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Kazan
Kazan
(Russian: Каза́нь, IPA: [kɐˈzanʲ]; Tatar: Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,535, it is the sixth most populous city in Russia.[8] Kazan
Kazan
lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. The Kazan Kremlin
Kazan Kremlin
is a World Heritage Site. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan
Kazan
the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia.[15] In 2009 it was chosen as the "Sports capital of Russia"[16] and it still is referred to as such.[17] The city hosted the 2013 Summer Universiade, 2014 World Fencing Championships, the 2015 World Aquatics Championships, and is one of the host cities for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup
2017 FIFA Confederations Cup
and the 2018 FIFA World Cup. In 2015, Kazan
Kazan
was visited by 2.1 million tourists, which is a 20% increase in comparison with 2014. The Kazan Kremlin
Kazan Kremlin
was visited by 1.5 million tourists in 2015, and the city's hotel and entertainment complex with an aquapark called " Kazan
Kazan
Riviera" was visited by 1 million tourists.[18]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Russian Tsardom period 2.3 Russian Empire period 2.4 Soviet period 2.5 Modern period

2.5.1 Millennium of Kazan

3 Administrative and municipal status

3.1 City divisions

4 Economy

4.1 Investments 4.2 Transportation

4.2.1 Kazan
Kazan
International Airport 4.2.2 Railways 4.2.3 Riverside station 4.2.4 Bus stations 4.2.5 Highways 4.2.6 Public transit

5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Ethnicity 5.3 Religion 5.4 Languages

6 Geography

6.1 Climate

7 Central Kazan

7.1 Kremlin 7.2 Bistä, or Posad 7.3 Wooden Kazan 7.4 Other major buildings

8 Cityscape 9 Education and science

9.1 Primary and secondary education 9.2 Higher education 9.3 Science 9.4 Public health

10 Government and administration

10.1 Mayor 10.2 City Duma 10.3 Executive committee 10.4 Government of the Republic of Tatarstan

11 Sports

11.1 Notable athletes 11.2 Infrastructure 11.3 Important events

12 International relations

12.1 Branch offices of embassies 12.2 Consulates 12.3 Visa centers 12.4 Twin towns and sister cities 12.5 International organizations membership

13 Notable people 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Notes 15.2 Sources

16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology[edit] The origin of the name Kazan
Kazan
is uncertain. The most accepted legends derive it from the Bulgar (and also modern Tatar) word qazan, which means 'boiler' or 'cauldron'. One legend claims that the city was named after the river Kazanka, which was named after the son of a Bulgar governor dropped a copper cauldron into it.[19] Other local legends, including research by the Tatar
Tatar
scholar Shigabetdin Marjani, claim that the city was named for the resemblance of the hill on which it sits to an upturned cauldron. Qazan/ Kazan
Kazan
was a choice name for the male Turkic/ Mongol
Mongol
royalty, most notably that of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
Mongol
Mongol
king, Qazan Khan. It is likely that the city was named after a Mongol/Turkic khan by that name when the city was founded or soon after. History[edit] Main articles: History of Kazan
History of Kazan
and Timeline of Kazan Middle Ages[edit]

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Middle-Ages view

View near 1767

There is a long-running dispute as to whether Kazan
Kazan
was founded by the Volga Bulgars
Volga Bulgars
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or by the Tatars of the Golden Horde in the mid-15th century, as written records before the latter period are sparse. Iske Qazan may have been a Bulgar city on the site; estimates of the date of its foundation range from the early 11th century to the late 13th century. It was a border post between Volga Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and two Finnic tribes, the Mari and the Udmurt. Another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. Archaeological explorations have produced evidence of urban settlement in three parts of the modern city: in the Kremlin; in Bişbalta at the site of the modern Zilantaw monastery; and near the Qaban lake. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin. If Kazan
Kazan
existed in the 11th and 12th centuries, it could have been a stop on a Volga trade route
Volga trade route
from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
to Baghdad. It was a trade center, and possibly a major city for Bulgar settlers in the Kazan
Kazan
region, although their capital was further south at the city of Bolğar. After the Mongols devastated the Bolğar and Bilär areas in the 13th century, either the surviving Bulgars
Bulgars
recuperated in numbers and were assimilated by a small number of Kipchaks
Kipchaks
from whom they adopted their language (a position known as Bulgarism), or Kipchaks
Kipchaks
and Bulgars intermixed to create the modern Kazan
Kazan
Tatar
Tatar
population. Kazan
Kazan
became a center of a duchy which was a dependency of the Golden Horde. Two centuries later, in the 1430s, Kipchak descendants of Genghis Khan, such as Ghiasetdin of Kazan, usurped power from its Bolghar
Bolghar
dynasty. Some Tatars also went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the Great. In 1438, as the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
was beginning to break up, Kazan
Kazan
became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. The city bazaar, Taş Ayaq (Stone Leg) became the most important trade center in the region, especially for furniture. Craft-based manufacturing also thrived, as the city gained a reputation for its leather and gold goods, as well as for the opulence of its palaces and mosques. The citadel and Bolaq channel were reconstructed, giving the city a strong defensive capacity. The Russians
Russians
managed to occupy the city briefly several times. Kazan Khanate
Kazan Khanate
was making constant plundering raids on Russia. Slavery in Kazan Khanate
Kazan Khanate
was legal. The number of slaves was up to 10% of the population. Most of the slaves were Russian people who were captured during raids. All captured men were forced to convert to Islam, otherwise they could be killed or sold into slavery to other Muslim countries.[20] Russian Tsardom period[edit]

