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Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a
carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant ch ...
soft drink A soft drink (see § Terminology for other names) is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows ...

soft drink
manufactured by
The Coca-Cola Company The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational corporation, multinational Drink industry, beverage corporation incorporated under Delaware's Delaware General Corporation Law, General Corporation Law and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia (U.S ...
. Originally marketed as a temperance drink and intended as a
patent medicine 's "Death's Laboratory" on the cover of ''Collier's'' (June 3, 1905) A patent medicine, also known as a nostrum (from the Latin ''nostrum remedium'', or "our remedy"), is a commercial product advertised (usually heavily) as an over-the-counter me ...
, it was invented in the late 19th century by
John Stith Pemberton John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was an American pharmacist and Confederate States Army veteran who is best known as the inventor of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The ...
and was bought out by businessman
Asa Griggs Candler Asa Griggs Candler (December 30, 1851 – March 12, 1929) was an American business tycoon who in 1888 purchased the Coca-Cola recipe for US$1,750 from chemist John Stith Pemberton in Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta () is the capital city, c ...
, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients:
coca Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family (biology), family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. Coca is known worldwide for its Psychoactive plant, psychoactive alkaloid, cocaine. The plant is grown as a cash crop in ...

coca
leaves, and
kola nut The term kola nut usually refers to the seeds of certain species of plant of the genus ''Cola'', placed formerly in the cocoa family Sterculiaceae and now usually subsumed in the mallow family Malvaceae (as subfamily Sterculioideae). These c ...

kola nut
s (a source of
caffeine Caffeine is a (CNS) of the . It is the world's most widely consumed . Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known to explain the effects of caffeine. The ...

caffeine
). The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a
trade secret Trade secrets are a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more ...
; however, a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published. The drink has inspired imitators and created a whole classification of soft drink:
cola Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink A soft drink (see § Terminology for other names) is a drink that usually contains carbonated water (although some vitamin waters and lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural ...

cola
s. The Coca-Cola Company produces
concentrate A concentrate is a form of substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has ...

concentrate
, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical can contains of sugar (usually in the form of
high-fructose corn syrup High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), also known as glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup, is a sweetener made from corn starch. As in the production of conventional corn syrup, the starch is broken down into glucose by enzymes. ...
in North America). The bottlers then sell, distribute, and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores, restaurants, and
vending machine Newspaper vending machines in Munich, Germany">Munich.html" ;"title="Newspaper vending machines in Munich">Newspaper vending machines in Munich, Germany A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, c ...
s throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for
soda fountain Image:Soda fountain in China 01.jpg, A The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola soda fountain in Hainan, China, April 2010. A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks. They can be found in restaurants, concess ...
s of major restaurants and
foodservice Food service (US English) or catering industry (British English) defines those businesses, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal prepared outside the home. This industry includes restaurant A restaurant (), or an eatery, is a ...
distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other
cola Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink A soft drink (see § Terminology for other names) is a drink that usually contains carbonated water (although some vitamin waters and lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural ...

cola
drinks under the Coke name. The most common of these is
Diet Coke Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Light or Coca-Cola Light Taste is a sugar-free and no-calorie soft drink produced and distributed by the Coca-Cola Company. It contains artificial sweeteners instead of sugar. Unveiled on July 8, 1982, and introduced in the ...
, along with others including
Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola was introduced in 1983 as a Decaffeination, caffeine-free variant of Coca-Cola. It was introduced to compete against Pepsi Free, which is now called Caffeine-Free Pepsi. The diet variant, Caffeine-Free Diet Coke, was the f ...
,
Diet Coke Caffeine-Free Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola was introduced in 1983 as a Decaffeination, caffeine-free variant of Coca-Cola. It was introduced to compete against Pepsi Free, which is now called Caffeine-Free Pepsi. The diet variant, Caffeine-Free Diet Coke, was the f ...
,
Coca-Cola Zero Sugar Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, also called Coke Zero, is a diet cola produced by The Coca-Cola Company. In some countries, it is sold as Coca-Cola No Sugar. The drink was introduced in 2005 as Coca-Cola Zero as a new no-calorie cola. In 2017, the formu ...
,
Coca-Cola Cherry Coca-Cola Cherry (originally marketed as and still widely referred to as Cherry Coke) is a cherry A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus '' Prunus'', and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). Commercial cherries are obtained from ...
,
Coca-Cola Vanilla Coca-Cola Vanilla (commonly referred to as Vanilla Coke) is a vanilla-flavored version of Coca-Cola, introduced in 2002 but subsequently discontinued in North America and the United Kingdom in 2005, only remaining available as a fountain drink. I ...

