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Lovisa Von Burghausen
Lovisa von Burghausen
Lovisa von Burghausen
(1698 – 20 January 1733) was a Swedish memoirist who became famous for her story about her time in captivity as a slave in Russia after being taken prisoner by the Russians during the Great Northern War. She was sold as a slave several times before she eventually recovered her freedom, and her story became perhaps the most famous of the many stories of Carolinian fates of this period.Contents1 Kidnapped 2 The first master 3 Second master 4 Third master 5 Runaway slave 6 Later life 7 Context 8 See also 9 ReferencesKidnapped[edit] Lovisa was born in the city of Narva
Narva
in Swedish Estonia, one of five daughters to the noble Swedish major Gustaf von Burghausen and Margareta von Brundert. Her father had been taking part in the defence of the city when it was taken by the Russians after the Battle of Narva
Narva
(1704)
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Peter I Of Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(Russian: Пётр Вели́кий, tr. Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj]), Peter I (Russian: Пётр I, tr. Pyotr I, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj]) or Peter Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ]; 9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725)[a] ruled the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and later the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power
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Panyarring
Panyarring
Panyarring
was the practice of seizing and holding persons until the repayment of debt or resolution of a dispute which became a common activity along the Atlantic coast of Africa
Africa
in the 18th and 19th centuries.[1] The practice developed from pawnship, a common practice in West Africa
Africa
where members of a family borrowing money would be pledged as collateral to the family providing credit until the repayment of the debt
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Mamluk
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Saqaliba
Saqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. Siqlabi) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe
Europe
in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily
Sicily
and Al-Andalus. It is generally thought that the Arabic term is a Byzantine loanword: saqlab, siklab, saqlabi etc
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Aztec Slavery
Aztec slavery, within the structure of the Mexica
Mexica
society, produced many slaves, known by the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word, tlacotin. Within Mexica society, slaves constituted an important class.Contents1 Description1.1 Aztecs as Slaveowners 1.2 Aztecs as Slaves2 Superstitions 3 Collared Slaves 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] Slavery
Slavery
was not a station one was born into, but a state entered into as a form of punishment, out of financial desperation, or as a captive.[1] The practice consisted of two systems: 1) slavery, in the strictest sense of the term, and 2) indentured servitude. Aztecs as Slaveowners[edit] Slaveowners were required to provide food and shelter for their slaves.[1] Women slave owners exerted much in the way of choice, in regard to slaves
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Blackbirding
Blackbirding
Blackbirding
is the coercion of people through trickery and kidnapping to work as labourers. From the 1860s, blackbirding ships in the Pacific sought workers to mine the guano deposits on the Chincha Islands in Peru.[2] In the 1870s, the blackbirding trade focused on supplying labourers to plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland
Queensland
and Fiji.[3][4] The first documented practice of a major blackbirding industry for sugar cane labourers occurred between 1842 and 1904. Those "blackbirded" were recruited from the indigenous populations of nearby Pacific islands
Pacific islands
or northern Queensland
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Slavery In The Byzantine Empire
Slavery
Slavery
in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was widespread and common throughout its history.[1] Slavery
Slavery
was already common in Classical Greece and in the earlier Roman Empire
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Coolie
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli), meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context
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Corvée
Corvée
Corvée
(French: [kɔʁve] ( listen)) is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year. Statute labour is a corvée imposed by a state for the purposes of public works.[1] As such it represents a form of levy (taxation). Unlike other forms of levy, such as a tithe, a corvée does not require the population to have land, crops or cash. It was thus favored in historical economies in which barter was more common than cash transactions or circulating money was in short supply. The obligation for tenant farmers to perform corvée work for landlords on private landed estates has been widespread throughout history, before the Industrial Revolution. The term is most typically used in reference to medieval and early modern Europe, where work was often expected by a feudal landowner (of their vassals), or by a monarch of their subjects
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Kholop
A kholop (Russian: холо́п, IPA: [xɐˈlop]) was a feudally dependent person in Russia
Russia
between the 10th and early 18th centuries. Their legal status was close to that of slaves[1].Contents1 Etymology 2 Kholops 3 Combat Servants 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word kholop was first mentioned in a chronicle for the year of 986. Its etymology is unclear. By one hypothesis, the word is cognate with Slavic words translated as "boy" (more specifically, adolescent male; modern Ukrainian: хлопець (khlopets), Polish: chlopak, Bulgarian: хлапе/хлапак), which is similar to the use of the English word boy as "servant". The Slavic word itself is derived from the hypothetical root *chol related to premarital state, unmarriedness, inability for reproduction
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Slavery In Medieval Europe
Slavery
Slavery
had mostly died out in western Europe about the year 1000, replaced by serfdom.[dubious – discuss] It lingered longer in England
England
and in peripheral areas linked to the Muslim world, where slavery continued to flourish. Church rules suppressed slavery of Christians
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Thrall
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl)[1] was a slave[2] or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age. The corresponding term in Old English
Old English
was þēow. The status of slave (þræll, þēow ) contrasts with that of the freeman (karl, ceorl) and the nobleman (jarl, eorl). The Middle Latin rendition of the term in early Germanic law is servus. The social system of serfdom was continued in medieval feudalism.Contents1 Etymology 2 Early Germanic law 3 Society 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit]Look up thrall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Pronunciation of the term in US English Thrall
Thrall
is from the Old Norse
Old Norse
þræll, meaning a person who is in bondage or serfdom. The Old Norse
Old Norse
term was lent into late Old English, as þræl
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Nikolay Sauerweid
Nikolay Alexandrovich Sauerweid (Russian: Николай Александрович Зауервейд; 1836–1866) was a Russian painter; son of Alexander Sauerweid[1] Nikolay Sauerweid studied in the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. In 1857, he received a Silver Medal for his paintings Frenchmen storm Swartz reduit and Cossaks kidnap a French sentry in moonlight night about the Napoleonic Wars. In 1859 he graduated with a Small Gold Medal. His graduate work was Peter I stops his maraudering soldiers after taking Narva in 1704.[1] In 1860 Sauerweid received the title of Academician of Battle Art for his painting Prince Repnin enters Riga after the fall of the city in July 4, 1700. The artist became interesting in Genre works painting The Modest Moving from an apartment. He also painted many watercolor illustrations to the novel Prince Serebryany by A. K. Tolstoy.[1]Cavalry AttackIn 1866 at the age of 30 Nikolay Sauerweid died. References[edit]^ a b c A
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Serfdom
Serfdom
Serfdom
is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage, which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century. Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the lord of the manor who owned that land. In return they were entitled to protection, justice, and the right to cultivate certain fields within the manor to maintain their own subsistence. Serfs were often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also in his mines and forests and to labor to maintain roads
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History Of Serfdom
Like slavery, serfdom has a long history, dating to the Ancient Times. Contents1 Origins 2 Heyday 3 Decline3.1 Era of the French Revolution 3.2 Russia4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingOrigins[edit] Social institutions similar to serfdom occurred in the ancient world. The status of the helots in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta resembled that of medieval serfs. By the 3rd century AD, the Roman Empire faced a labour shortage. Large Roman landowners increasingly relied on Roman freemen, acting as tenant farmers, (instead of on slaves) to provide labour.[1] The status of these tenant farmers, eventually known as coloni, steadily eroded
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