Annunciation Cathedral of Kazan
Kazan
Kremlin, 1561–1562

As a result of the Siege of Kazan
Siege of Kazan
in 1552, Russia
Russia
under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city and massacred the majority of the population.[21] Also as a result of the Siege of Kazan
Siege of Kazan
8,000 slaves were set free.[22] During the subsequent governorship of Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky, most of the khanate's Tatar
Tatar
residents were killed or forcibly Christianized, the Kerashen Tatars.[21] Mosques and palaces were ruined.[21] The surviving Tatar
Tatar
population was moved to a place 50 kilometers (31 mi) away from the city and this place was forcibly settled by Russian farmers and soldiers. Tatars in the Russian service were settled in the Tatar
Tatar
Bistäse settlement near the city's wall. Later Tatar
Tatar
merchants and handicraft masters also settled there. During this period, Kazan
Kazan
was largely destroyed as a result of several great fires. After one of them in 1579, the icon Our Lady of Kazan
Kazan
was discovered in the city. In the early 17th century, at the beginning of the Time of Troubles
Time of Troubles
in Russia, the Tsardom of Kazan
Kazan
declared independence with the help of the Russian population, but this independence was suppressed by Kuzma Minin in 1612.[citation needed] Russian Empire period[edit]

Kazan
Kazan
city map from the 19th century, Russian edition

In 1708, the Tsardom of Kazan
Kazan
was abolished, and Kazan
Kazan
became the seat of Kazan
Kazan
Governorate. After Peter the Great's visit, the city became a center of shipbuilding for the Caspian fleet. The major Russian poet Gavrila Derzhavin
Gavrila Derzhavin
was born in Kazan
Kazan
in 1743, the son of a poor country squire of Tatar
Tatar
ancestry though himself having a thoroughly Russian identity. Before the building of modern dams, low-lying areas were regularly flooded in April and May. Kazan
Kazan
suffered major fires in 1595, 1672, 1694, 1742, 1749, 1757 1744, 1815 and 1842. Kazan
Kazan
was largely destroyed in 1774 as a result of the Pugachev revolt (1774–1776), an uprising by border troops and peasants led by the Don Cossack
Don Cossack
ataman (Captain) Yemelyan Pugachev, but the city, formerly largely of timber construction, was soon afterwards rebuilt, using stone and according to a grid pattern plan, during the reign of Catherine the Great. Catherine also decreed that mosques could again be built in Kazan, the first being Marjani Mosque. At the beginning of the 19th century Kazan State University
Kazan State University
and printing press were founded by Alexander I. It became an important center for Oriental Studies
Oriental Studies
in Russia. The Qur'an
Qur'an
was first printed in Kazan
Kazan
in 1801. Kazan
Kazan
became an industrial center and peasants migrated there to join its industrial workforce. In 1875, a horse tramway appeared; 1899 saw the installation of a tramway. After the Russian Revolution of 1905, Tatars were allowed to revive Kazan
Kazan
as a Tatar cultural center. The first Tatar
Tatar
theater and the first Tatar
Tatar
newspaper appeared. Soviet period[edit] In 1917 Kazan
Kazan
became one of the revolution centers. In 1918, Kazan
Kazan
was the capital of the Idel-Ural State, which was suppressed by the Bolshevist
Bolshevist
government. In the Kazan Operation
Kazan Operation
of August 1918, it was briefly occupied by Czechoslovak Legions. In 1920 Kazan
Kazan
became the center of Tatar
Tatar
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the city's mosques and churches were destroyed, as occurred elsewhere in the USSR.[citation needed] After the Treaty of Rapallo (1922) until 1933, the German and the Russian army operated together the Kama tank school in Kazan. During World War II, many industrial plants and factories to the west were relocated in Kazan, making the city a center of the military industry, producing tanks and planes. After the war Kazan
Kazan
consolidated as an industrial and scientific center. In 1979, the city's population reached one million. Modern period[edit]

Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
visits Kazan

In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazan
Kazan
again became the center of Tatar
Tatar
culture and identity, and separatist tendencies intensified. With the return of capitalism, Kazan
Kazan
became one of the most important centers of the Russian Federation. The city went from 10th to 8th position in population ranking of Russian cities. In the late 2000s, the city earned the right to host both the 2013 Summer Universiade
2013 Summer Universiade
and 2018 FIFA World Cup. Millennium of Kazan[edit]

Millennium Bridge

Millennium Bridge

Millennium Bridge

Since 2000, the city has been undergoing a total renovation. The historical center—including the Kremlin—has been rebuilt, however a large number of the city's historical districts were completely demolished in the renovation. Kazan
Kazan
celebrated its millennium in 2005, after a city-organized historical commission settled on 1005 as the official year of the city's founding.[12] During the millennium celebrations, one of the largest mosque in Russia, Qolsharif, was dedicated in the Kazan
Kazan
Kremlin, the holiest copy of Our Lady of Kazan was returned to the city, the "Millennium Bridge" was inaugurated that year,[23] and the Kazan Metro
Kazan Metro
began operation. The government of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
released the Medal "In Commemoration of the 1000th Anniversary of Kazan". In 2010, for the preparations to the 2013 Universiade, Kazan
Kazan
began even more renovation by modernizing its airport, fixing the streets, enhancing public transport, and adopting Russian, English, and Tatar
Tatar
languages in all transportation, large stores, and shopping centers. Administrative and municipal status[edit] Kazan
Kazan
is the capital of the republic.[citation needed] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Kazan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Kazan
Kazan
is incorporated as Kazan
Kazan
Urban Okrug.[4] City divisions[edit]

City districts of Kazan

Kazan
Kazan
is divided into seven districts:

No. District Population[8] Area
Area
(km²)[citation needed]