Coca-Cola Vanilla
, and special versions with
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...
,
lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to: Botany * Austra ...
, and coffee. Coca-Cola was called Coca-Cola Classic from July 1985 to 2009, to distinguish it from "
New Coke New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Originally marketed as a temperance bar, temperance drink and intended as a patent ...
". Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2020, Coca-Cola was the world's sixth most valuable brand. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 ''Fortune'' 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.


History


19th century historical origins

This refurbished Coca-Cola advertisement from 1943 is still displayed in Minden, Louisiana. Confederate Colonel
John Pemberton John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was an American pharmacist and Confederate States Army veteran who is best known as the inventor of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The ...

John Pemberton
, wounded in the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (American Civil War), Union and sout ...
and addicted to
morphine Morphine is a of the family that is found naturally in a dark brown, resinous form, from the poppy plant ('). It can be taken orally or injected. It acts directly on the (CNS) to induce analgesia and alter perception and emotional respons ...

morphine
, also had a medical degree and began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, his drugstore in
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
, he registered
Pemberton's French Wine Coca Pemberton's French Wine Coca was a coca wine created by the druggist John Pemberton, John Stith Pemberton, the inventor of Coca-Cola. It was an alcoholic beverage, mixed with coca, kola nut, and Turnera diffusa, damiana. The original recipe contai ...
nerve tonic. Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
n
coca wine Coca wine is an alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an important ...
, but his recipe additionally included the
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of i ...

Africa
n
kola nut The term kola nut usually refers to the seeds of certain species of plant of the genus ''Cola'', placed formerly in the cocoa family Sterculiaceae and now usually subsumed in the mallow family Malvaceae (as subfamily Sterculioideae). These c ...

kola nut
, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is also worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola. The rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed
prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture Manufacturing is the production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that st ...

prohibition
legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of
Pemberton's French Wine Coca Pemberton's French Wine Coca was a coca wine created by the druggist John Pemberton, John Stith Pemberton, the inventor of Coca-Cola. It was an alcoholic beverage, mixed with coca, kola nut, and Turnera diffusa, damiana. The original recipe contai ...
. It was marketed as "Coca-Cola: The temperance drink", which appealed to many people as the
temperance movement The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement typically criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence from alcohol (teetotalism), and its leaders emphasize ...
enjoyed wide support during this time. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it initially sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore
soda fountain Image:Soda fountain in China 01.jpg, A The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola soda fountain in Hainan, China, April 2010. A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks. They can be found in restaurants, concess ...
s were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that
carbonated water Carbonated water (also known as soda water, sparkling water, fizzy water, club soda, water with gas or (especially in the United States, U.S.) as seltzer or seltzer water) is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially i ...
was good for the health, and Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a
patent medicine 's "Death's Laboratory" on the cover of ''Collier's'' (June 3, 1905) A patent medicine, also known as a nostrum (from the Latin ''nostrum remedium'', or "our remedy"), is a commercial product advertised (usually heavily) as an over-the-counter me ...
, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, indigestion, nerve disorders, headaches, and
impotence Erectile dysfunction (ED), also called impotence, is the type of sexual dysfunction Sexual dysfunction is difficulty experienced by an individual or partners during any stage of normal Human sexual activity, sexual activity, including physical ...
. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the ''
Atlanta Journal ''The Atlanta Journal-Constitution'' is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a c ...
''. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888, between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy, and E.H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the ''name'' "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the ''formula''. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side. Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by
Emory University Emory University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two dec ...
. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically states: " on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750.


