclear Gambit: A View from Beijing". Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  ^ "Domestic UDMH Production in the DPRK". www.ArmsControlWonk.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ "유용원군사세계". bemil.Chosun.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ "How a homemade tool helped North Korea's missile program". 13 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017 – via Reuters.  ^ a b c Jung 2013, p. 95. ^ a b Hoare, James (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow. p. 192.  ^ https://freedomofmind.com/bite-model/ ^ a b Helgesen 1991, p. 205. ^ Halpin, Dennis. "North Korea's Kim family cult: Roots in Japanese state Shinto?". Retrieved 3 November 2017.  ^ Cumings, Bruce (2003). North Korea: Another Country. New York: New. p. 158.  ^ https://freedomofmind.com/north-korea-hopefully-not-a-potential-global-waco/ ^ Helgesen 1991, p. 206. ^ Jung 2013, p. 101. ^ a b c Jung 2013, p. 96. ^ Jung 2013, p. 111. ^ Armstrong 2005, p. 383. ^ Armstrong 2005, p. 389. ^ Armstrong 2005, p. 390. ^ Armstrong 2005, p. 384. ^ "Kim's Son 'Only One' to Take Over" (12). South China Morning Post & the Hongkong Telegraph. 20 April 1982.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Armstrong 2005, p. 385. ^ Shin 2006, pp. 91–94. ^ a b Shin 2006, p. 93. ^ a b c Shin 2006, p. 94. ^ Rank, Michael (10 April 2012). "Lifting the cloak on North Korean secrecy: The Cleanest Race, How North Koreans See Themselves by B R Myers". Asia Times. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 

Sources[edit] Journal articles[edit]

Armstrong, Charles K. (2005). "Familism, Socialism
Socialism
and Political Religion
Religion
in North Korea". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 6 (3).  Helgesen, Geir (1991). "Political Revolution in a Cultural Continuum: Preliminary Observations on the North Korean "Juche" Ideology with its Intrinsic Cult of Personality". Asian Perspectives. 15 (1).  Jung, Hyang Jin (2013). "Jucheism as an Apotheosis of the Family: The Case of the Arirang Festival". Journal of Korean Religions, North Korea and Religion. 4 (2).  Lim, Jae-cheon (May–June 2012). "North Korea's Hereditary Succession Comparing Two Key Transitions in the DPRK". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 52 (3): 550–70. doi:10.1525/as.2012.52.3.550. JSTOR 10.1525/as.2012.52.3.550. 

Books[edit]

Abt, Felix (2014). A Capitalist
Capitalist
in North Korea: My Seven Years in the Hermit Kingdom. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9780804844390.  Alton, David; Chidley, Rob (2013). Building Bridges: Is There Hope for North Korea?. Lion Books. ISBN 9780745955988.  Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. W W Norton and Company. ISBN 0393040119.  — (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: a Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton.  Dimitrov, Martin (2013). Why Communism
Communism
Did Not Collapse: Understanding Authoritarian Regime Resilience in Asia and Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107035538.  Kihl, Young; Kim, Hong Nack (2006). North Korea: The Politics of Regime Survival. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765616388.  Kwak, Tae-Hwan (2009). North Korea's Foreign Policy Under Kim Jong Il: New Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0754677397.  Lee, Kyo Duk (2004). "'Peaceful Utilization of the DMZ' as a National Strategy". The successor theory of North Korea. Korean Institute for National Reunification. pp. 1–52. ISBN 898479225X.  Malici, Akan (2009). When Leaders Learn and When They Don't: Mikhail Gorbachev and Kim Il Sung at the End of the Cold War. SUNY Press. ISBN 079147304X.  McCann, David (1997). Korea Briefing: Toward Reunification. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 1563248867.  Myers, B. R. (2015). North Korea's Juche
Juche
Myth. Busan: Sthele Press. ISBN 978-1-5087-9993-1.  Rüdiger, Frank (2013). North Korea
North Korea
in 2012: Domestic Politics, the Economy and Social Issues. Brill Publishers. pp. 41–72. ISBN 9789004262973. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015.  Shin, Gi-wook (2006). Ethnic Nationalism
Nationalism
in Korea: Genealogy, Politics, and Legacy. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804754088. 

Further reading[edit]

Belke, Thomas Julian (1999). Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea's State Religion. Bartlesville: Living Sacrifice Book Company. ISBN 978-0-88264-329-8.  Jae-Jung Suh, ed. (2012). Origins of North Korea's Juche: Colonialism, War, and Development. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-7659-7.  Myers, B. R. (2011). The Cleanest Race: How North Koreans See Themselves and Why It Matters. New York: Melville House. ISBN 978-1-935554-97-4. 

External links[edit]

Look up Juche
Juche
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

C-SPAN Video – Book Discussion on The Cleanest Race: B.R. Myers takes an in-depth look at North Korean society and the domestic propaganda to which its citizens are exposed. Myers argues that North Korea is a paranoid, military-dominated nationalist state with a government that is influenced heavily by Japanese fascism. The International Institute of the Juche
Juche
Idea Juche
Juche
at Naenara Revolutionary View o

.