1 Aviastroitelny 111,405 38.91

2 Vakhitovsky 86,202 25.82

3 Kirovsky 109,125 108.79

4 Moskovsky 130,537 38.81

5 Novo-Savinovsky 202,997 20.66

6 Privolzhsky 227,755 115.77

7 Sovetsky 275,514 167.00

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Kazan

Kazanorgsintez
Kazanorgsintez
chemical plant

Corston- Kazan
Kazan
with local World trade center

Airplanes built by Kazan
Kazan
Aircraft Production Association

Helicopter built by Kazan
Kazan
Helicopters

Kazan
Kazan
is one of the largest industrial and financial centers of Russia, and a leading city of the Volga economic region
Volga economic region
in construction and accumulated investment.[24] City's Gross Regional Product had reached 380 billion rubles in 2011.(RUS) Казань побила рекорд по инвестициям Total banking capital of Kazan
Kazan
banks is third in Russia.[citation needed] The main industries of the city are: mechanical engineering, chemical, petrochemical, light and food industries. An innovative economy is represented by the largest IT-park in Russia
Russia
which is one of the largest of its kind among Eastern Europe science parks.[25][26] Kazan
Kazan
ranks 174th (highest in Russia) in Mercer’s Worldwide Quality of Living Survey.[27] Investments[edit] In 2011 city organisations and businesses attract more than 87 billion rubles for economy and social sphere development. This is 44% more than 2010 number. In 2014 businesses attracts 86 billion rubles. Most of them have been implemented in real economy sector. Because of unstable economic situation within the country, there is a decrease of investment rates in 2015 and according to the statistics of the first part of the year it composed 51684.2 million rubles. There are head offices of 6 companies that are in rating of top-500 in terms of revenues in Russia. Total square of city business centres is 330 thousand square metres. Innovative economy in Kazan
Kazan
is represented by the biggest IT-park in Russia
Russia
and also the biggest technical park in Europe. The only one online platform for governmental trade except the Moscow
Moscow
one is operated in Kazan. During post-soviet period Kazan
Kazan
was the leader in terms of house construction in Volga region and now it holds the position and implement Republican program of liquidation of dilapidated housing which was unique for Russia. According to Forbes, Kazan
Kazan
has a 15th place in "Best cities for business in Russia" rating of 2010.[28] Then in 2012 Kazan
Kazan
gets a 6th place in Quality of city environment rating, which is made by Russian Federation Ministry of Regional Development, Russian Alliance of Engineers, Federal Construction Agency, Federal Service of Supervision of Consumer Protection and Welfare and Moscow
Moscow
Federal University.[29] Transportation[edit] Kazan
Kazan
International Airport[edit]

Night aerial view of radial Kazan

Bolaq
Bolaq
channel

Kazan
Kazan
International Airport

Main railway station

Kazan International Airport
Kazan International Airport
is located 26 kilometers (16 mi) from the city center. It is a hub for Tatarstan Airlines
Tatarstan Airlines
and Kazan
Kazan
Air Enterprise and hosts eleven air companies. The airport is connected with the city by bus route #97 and by a suburban train line. There is also the Kazan Borisoglebskoye airfield, home to Kazan Aircraft Production Association, a major aircraft factory, famous in the past as "Aircraft Plant 22" ("22nd Zavod"). Adjacent to it lies a huge aircraft engines plant ("16th Zavod"). It produces versions of Tupolev 204 and 214 aircraft. In the past an Ilyushin-62, four-engine Russian mainliner, Tupolev-160 "Black Jack" supersonic strategic bomber and Tu-22M tactic bomber were also produced here. Both these plants and adjacent workers' housing make a whole city district known as "Aviastroitelny" ("Aircraft Builders"). Railways[edit] Kazan
Kazan
is connected with Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
and Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
by train. The main railway station Kazan–Passazhirskaya
Kazan–Passazhirskaya
is located in the city centre and includes a main building (built in 1896), a commuter trains terminal, a ticket office building and some other technical buildings. Station serves thirty-six intercity trains and more than eight million passengers per annum.[30] The second terminus called "Kazan-2" is situated in the northern part of the city. Kazan
Kazan
also has nineteen platforms for commuter trains. Riverside station[edit] This station serves intercity ships and commuter boats. Pneumocushion boats are used in winter. Daily passenger turnover reaches 6 thousand. Bus stations[edit] There are two bus stations in Kazan—Central and Southern. Bus routes connect Kazan
Kazan
with all districts of Tatarstan, Samara, Ufa, Tolyatti, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Cheboksary, Sterlitamak, Buzuluk, Baki, and Aktobe. It is planned to build new stations in the East, West and North districts instead of Central for relieving city centre. Highways[edit] There are federal highway connections to Moscow
Moscow
and Ufa
Ufa
(E-22), Orenburg
Orenburg
(R-239), Ul'yanovsk
Ul'yanovsk
(R-241) and Igra (R-242). There are also R-175 federal highway and "Northern Europe – Western China" (in construction) route near the city. There are five bridges across the Kazanka (Qazansu) river in the city, and one bridge connecting Kazan
Kazan
with the opposite bank of the Volga. Public transit[edit]