Company

In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company: "The Coca-Cola Company" (the current corporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time. After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, and hoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier, completely out of the business, as well. John Pemberton died suddenly on August 16, 1888. Asa Candler then decided to move swiftly forward to attain full control of the entire Coca-Cola operation. Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic and opium addict, unnerved Asa Candler more than anyone else. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley immediately after he learned of Dr. Pemberton's death. One of several stories states that Candler approached Charley's mother at John Pemberton's funeral and offered her $300 in cash for the title to the name. Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opium by his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40. In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30 888 he
Asa Candler Asa Griggs Candler (December 30, 1851 – March 12, 1929) was an American business tycoon who in 1888 purchased the Coca-Cola formula, Coca-Cola recipe for US$1,750 from chemist John Stith Pemberton in Atlanta Georgia, Atlanta, Georgia. Candler ...

Asa Candler
became the sole proprietor of Coca-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanks and advertising copy." With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler had negotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Woolfolk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000, which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1, 1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca-Cola beverage, with a total investment outlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300. In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, came forward to claim that her signature on the 1888 Coca-Cola Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequent analysis of other similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature had most likely been forged as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley. On September 12, 1919, Coca-Cola Co. was purchased by a group of investors for $25 million and reincorporated in Delaware. The company publicly offered 500,000 shares of the company for $40 a share. In 1986, The Coca-Cola Company merged with two of their bottling operators (owned by JTL Corporation and BCI Holding Corporation) to form Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. (CCE). In December 1991, Coca-Cola Enterprises merged with the Johnston Coca-Cola Bottling Group, Inc.


Origins of bottling

The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company on March 12, 1894. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were
HutchinsonHutchinson may refer to: Places United States * Hutchinson, Kansas * South Hutchinson, Kansas * Hutchinson, Minnesota * Hutchinson, Pennsylvania * Hutchinson, West Virginia, in Logan County * Hutchinson, Marion County, West Virginia * Hutchinso ...
bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design of 1915 now so familiar. A few years later two entrepreneurs from
Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga ( ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of publi ...

Chattanooga, Tennessee
, namely Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea of bottling and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler later realized that he had made a grave mistake. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899, Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company. Candler remained very content just selling his company's syrup. The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for The Coca-Cola Company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers. This contract specified that bottles would be sold at 5¢ each and had no fixed duration, leading to the fixed price of Coca-Cola from 1886 to 1959.


20th century

The first outdoor wall advertisement that promoted the Coca-Cola drink was painted in 1894 in
Cartersville, Georgia Cartersville is a city in Bartow County in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily locate ...
. Cola syrup was sold as an over-the-counter
dietary supplement A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill Pill or The Pill may refer to: Drugs * Pill (pharmacy) A tablet is a pharmaceutical A medication (also referred to as medicine, ...
for upset stomach. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the soft drink had reached the status of a national icon in the US. In 1935, it was certified
kosher ''Kashrut'' (also ''kashruth'' or ''kashrus'', ) is a set of dietary laws Some people do not eat various specific foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions. Many of these prohibition ...

kosher
by Atlanta Rabbi Tobias Geffen with the help of Harold Hirsch, Geffen was the first person to see the top-secret ingredients list after facing scrutiny from the American Jewish population regarding the drink's kosher status, consequently the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients so it could continue to be consumed by Americas Jewish population and during Passover. File:FLEEMANSpharmacyCOKErwLIPACKowner.jpg, Claimed to be the first installation anywhere of the 1948 model "Boat Motor" styled Coca-Cola soda dispenser, Fleeman's Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia. The "Boat Motor" soda dispenser was introduced in the late 1930s and manufactured until the late 1950s. Photograph circa 1948. The longest running commercial Coca-Cola soda fountain anywhere was Atlanta's Fleeman's Pharmacy, which first opened its doors in 1914. Jack Fleeman took over the pharmacy from his father and ran it until 1995; closing it after 81 years. On July 12, 1944, the one-billionth gallon of Coca-Cola syrup was manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955.


