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Kostinbrod
KOSTINBROD (Bulgarian : Костинброд) is a town in western Bulgaria
Bulgaria
. It is the seat of Kostinbrod
Kostinbrod
Municipality . It is located 15 km west of the capital city of Sofia
Sofia
. It is located on two important transport corridors: Lom — Sofia
Sofia
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Sofia
Sofia
Belgrade
Belgrade
. The international railway line to Western Europe passes through the municipality, with a train stop at Kostinbrod Station. The town is crossed by two rivers, the Blato in the north and the Belitsa
Belitsa
in the south, both tributaries of the Iskar River
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Ivan Alexander Of Bulgaria
IVAN ALEXANDER (Bulgarian : Иван Александър, transliterated Ivan Aleksandǎr; pronounced ; original spelling: ІѠАНЪ АЛЄѮАНдРЪ), also sometimes Anglicized as JOHN ALEXANDER, ruled as Emperor ( Tsar
Tsar
) of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
from 1331 to 1371, during the Second Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire
. The date of his birth is unknown. He died on 17 February 1371. The long reign of Ivan Alexander is considered a transitional period in Bulgarian medieval history. Ivan Alexander began his rule by dealing with internal problems and external threats from Bulgaria's neighbours, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and Serbia , as well as leading his empire into a period of economic recovery and cultural and religious renaissance
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Medieval Bulgarian Royal Charters
The MEDIEVAL BULGARIAN ROYAL CHARTERS are some of the few surviving secular documents of the Second Bulgarian Empire , and were issued by five tsars roughly between 1230 and 1380. The charters are written in Middle Bulgarian using the Early Cyrillic alphabet . CONTENTS * 1 History and details * 2 Importance * 3 List * 4 Footnotes * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY AND DETAILSThe two earliest Bulgarian royal charters, the Vatopedi Charter given to the Vatopedi monastery on Mount Athos , and the Dubrovnik Charter which permitted Ragusan merchants to trade all over the Bulgarian lands, were issued by Tsar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria after 1230 , and are both undated. The Vatopedi Charter was discovered on Mount Athos in 1929 and the Dubrovnik Charter was found in the archives of Dubrovnik in 1817
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Iskar River
The ISKAR (Bulgarian : Искър pronounced ; Latin : Oescus; Ancient Greek : Οἶσκος) is, with a length of 368 km, the longest river that runs solely in Bulgaria , and a tributary of the Danube . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Honour * 3 Gallery * 4 Sources GEOGRAPHYThe Iskar is formed by three rivers, the Chèrni (black) Iskar, Bèli (white) Iskar and Lèvi (left) Iskar (known under the collective name Ìskrove), with the source being accepted to be the Prav (straight) Iskar, a tributary of the Cherni Iskar. After descending from the north slopes of Rila , it fills the Iskar Reservoir —the largest in Bulgaria and the Lake Pancharevo . The river runs through the outskirts of Sofia and passes through a rocky gorge in the Balkan Mountains . It flows into the Danube near the village of Gigen in Pleven Province . The Iskar is the only river to take its source from southern Bulgaria and cross the Balkan Mountains to flow into the Danube
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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined
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Thessaloniki
THESSALONIKI (Greek : Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki ( listen )), also familiarly known as THESSALONICA or SALONICA, is the second-largest city in Greece
Greece
, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area , and the capital of Macedonia , the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace . Its nickname is η Συμπρωτεύουσα (Symprotévousa), literally "the co-capital", a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα (Symvasilévousa) or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire , alongside Constantinople
Constantinople
. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is located on the Thermaic Gulf , at the northwest corner of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
. It is bounded on the west by the delta of the Axios/ Vardar
Vardar

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Belgrade
BELGRADE (/ˈbɛlɡreɪd/ BELL-grade ; Serbian : Beograd / Београд; Serbian pronunciation: ( listen ); names in other languages ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia
Serbia
. It is located at the confluence of the Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans
Balkans
. Its name translates to "White city". The urban area of the City of Belgrade
Belgrade
has a population of 1.23 million, while over 1.65 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture , evolved within the Belgrade
Belgrade
area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco - Dacians inhabited the region, and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city, naming it Singidūn
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Poultry
POULTRY (/ˌpoʊltriː/ ) are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs , their meat or their feathers . These birds are most typically members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl) , especially the order Galliformes (which includes chickens , quails and turkeys ). Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs ) but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game . The word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago. This may have originally been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but later involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity
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Stock Breeding
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat , fibre , milk , eggs , or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock . Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated , from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt , cattle , sheep , goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and wool
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Ancient Rome
In historiography , ANCIENT ROME refers to the Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom , Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire. The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire . The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula , dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Capital City
A CAPITAL CITY (or simply CAPITAL) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country , state , province , or other administrative region , usually as its seat of government . A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government ; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution . In some jurisdictions , including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Thermae
In ancient Rome
Rome
, THERMAE (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and BALNEAE (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing. Thermae
Thermae
usually refers to the large imperial bath complexes , while balneae were smaller-scale facilities, public or private, that existed in great numbers throughout Rome. Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were centres not only for bathing, but socializing. Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas , town houses , and forts . They were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more normally, by an aqueduct . The water would be heated by a log fire before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms. The design of baths is discussed by Vitruvius in De Architectura
De Architectura

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Mineral Water
MINERAL WATER is water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals , such as salts and sulfur compounds . Mineral
Mineral
water may be effervescent or "sparkling" due to contained gases. Traditionally, mineral waters were used or consumed at their spring sources, often referred to as "taking the waters" or "taking the cure," at places such as spas , baths , or wells . The term spa was used for a place where the water was consumed and bathed in; bath where the water was used primarily for bathing, therapeutics, or recreation; and well where the water was to be consumed. Today, it is far more common for mineral water to be bottled at the source for distributed consumption. Travelling to the mineral water site for direct access to the water is now uncommon, and in many cases not possible because of exclusive commercial ownership rights. There are more than 4,000 brands of mineral water commercially available worldwide
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Coca-Cola
COCA-COLA, or COKE, is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca- Cola
Cola
Company . Originally intended as a patent medicine , it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton
John Pemberton
and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler , whose marketing tactics led Coca- Cola
Cola
to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients, which were kola nuts (a source of caffeine ) and coca leaves. The current formula of Coca- Cola
Cola
remains a trade secret , although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published. The Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate , which is then sold to licensed Coca- Cola
Cola
bottlers throughout the world
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Lom, Bulgaria
LOM MUNICIPALITY (Bulgarian : Община Лом) is a frontier municipality (obshtina ) in Montana Province , Northwestern Bulgaria , located along the right bank of Danube river in the Danubian Plain . It is named after its administrative centre — the town of Lom which is one of the important Bulgarian river ports. The area borders on Romania beyond the Danube to the north. The municipality embraces a territory of 323.89 km² with a population of 27,294 inhabitants, as of February 2011
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