A single-line (with the north-southeast Central Line) Kazan
Kazan
Metro, opened on 27 August 2005, the one new in post-Soviet Russia
Russia
only. After a few extensions, The Kazan Metro
Kazan Metro
now has ten stations, crossing the Kazanka river. Single trip costs 25 rub. The Kazan
Kazan
tram system was founded in 1899. 6 routes use 187 km (116.20 mi) of lines and 197 tramcars. All trams are dark red[31] Single trip costs 25 rub. Rolling stock: LM-99, 71-608, 71-605. The Kazan
Kazan
trolleybus (electric bus) system was founded in 1948. 355 km (220.59 mi) of lines are used for 14 routes. All trolleybuses are green[32] Single trip costs 25 rub. Vehicles: ZIU-682, Trolza-5275-05 "Optima", VMZ-5298.01-50 "Avangard". The Kazan
Kazan
bus system was totally renovated in 2007. 91 routes have an aggregate length of 1,981 km (1,231 mi). All 1,444 buses are colored red like in London. Single trip costs 25 rub. Unlike in most Western cities, public bus routes are not municipal, operated by private companies. Half of the buses are imported, produced by "Golden Dragon", "Higer", "MAZ", "Yutong", "Hyundai"; other buses are mostly Russian made "NefAZ". Travel cards that work within the metropolitan area reduce travel to 15 rub on trolley buses and buses, and offer considerable discounts on the metro line. These travel cards can be purchased from the post office. On July 1, 2013 the Veli'k bicycle sharing system was launched in Kazan. The system includes 7 self-service bicycle docking stations distributed throughout the centre of Kazan
Kazan
near the most popular city destinations, and 100 bikes. The service is open to everyone from 16 years of age. To access the service, you have to complete a simple sign-up procedure at www.Veli-k.ru, and buy a subscription for a suitable period of time. The first 30 minutes of every journey is free of charge. After the first half-hour, a service charge applies.

MAZ-103 low-entry bus

Trolza-5275 low-entry trolleybus

AKSM 843 tram

Subway train

Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Population of Kazan
Kazan
since 1800

Population: 1,143,535 (2010 Census);[8] 1,105,289 (2002 Census);[33] 1,094,378 (1989 Census).[34] Kazan
Kazan
metropolitan area's population is 1.65 mln. Rating of city population as on 1 January 2015

Place in the World

Place in Europe

Place in Former USSR

Place in Russia

Place in region

24

13

6

1

Year Population

1550 50,000

1557 7,000

1800 40,000

1830 43,900

1839 51,600

1859 60,600

1862 63,100

1883 140,000

1897 130,000

1917 206,600

1926 179,000

1939 398,000

1959 667,000

1979 989,000

1989 1,094,378 (census)

1997 1,076,000

2000 1,089,500

2002 1,105,289 (census)

2008 1,120,200

2009 1,130,717

2010 1,143,535 (census)

2016 1,216,965

Ethnicity[edit] Main article: Kazan
Kazan
ethnic communities

Young women in the street, outside Kazan
Kazan
University

The city's population consists mostly of ethnic Russians
Russians
(48.6%) and ethnic Tatars (47.6%). The other ethnicities are Chuvash, Ukrainians, Azerbaijanis, Vietnamese,[35][36][37] and Jews.[38] Religion[edit] Predominant faiths of Kazan
Kazan
city are Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
and Orthodox Christianity, with Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism
Judaism
and the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
also represented. Languages[edit] The Russian language
Russian language
is widely spoken in the city. Tatar
Tatar
is also widely spoken, mainly by Tatars. Geography[edit] Climate[edit]

Satellite view

Kazan
Kazan
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters (colder than Moscow), and warm, often dry summers. As a result of its far inland position, summers are extremely warm for its latitude and winters are quite cold compared to areas further west in Europe. The warmest month is July with daily mean temperature near 20.2 °C (68.4 °F), and the coldest month is January, with a daily mean of −10.4 °C (13.3 °F). The city set its two hottest days on record during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. Temperatures reached +39 °C (102 °F) in the hottest days during that time.

Climate data for Kazan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 5.2 (41.4) 14.0 (57.2) 29.5 (85.1) 33.5 (92.3) 37.5 (99.5) 38.9 (102) 39.0 (102.2) 32.3 (90.1) 23.4 (74.1) 15.0 (59) 6.1 (43) 39.0 (102.2)

Average high °C (°F) −7.2 (19) −6.7 (19.9) −0.2 (31.6) 10.2 (50.4) 19.0 (66.2) 23.6 (74.5) 25.5 (77.9) 22.9 (73.2) 16.3 (61.3) 8.1 (46.6) −1.0 (30.2) −5.8 (21.6) 8.7 (47.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) −10.4 (13.3) −10.1 (13.8) −3.9 (25) 5.5 (41.9) 13.3 (55.9) 18.1 (64.6) 20.2 (68.4) 17.6 (63.7) 11.7 (53.1) 4.8 (40.6) −3.4 (25.9) −8.6 (16.5) 4.6 (40.3)

Average low °C (°F) −13.5 (7.7) −13.3 (8.1) −7.2 (19) 1.7 (35.1) 8.3 (46.9) 13.4 (56.1) 15.5 (59.9) 13.3 (55.9) 8.2 (46.8) 2.2 (36) −5.6 (21.9) −11.4 (11.5) 1.0 (33.8)

Record low °C (°F) −46.8 (−52.2) −39.9 (−39.8) −31.7 (−25.1) −25.6 (−14.1) −6.5 (20.3) −1.4 (29.5) 2.6 (36.7) 1.6 (34.9) −5.4 (22.3) −23.4 (−10.1) −36.6 (−33.9) −43.9 (−47) −46.8 (−52.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 41 (1.61) 34 (1.34) 33 (1.3) 30 (1.18) 41 (1.61) 63 (2.48) 67 (2.64) 59 (2.32) 52 (2.05) 53 (2.09) 46 (1.81) 43 (1.69) 562 (22.13)

Average rainy days 3 2 4 11 15 18 16 16 18 17 10 5 135

Average snowy days 26 22 16 6 1 0 0 0 1 7 20 24 123

Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 76 67 58 65 68 70 75 80 85 84 74

Mean monthly sunshine hours 49 89 150 205 282 293 291 254 160 84 41 33 1,931

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[39]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[40]

Central Kazan[edit]