New Coke

On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the
formula In , a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a . The informal use of the term ''formula'' in science refers to the . The plural of ''formula'' can be either ''formulas'' (from the mos ...
of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and
Pepsi Pepsi is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a form of m ...

Pepsi
but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's
nostalgia Nostalgia is a sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations. The word ''nostalgia'' is learned formation of a Greek language, Greek compound, consisting of (''nóstos''), meaning "homecoming", a ...

nostalgia
for the old drink, leading to a
backlash Backlash may refer to: * Backlash (engineering), clearance between mating components * Backlash (sociology), a strong adverse reaction to an idea, action, or object * Backlash (pressure group), a UK group opposing the 2008 law criminalising possess ...
. The company gave in to protests and returned to the old formula under the name Coca-Cola Classic, on July 10, 1985. "New Coke" remained available and was renamed Coke II in 1992; it was discontinued in 2002.


21st century

On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
boycotted the company in 1968. In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca-Cola Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola". The word "Classic" was removed because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two. The formula remained unchanged. In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States. The change was part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image. The word "Classic" was removed from all Coca-Cola products by 2011. In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products,
Costco Costco Wholesale Corporation (Trade name, doing business as Costco Wholesale and also known simply as Costco) is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only Big-box store, big-box retail stores (warehouse cl ...
stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke for two months; a separate pouring rights deal in 2013 saw Coke products removed from Costco food courts in favor of Pepsi. Some Costco locations (such as the ones in
Tucson, Arizona Tucson (; es, Tucsón; O'odham The O'odham peoples, including the Tohono O'odham, the Pima Pima or PIMA may refer to: Places * Pima, Arizona, a town in Graham County * Pima County, Arizona * Pima Canyon, in the Santa Catalina Mountains * Pim ...
) additionally sell imported Coca-Cola from Mexico with cane sugar instead of corn syrup from separate distributors. Coca-Cola introduced the 7.5-ounce mini-can in 2009, and on September 22, 2011, the company announced price reductions, asking retailers to sell eight-packs for $2.99. That same day, Coca-Cola announced the 12.5-ounce bottle, to sell for 89 cents. A 16-ounce bottle has sold well at 99 cents since being re-introduced, but the price was going up to $1.19. In 2012, Coca-Cola resumed business in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to U.S.-imposed investment sanctions against the country. Coca-Cola's bottling plant is located in
Yangon , other_name = Rangoon , settlement_type = Metropolitan City in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a count ...

Yangon
and is part of the company's five-year plan and $200 million investment in Myanmar. Coca-Cola with its partners is to invest US$5 billion in its operations in India by 2020. In February 2021, as a plan to combat plastic waste, Coca-Cola said that it would start selling its sodas in bottles made from 100% recycled plastic material in the United States, and by 2030 planned to recycle one bottle or can for each one it sold. Coca-Cola started by selling 2000 paper bottles to see if they held up due to the risk of safety and of changing the taste of the drink.


Production


Listed ingredients

* Carbonated water * Sugar (
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
or
high-fructose corn syrup High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), also known as glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup, is a sweetener made from corn starch. As in the production of conventional corn syrup, the starch is broken down into glucose by enzymes. ...
(HFCS) depending on country of origin) *
Caffeine Caffeine is a central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structu ...

Caffeine
*
Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula . The pure compound is a colorless solid. All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost from the molecule a ...

Phosphoric acid
* * Natural flavorings A typical can of Coca-Cola (12 fl ounces/355 ml) contains 38 grams of sugar, 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories. On May 5, 2014, Coca-Cola said it is working to remove a controversial ingredient, brominated vegetable oil, from all of its drinks.


