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Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(/ɔːˈriːliəs/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Antoninus Augustus;[6][notes 1][9] 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother (and son-in-law), Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169 and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177. He was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. He was a practitioner of Stoicism, and his untitled writing, commonly known as Meditations, is a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. It is considered by many commentators to be one of the greatest works of philosophy.[10] During his reign, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East: Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
in 164
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Córdoba, Spain
Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]),[4] also called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English,[5] is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. Caliph
Caliph
Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a second-class status.[6] It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista
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Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
(/ˈtɛsɪfɒn/ TESIFON; Greek: Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian/Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn[1]) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of Tigris, and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of present-day Baghdad. It became the capital of the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
in about 58 BC, and remained the capital of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
until the Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia
in 651. Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
developed into a rich commercial metropolis, merging with the surrounding cities along both shores of the river, including the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
city of Seleucia. Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
and its environs were therefore sometimes referred to as "The Cities" (Aramaic: Mahuza, Arabic: المدائن‎, al-Mada'in)
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Cassius Dio
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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Bithynian
Bithynia (/bɪˈθɪniə/; Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor. Bithynia was an independent kingdom from the 4th century BC. Its capital Nicomedia was rebuilt on the site of ancient Astacus in 264 BC by Nicomedes I of Bithynia. Bithynia was bequeathed to the Roman Republic in 74 BC, and became united with the Pontus region as the province of Bithynia et Pontus, in the 7th century incorporated into the Byzantine Opsikion theme
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Nicaea
Nicaea
Nicaea
or Nicea (/naɪˈsiːə/; Greek: Νίκαια, Níkaia; Turkish: İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
(which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea
Empire of Nicaea
following the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Byzantines in 1261. The ancient city is located within the modern Turkish city of İznik (whose modern name derives from Nicaea's), and is situated in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake Ascanius, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south
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Digest (Roman Law)
The Digest, also known as the Pandects (Latin: Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πανδέκτης pandektes, "all-containing"), is a name given to a compendium or digest of juristic writings on Roman law
Roman law
compiled by order of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in the 6th century CE (530–533). It is divided into 50 books. The Digest was part of a reduction and codification of all Roman laws up to that time, which later came to be known as the Corpus Juris Civilis (lit. "Body of Civil Law"[1]). The other two parts were a collection of statutes, the Codex (Code), which survives in a second edition, and an introductory textbook, the Institutes; all three parts were given force of law
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Codex Justinianus
The Codex Justinianus
Codex Justinianus
( Latin
Latin
for "The Code of Justinian") is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law
Roman law
ordered early in the 6th century AD
6th century AD
by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign. The fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones
Novellae Constitutiones
(New Constitutions, or Novels), was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis.[1]Contents1 Creation 2 Rediscovery of nation 3 English translations 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksCreation[edit] Shortly after Justinian became emperor in 527, he decided the empire's legal system needed repair
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Epigraphy
Epigraphy
Epigraphy
is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription
Behistun inscription
is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances. It is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document
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Numismatics
Numismatics
Numismatics
is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. While numismatists are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in prison). The Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins;[1] the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horses are not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems. Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, standardized, or credit value
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Espejo, Córdoba
Espejo is a municipality in the province of Córdoba, Spain.v t eMunicipalities in the province of CórdobaAdamuz Aguilar de la Frontera Alcaracejos Almedinilla Almodóvar del Río Añora Baena Belalcázar Bélmez Benamejí Bujalance Cabra Cañete de las Torres Carcabuey Cardeña Castro del Río Conquista Córdoba Doña Mencía Dos Torres El Carpio El Guijo El Viso Encinas Reales Espejo Espiel Fernán Núñez Fuente Obejuna Fuente Palmera Fuente la Lancha Fuente-Tójar Guadalcázar Hinojosa del Duque Hornachuelos Iznájar La Carlota La Granjuela La Rambla La Victoria Los Blázquez Lucena Luque Montalbán de Córdoba Montemayor Montilla Montoro Monturque Moriles Nueva Carteya Obejo Palenciana Palma del Río Pedro Abad Pedroche Peñarroya-Pueblonuevo Posadas Pozoblanco Priego de Córdoba Puente Genil Rute San Sebastián de los Ballesteros Santa Eufemia Santaella Torrecampo Valenzuela Valsequillo Villa del Río Villafranca de Córdoba Villaharta Villanueva de Córdoba
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Archaeological Museum Of Istanbul
The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Turkish: İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. The Istanbul Archaeology Museums consists of three museums:Archaeological Museum (in the main building) Museum of the Ancient Orient Museum of Islamic Art (in the Tiled Kiosk).It houses over one million objects that represent almost all of the eras and civilizations in world history.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 Hours of operation, admittance fee 4 Collection 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBackground[edit] In the 19th century, efforts were in place to modernize the Ottoman Empire, as many of the leading statesmen were exposed to Westernizing ideas through education and travel
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Sarmatians
The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
(Latin: Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD. Originating in the central parts of the Eurasian Steppe, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
started migrating westward around the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, coming to dominate the closely related Scythians
Scythians
by 200 BC. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River
Vistula River
to the mouth of the Danube
Danube
and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus
Caucasus
to the south
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Denarius
The denarius (/deː.ˈnaː.rɪ.ʊs/, pl. dēnāriī, /deː.ˈnaː.rɪ.iː/) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
c. 211 BC[1] to the reign of Gordian III
Gordian III
(AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in very small quantities, likely for ceremonial purposes, until and through the tetrarchy (293-313).[2]:87 The word dēnārius is derived from the Latin
Latin
dēnī "containing ten", as its value was originally of 10 assēs.[note 1] The word for "money" descends from it in Italian (denaro), Slovene (denar), Portuguese (dinheiro), and Spanish (dinero)
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