Qolşärif Mosque
Qolşärif Mosque
grand mosque

Belltower of Epiphany Church

Kremlin[edit] Main article: Kazan
Kazan
Kremlin The city has a citadel (Russian: кремль, tr. kreml', or sometimes Tatar: kirman), which was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2000. Major monuments in the kremlin are the five-domed six-columned Annunciation Cathedral (1561–62) and the mysterious leaning Soyembika Tower, named after the last queen of Kazan
Kazan
and regarded as the city's most conspicuous landmark. Also of interest are the towers and walls, erected in the 16th and 17th centuries but later reconstructed; the Qol-Şarif mosque, which is already rebuilt inside the citadel; remains of the Saviour Monastery (its splendid 16th-century cathedral having been demolished by the Bolsheviks) with the Spasskaya Tower; and the Governor's House (1843–53), designed by Konstantin Thon, now the Palace of the President
President
of Tatarstan. Next door, the ornate baroque Sts-Peter-and-Paul's Cathedral on Qawi Nacmi Street and Marcani mosque on Qayum Nasiri Street date back to the 18th century. Bistä, or Posad[edit] Central Kazan
Kazan
is divided into two districts by the Bolaq
Bolaq
canal and Lake Qaban. The first district (Qazan Bistäse or Kazanskiy Posad), historically Russian, is situated on the hill, the second (İske Tatar Bistäse or Staro-Tatarskaya Sloboda), historically Tatar, is situated between the Bolaq
Bolaq
and the Volga. Mosques, such as Nurullah, Soltan, Bornay, Apanay, Äcem, Märcani, İske Taş, Zäñgär are in the Tatar
Tatar
district. Churches, such as Blagoveschenskaya, Varvarinskaya, Nikol'skaya, Tikhvinskaya, are mostly in the Russian part of the city. The main city-centre streets are Bauman, Kremlyovskaya, Dzerzhinsky, Tuqay, Puşkin, Butlerov, Gorkiy, Karl Marx and Märcani. An old legend says that in 1552, before the Russian invasion, wealthy Tatars (baylar) hid gold and silver in Lake Qaban. Wooden Kazan[edit] In the beginning of the 1900s most of Central Kazan
Kazan
was covered by wooden buildings, usually consisting of two floors. There was a historical environment of Kazan
Kazan
citizens, but not the best place to live in. During the Republican program "The liquidation of ramshackle apartments" most of them (unlike other Russian cities), especially in Central Kazan, where the land is not cheap, were destroyed and their population was moved to new areas at the suburb of the city (Azino, Azino-2, Quartal 39). Nearly 100,000 citizens resettled by this programme. Other major buildings[edit]

National Museum of the Tatarstan

Palace of agriculture

Pyramid concert hall

Kazan
Kazan
circus

Children's palace

Temple of All Religions

Another significant building in central Kazan
Kazan
is the former "Smolentzev and Shmelev" tea house and hotel, now the Shalyapin Palace Hotel. It is located at 7/80 Universitetskaya Street, at the corner of Universitetskaya and Bauman. A major landmark of late-19th and early-20th century commercial architecture, it consists of two portions. The original portion, built for a merchant named Usmanov in the 1860s, was bought by the inter-related families of Efim Smolentzev and Pavel and Nikolai Shmelev in 1899.[41] They operated a store selling, among other things, tea. In 1910, the Smolentevs and Shmelevs constructed another portion, designed by architect Vasili Trifonov, and operated a hotel there.[42] After the Russian Revolution, the building eventually became the Hotel Soviet and after 2000 it was heavily renovated to reopen as the Shalyapin Palace Hotel. Cityscape[edit]

A panoramic view of Kazan
Kazan
Kremlin, Vernicle temple and Kazanka river right bank

Kazanka right bank

Both banks of Kazanka

Education and science[edit] Primary and secondary education[edit] Primary and secondary education system of Kazan
Kazan
includes:

282 nurseries, most of which are municipal 178 schools, 2 of which are private 28 vocational technical schools 15 colleges 10 special colleges

There are also 49 music schools, 43 sports school, and 10 fine-arts schools, including the Kazan Art School
Kazan Art School
founded in 1895. Higher education[edit] See also: List of Kazan
Kazan
Universities

Kazan
Kazan
Federal University

There are 44 institutes of higher education in Kazan, including 19 branches of universities from other cities. More than 140,000 students are educated in the city. Kazan Federal University
Kazan Federal University
(founded in 1804) is third oldest university in Russia
Russia
after Saint Petersburg State University (1724) and Moscow
Moscow
State University (1755). In 2009 KFU got Federal status as main university of Volga Region. Some other prominent universities are:

Kazan State Technical University
Kazan State Technical University
– founded in 1932. In 2009 it got status of National university Kazan State Medical University
Kazan State Medical University
– founded in 1814 as a department within Kazan
Kazan
State University Kazan State Technological University
Kazan State Technological University
– founded in 1919 on the base of pre-existing vocational school Kazan
Kazan
State Conservatory – founded in 1945 Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism - founded in July, 2010 in the framework of the XXVII World Summer Universiade Legacy. The branch, located in Naberezhnye Chelny, will proceed functioning.

Science[edit]

Main building of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
Academy of Sciences

Kazan
Kazan
is a major scientific centre in Russia. Kazan
Kazan
formed a big number of scientific areas and schools (mathematical, chemical, medical, linguistic, geological, geobotanical, etc.). Scientific discoveries are a subject of special pride, including: the creation of non-Euclidean geometry (Nikolai Lobachevsky), the discovery of the chemical element ruthenium (Karl Ernst Claus), the theory about the structure of organic compounds (Aleksandr Butlerov), the discovery of the electron paramagnetic resonance (Yevgeny Zavoisky) and acoustic paramagnetic resonance (Altshuler) and many others. The city hosts:

Kazan
Kazan
Science Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, since 1945. It includes 5 academic institutions. Tatarstan
Tatarstan
Academy of Sciences, since 1991. It includes 7 local departments with 13 academic institutions (also, 21 organisations are under the guidance of TAS) and one branch in Ulyanovsk.[43]