Formula of natural flavorings

The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients, which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a
trade secret Trade secrets are a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more ...
. The original copy of the formula was held in 's main vault in Atlanta for 86 years. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the
underwriter Underwriting (UW) services are provided by some large financial institutions, such as banks, insurance companies and investment houses, whereby they guarantee payment in case of damage or financial loss and accept the financial risk for liability ...
for the Coca-Cola Company's
initial public offering An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a public offering A public offering is the offering of securities A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal defi ...
in 1919. On December 8, 2011, the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its
World of Coca-Cola The world is the Earth and all life on it, including civilization, human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an Ontology, ontological world (the "world" of an individual). In a theo ...
museum in downtown Atlanta. According to Snopes, a popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula. However, several sources state that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process. On February 11, 2011, Ira Glass said on his PRI radio show, ''
This American Life ''This American Life'' (''TAL'') is an American weekly hour-long radio program produced in collaboration with Chicago Public Media and hosted by Ira Glass. It is broadcast on numerous public radio stations in the United States and international ...
'', that ''TAL'' staffers had found a recipe in "Everett Beal's Recipe Book", reproduced in the February 28, 1979, issue of ''
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution ''The Atlanta Journal-Constitution'' is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a c ...
'', that they believed was either Pemberton's original formula for Coca-Cola, or a version that he made either before or after the product hit the market in 1886. The formula basically matched the one found in Pemberton's diary. Coca-Cola archivist Phil Mooney acknowledged that the recipe "could be a precursor" to the formula used in the original 1886 product, but emphasized that Pemberton's original formula is not the same as the one used in the current product.


Use of stimulants in formula

When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were
cocaine Cocaine (from , from , ultimately from Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''kúka'') is a tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug obtained primarily from the leaves of two coca species native to South America, ''Erythroxylum coca'' and ''Erythroxylu ...

cocaine
and
caffeine Caffeine is a (CNS) of the . It is the world's most widely consumed . Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known to explain the effects of caffeine. The ...

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. The cocaine was derived from the
coca Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family (biology), family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. Coca is known worldwide for its Psychoactive plant, psychoactive alkaloid, cocaine. The plant is grown as a cash crop in ...

coca
leaf and the caffeine from
kola nut The term kola nut usually refers to the seeds of certain species of plant of the genus ''Cola'', placed formerly in the cocoa family Sterculiaceae and now usually subsumed in the mallow family Malvaceae (as subfamily Sterculioideae). These c ...

kola nut
(also spelled "cola nut" at the time), leading to the name Coca-Cola.


Coca leaf

Pemberton called for five
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s of coca leaf per gallon of syrup (approximately 37 g/L), a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton's original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. (For comparison, a typical dose or "line" of cocaine is 50–75 mg.) In 1903, it was removed. After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using "spent" leaves – the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine. Since then, Coca-Cola has used a cocaine-free coca leaf extract. Today, that extract is prepared at a Stepan Company plant in
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Maywood, New Jersey
, the only manufacturing plant authorized by the federal government to import and process coca leaves, which it obtains from Peru and Bolivia. Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it then sells to
Mallinckrodt Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals is an American-Irish domiciled manufacturer of specialty pharmaceuticals (namely, adrenocorticotropic hormone), generic drugs and imaging agents. In 2017 it generated 90% of its sales from the U.S. healthcare system. ...

Mallinckrodt
, the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for . Long after the syrup had ceased to contain any significant amount of cocaine, in
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"dope" remained a common colloquialism for Coca-Cola, and "dope-wagons" were trucks that transported it.


Kola nuts for caffeine

The kola nut acts as a flavoring and the original source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. It contains about 2.0 to 3.5% caffeine, and has a bitter flavor. In 1911, the U.S. government sued in '' United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola'', hoping to force the Coca-Cola Company to remove caffeine from its formula. The court found that the syrup, when diluted as directed, would result in a beverage containing 1.21
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(or 78.4 mg) of caffeine per serving. The case was decided in favor of the Coca-Cola Company at the district court, but subsequently in 1912, the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label. In 1913 the case was appealed to the Sixth Circuit in Cincinnati, where the ruling was affirmed, but then appealed again in 1916 to the Supreme Court, where the government effectively won as a new trial was ordered. The company then voluntarily reduced the amount of caffeine in its product, and offered to pay the government's legal costs to settle and avoid further litigation. Coca-Cola contains 34 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces (9.8 mg per 100 ml).