Public health[edit] 1814 year is considered to be an official year of the beginning of scientific medicine in Kazan. Exactly at that time University Hospital was open. In 1930 Faculty of Medicine is separated from the Kazan Federal University and holds a lot of specialized hospitals under its patronage. Nowadays Kazan
Kazan
becomes the largest public health center in Russia. 120 medical organisations are operated in the city. Kazan Interregional clinical-diagnostic center is the largest in Volga region in cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The largest hospital in Kazan
Kazan
is Republican Clinical Hospital. Government and administration[edit]

Kazan
Kazan
town hall (before 1917 - the Hall of Nobility)

Cabinet of Ministers

Presidential Palace

Mayor[edit] See also: List of Kazan
Kazan
mayors İlsur Metşin
İlsur Metşin
became the mayor of Kazan
Kazan
on November 17, 2005. City Duma[edit] Kazan
Kazan
City Duma is a representative body of the city, elected every four years and holds its sessions in Kazan
Kazan
City Hall. Executive committee[edit] Executive committee is a municipal body of the executive organs .[clarification needed] The committee's head is Denis Kalinkin.[44] Government of the Republic of Tatarstan[edit] Kazan
Kazan
hosts Tatarstan
Tatarstan
President's residence and administration (in Kremlin), Tatarstan's Cabinet of Ministers and Council of State (on Freedom square). Sports[edit]

Kazan
Kazan
Arena

"Basket-hall"

Kazan
Kazan
rowing center

Kazan
Kazan
now is one of the most developed cities in Russia
Russia
in terms of sport. The city has hosted two Bandy
Bandy
World Championships, in 2005 and 2011, the World Summer Universiade 2013, the World Championship in fencing in 2014, the Aquatics Championship FINA 2015, 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and other international competitions of various levels. In the future the city will hold the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The city of Kazan
Kazan
is a leader in terms of winnings in various sports including its most popular sports teams. Men's teams:

Club Sport Founded Current League League Rank Stadium

Rubin Kazan Football 1958 Russian Premier League 1st Kazan
Kazan
Arena

Ak Bars Kazan Ice Hockey 1956 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Tatneft Arena

Bars Kazan Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Tatneft Arena

Irbis Kazan Ice Hockey 2011 Minor Hockey League
Minor Hockey League
Division B Jr. 2nd Tatneft Arena

Dynamo-Kazan Bandy 1958 Bandy
Bandy
Super League 1st Raketa Stadium

UNICS Kazan Basketball 1991 Professional Basketball
Basketball
League 1st Basket-Hall Arena

Zenit Kazan Volleyball 2000 Volleyball
Volleyball
Super League 1st Kazan
Kazan
Volleyball
Volleyball
Centre

Sintez Kazan Water Polo 1974 Water Polo
Water Polo
Championship 1st Orgsintez

Notable athletes[edit]

Alexander Burmistrov, hockey player Viktor Kolotov, association football player Ruslan Nigmatullin, association football player Denis Arkhipov, hockey player Svetlana Demina, sport shooter Marat Safin, tennis player Dinara Safina, tennis player Alexander Fadeev, figure skater Vastly Mosin, sport shooter

Infrastructure[edit]

Kazan Arena
Kazan Arena
– stadium with capacity 45,000, home ground for FC Rubin Central stadium – Olympic stadium, capacity 30,133. Ex-home ground for FC Rubin. TatNeft Arena
TatNeft Arena
– indoor sporting arena, capacity 10,000. Home to HSC Aq Bars Basket-Hall – indoor sporting arena, capacity 7,000 (large hall) and 1,500 (small hall). Home to BC UNICS Kazan
Kazan
Volleyball
Volleyball
Centre, capacity 4,600. Home to VC Zenit and WVC Dynamo-Kazan Raketa and Trudovye Rezervy ice stadiums

Important events[edit]

2019 WorldSkills Championship Kazan
Kazan
is the host city for the 2013 Summer Universiade, 2015 World Aquatics Championships, 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup
2017 FIFA Confederations Cup
and 2018 FIFA World Cup. 2016 – 28th International Olympiad in Informatics 2016 European Judo Championships 2014 European Badminton Championships 2011 European Weightlifting Championships 2005 and 2011 Bandy
Bandy
World Championship 2010 finswimming European championship

International relations[edit] Branch offices of embassies[edit]

Branch Office of the Embassy of Belarus[45]

Consulates[edit] Four consulates general are found in Kazan.[46]

Consulate-General of Iran Consulate-General of Turkey Consulate-General of Hungary Consulate-General of Kazakhstan

Visa centers[edit]

Italian Visa Center in Kazan.[47] Joint Visa Application Center of European Union
European Union
for:

 Bulgaria  Czech Republic  Denmark  Finland[48]  Greece  Iceland  Malta  Netherlands  Spain

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Kazan
Kazan
is twinned with:[49]

Al Qalyubiyah
Al Qalyubiyah
(Egypt), since 2001 Al Minufiyah
Al Minufiyah
(Egypt), since 1997 Antalya
Antalya
(Turkey), since 2003 Astana
Astana
(Kazakhstan), since 2004 Braunschweig
Braunschweig
(Germany), since 1988[50] College Station, Texas, United States, since 1990

Donetsk
Donetsk
(Ukraine), since 2002 Eskişehir
Eskişehir
(Turkey), since 1997 Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(China), since 2002 Istanbul
Istanbul
(Turkey), since 2002 Tabriz
Tabriz
(Iran), since 2009 Harare
Harare
(Zimbabwe), since 2011 Shenzhen
Shenzhen
(China), since 2012 Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(China), since 2012 Ankara
Ankara
(Turkey), since 2013

Kazan
Kazan
has also partner relations with the following cities and regions:

Almaty
Almaty
(Kazakhstan), since 1996 Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
(Russia), since 1999 Astrakhan
Astrakhan
(Russia), since 1997 Baku
Baku
(Azerbaijan), since 2003 Bishkek
Bishkek
(Kyrgyzstan), since 1998 Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
(Russia), since 2002 Evpatoria
Evpatoria
(Ukraine), since 1998 Ivanovo
Ivanovo
(Russia), since 1997 Jūrmala
Jūrmala
(Latvia), since 2002 Kabul
Kabul
(Afghanistan), since 2005 Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
(Russia), since 2001 Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
(Russia), since 1997

Orenburg
Orenburg
(Russia), since 2001 Samara (Russia), since 1998 Saratov
Saratov
(Russia), since 1999 Shumen Province
Shumen Province
(Bulgaria), since 2003 Tashkent
Tashkent
(Uzbekistan), since 1998 Ufa
Ufa
(Russia), since 1999 Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude
(Russia), since 2003 Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
(Russia), since 1998 Urbino
Urbino
(Italy), since 2001 Volgograd
Volgograd
(Russia), since 2005 Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
(Russia), since 2003 Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
(Russia), since 2002 Oryol
Oryol
(Russia), since 2010 Tlemcen
Tlemcen
(Algeria), since 2011 Verona
Verona
(Italy), since 2011 Grozny
Grozny
(Russia), since 2012 Tyumen
Tyumen
(Russia), since 2013 Gwangju
Gwangju
(Korea), since 2013 Chengdu
Chengdu
(China), since 2015

International organizations membership[edit]

Organization of World Heritage Cities United Cities and Local Governments. Mayor of Kazan
Kazan
is a co-president of UCLG. Twin Cities International Association Historic Cities International Association General Conference of Mayors for Peace Organisation of Islamic Capitals and cities (observer) Metropolis International Assembly of capitals and large cities of CIS

Kazan
Kazan
has an Alliance française
Alliance française
center. Kazan
Kazan
has an American Corner.[51] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Kazan

Rashid Nezhmetdinov, International Master and 5-time winner of the Russian Chess Championship Dayana Kirillova, singer who represented Russia
Russia
at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest in 2013. Sofya Gulyak, Pianist, only female winner of The Leeds Piano Competition, in 2009.

See also[edit]

Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral (Kazan)

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f Order #01-02/9 ^ [1] Archived December 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://tatarstan.ru/eng/about/welcome.htm ^ a b c Law #46-ZRT ^ a b Official website of the Mayor of Kazan
Kazan
(in Russian) ^ Official website of Kazan. Kazan
Kazan
City Duma (in Russian) ^ площадь собственно города, Федеральная служба государственной статистики ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ Численность населения муниципальных образований Республики Татарстан ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ a b Шаймиев, Минтимер Шарипович; Камиль Исхаков; Мансур Х Хәсәнов (September 10, 1999). "Выступления Президента РТ М. Шаймиева, мэра г.Казани К.Исхакова и президента АН РТ, академика М.Хасанова на торжественном собрании по случаю установления даты основания г.Казани". Гасырлар авазы/Эхо веков (3/4). Retrieved 2011-07-17.  ^ Kazan
Kazan
Russia
Russia
— a thousand-year Russian city ^ Current local time in Kazan ^ " Kazan
Kazan
officially becomes Russia's Third Capital". Pravda. 2009-04-03. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Komsomolskaya Pravda: Kazan
Kazan
- sports capital of Russia
Russia
14.12.2009 ^ "List of Best Tatars". Mytopdozen.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "2,1 млн. туристов посетили Казань в 2015 году www.tatar-inform.ru". tatar-inform.ru. Retrieved 2016-02-09.  ^ "InTourist Kazan'". Legends about Kazan's foundation. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.  ^ http://www.zrd.spb.ru/smi/news/2016/0006.htm ^ a b c url=https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=ru&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Ftatarica.narod.ru%2Fcult%2Flibrary%2Fbook%2Fkazanhanligi%2Fchapter4.htm ХУДЯКОВ "Очерки по истории КАЗАНСКОГО ХАНСТВА" ^ ПСРЛ, том XIII. Издание 1-е. Летописный сборник, именуемый Патриаршею или Никоновскою летописью. - С. 513, 515. ^ Putin joins Tatarstan
Tatarstan
festivities BBC News 2005-08-26 ^ Основные социально-экономические показатели городов 2008 ^ В строительство IT-парка вложили 3 миллиарда ^ Инновационный технопарк Идея Archived February 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ NZ cities excel in quality of living - Mercer worldwide survey finds Archived July 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2010". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-02-09.  ^ Мысько, Сергей Афанасьев, Влас. "Казань оценили на "6 с плюсом"". БИЗНЕС Online. Retrieved 2016-02-09.  ^ ГЖД в 2006 году больше всего пассажиров отправила со станции Горький-Московский Archived August 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Выступление А. К. Абдулхакова на аппаратном совещании 09.02.2009 «Об итогах работы городского пассажирского транспорта за 2008 год» Archived March 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ В 2008 году в Казани всеми видами городского транспорта перевезено 319,9 млн пассажиров ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Massive fire breaks out in Kazan
Kazan
market. Retrieved 2015-12-24. ^ Funds raised to support Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
in Kazan. Retrieved 2015-12-24. ^ Donation to Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
in Kazan. Retrieved 2015-12-24. ^ (RUS) Новый облик Казани Archived March 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kazan" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved December 10, 2015.  ^ " Kazan
Kazan
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 10, 2015.  ^ "ИЗДАНИЯ ЦБС "Прогулки по городу"". Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved 2008-02-20.  ^ "До тысячелетия Казани осталось 36 дней. Гостиница "Совет"". Retrieved 2008-02-20. [permanent dead link] ^ Структура АНРТ Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://old.kzn.ru/page21569.htm ^ Embassy of Belarus ^ Offices in Kazan
Kazan
Archived September 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Visa Management Service. Filiali ^ Embassy of Finland ^ Kazan
Kazan
City Committee for external relations and tourism ^ "Braunschweigs Partner und Freundschaftsstädte" [ Braunschweig
Braunschweig
- Partner and Friendship Cities]. Stadt Braunschweig
Braunschweig
[City of Braunschweig] (in German). Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ "American Corners and Centers in Russia". Amcorners.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 

Sources[edit]

Министерство юстиции Республики Татарстан. Приказ №01-02/9 от 4 февраля 2014 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан», в ред. Приказа №01-02/160 от 11 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Приказ Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан от 04.02.2014 №01-02/9 "Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан"». Опубликован: Официальный сайт правовой информации Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан (http://pravo.tatarstan.ru), 27 февраля 2014 г. (Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan. Order #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan, as amended by the Order #01-02/160 of March 11, 2015 On Amending the Order of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
#01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 "On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan". ). Государственный Совет Республики Татарстан. Закон №46-ЗРТ от 15 сентября 2004 г. «О границах территории и статусе муниципального образования города Казани», в ред. Закона №132-ЗРТ от 26 декабря 2014 г. «Об изменении границ территорий отдельных муниципальных образований и внесении изменений в Законы Республики Татарстан "О границах территории и статусе муниципального образования города Казани" и "Об установлении границ территорий и статусе муниципального образования "Лаишевский муниципальный район" и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика Татарстан", №191, 21 сентября 2004 г. (State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan. Law #46-ZRT of September 15, 2004 On the Borders of the Territory and the Status of the Municipal Formation of the City of Kazan, as amended by the Law #132-ZRT of December 26, 2014 On Changing the Borders of the Territories of Various Municipal Formations and on Amending the Laws of the Republic of Tatarstan
Republic of Tatarstan
"On the Borders of the Territory and the Status of the Municipal Formation of the City of Kazan" and "On Establishing the Borders of the Territories and the Status of the Municipal Formation of "Laishevsky Municipal District" and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises". Effective as of the official publication date.). Álvarez Veinguer, Aurora (July 2007). "(Re)Presenting Identities: National Archipelagos in Kazan". Nationalities Papers. 35 (3): 457–476. doi:10.1080/00905990701368704. 

Further reading[edit]

Smith-Peter, Susan (2016), "Enlightenment from the East: Early Nineteenth Century Russian Views of the East from Kazan
Kazan
University", Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, 13 (1): 318–338, doi:10.17805/zpu.2016.1.29, archived from the original on May 5, 2016, retrieved 5 May 2016 . Edward Tracy Turnerelli, Kazan, the Ancient Capital of the Tartar Khans, 1854.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kazan.

Official website of Kazan Official website of Kazan
Kazan
(in Russian) Kazan
Kazan
bird's-eye Kazan
Kazan
weekend guide Virtual Guide around Kazan The Kazan
Kazan
Times: Business and political news from Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Russia
and all over the World Kazan
Kazan
city tourist portal Kazan
Kazan
millennium Universiade Kazan
Kazan
2013 Kazan
Kazan
1000 years old The history of Islamic religion in Kazan Kazan
Kazan
- Global Stroll http://www.kazan-memory.uni-tuebingen.de/indexee.html – Student project about Kazan's history (central aspects: memory, religion) The architecture of Kazan
Kazan
(in Russian) Russia
Russia
- Republic of Tatarstan
Republic of Tatarstan
- Kazan
Kazan
- photo galleries Kazan
Kazan
Travels

v t e

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Tatarstan

Capital: Kazan

Districts

Agryzsky Aksubayevsky Aktanyshsky Alexeyevsky Alkeyevsky Almetyevsky Apastovsky Arsky Atninsky Aznakayevsky Baltasinsky Bavlinsky Bugulminsky Buinsky Cheremshansky Chistopolsky Drozhzhanovsky Kamsko-Ustyinsky Kaybitsky Kukmorsky Laishevsky Leninogorsky Mamadyshsky Mendeleyevsky Menzelinsky Muslyumovsky Nizhnekamsky Novosheshminsky Nurlatsky Pestrechinsky Rybno-Slobodsky Sabinsky Sarmanovsky Spassky Tetyushsky Tukayevsky Tyulyachinsky Verkhneuslonsky Vysokogorsky Yelabuzhsky Yutazinsky Zainsky Zelenodolsky

Cities and towns

Agryz Almetyevsk Arsk Aznakayevo Bavly Bolgar Bugulma Buinsk Chistopol Kazan Laishevo Leninogorsk Mamadysh Mendeleyevsk Menzelinsk Naberezhnye Chelny Nizhnekamsk Nurlat Tetyushi Yelabuga Zainsk Zelenodolsk

Urban-type settlements

Aksubayevo Aktyubinsky Alexeyevskoye Apastovo Baltasi Bogatye Saby Dzhalil Kamskiye Polyany Kamskoye Ustye Karabash Kukmor Kuybyshevsky Zaton Nizhniye Vyazovye Nizhnyaya Maktama Rybnaya Sloboda Tenishevo Urussu Vasilyevo

v t e

Capitals of the Republics of Russia

Abakan Cheboksary Cherkessk Elista Gorno-Altaysk Grozny Izhevsk Kazan Kyzyl Magas Makhachkala Maykop Nalchik Petrozavodsk Saransk Simferopol Syktyvkar Ufa Ulan-Ude Vladikavkaz Yakutsk Yoshkar-Ola

v t e

Turkic Capitals of Culture

2012 Astana 2013 Eskişehir 2014 Kazan 2015 Mary 2016 Sheki 2017 Turkistan 2018 Kastamonu

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 239874

.