Franchised production model

The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, putting the mixture into cans and bottles, and carbonating it, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, such as
Coca-Cola Enterprises Coca-Cola Enterprises was a marketer, producer, and distributor of The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola products. It was formerly the anchor bottler for Western Europe and most of North America. Coca-Cola Enterprises' products included Coca-Cola, Di ...
,
Coca-Cola Amatil Coca-Cola Amatil Limited (CCA) is one of the largest bottlers of non-alcoholic ready-to-drink beverages in the Asia-Pacific region and one of the world's five major Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured ...
,
Coca-Cola Hellenic Coca-Cola HBC AG also known as Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company or just Coca-Cola Hellenic is the world's third-largest Coca-Cola anchor bottler in terms of volume with sales of more than 2 billion unit cases. Coca-Cola HBC's shares are primaril ...
Bottling Company, and
Coca-Cola FEMSA Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V., known as Coca-Cola FEMSA or KOF, is a Mexican Multinational corporation, multinational beverage company headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico. It is a subsidiary of FEMSA which owns 47.8% of its stock, with 27.8% hel ...
, as well as some smaller ones, such as Coca-Cola Bottlers Uzbekistan, but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes. The bottling plant in
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, received the 2009 award for "Best Bottling Company".


Geographic spread

Since it announced its intention to begin distribution in Myanmar in June 2012, Coca-Cola has been officially available in every country in the world except Cuba and North Korea. However, it is reported to be available in both countries as a
grey import Grey or gray (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engl ...
. Coca-Cola has been a point of legal discussion in the Middle East. In the early 20th century, a
fatwa A fatwā (, also ; ar, فتوىٰ; plural ''fatāwā'' ) is a nonbinding legal opinion In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a ...

fatwa
was created in Egypt to discuss the question of "whether Muslims were permitted to drink Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola." The fatwa states: "According to the Muslim Hanefite, Shafi'ite, etc., the rule in Islamic law of forbidding or allowing foods and beverages is based on the presumption that such things are permitted unless it can be shown that they are forbidden on the basis of the Qur'an." The Muslim jurists stated that, unless the Qu'ran specifically prohibits the consumption of a particular product, it is permissible to consume. Another clause was discussed, whereby the same rules apply if a person is unaware of the condition or ingredients of the item in question.


Brand portfolio

This is a list of variants of Coca-Cola introduced around the world. In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years. Not included here are versions of
Diet Coke Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Light or Coca-Cola Light Taste is a sugar-free and no-calorie soft drink produced and distributed by the Coca-Cola Company. It contains artificial sweeteners instead of sugar. Unveiled on July 8, 1982, and introduced in the ...
and
Coca-Cola Zero Sugar Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, also called Coke Zero, is a diet cola produced by The Coca-Cola Company. In some countries, it is sold as Coca-Cola No Sugar. The drink was introduced in 2005 as Coca-Cola Zero as a new no-calorie cola. In 2017, the formu ...
; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles. *
Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola was introduced in 1983 as a Decaffeination, caffeine-free variant of Coca-Cola. It was introduced to compete against Pepsi Free, which is now called Caffeine-Free Pepsi. The diet variant, Caffeine-Free Diet Coke, was the f ...
(1983–present) – Coca-Cola without the caffeine. *
Coca-Cola Cherry Coca-Cola Cherry (originally marketed as and still widely referred to as Cherry Coke) is a cherry A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus '' Prunus'', and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). Commercial cherries are obtained from ...
(1985–present) – Coca-Cola with a cherry flavor. Was available in Canada starting in 1996. Originally marketed as Cherry Coke (Cherry Coca-Cola) in North America until 2006. *
New Coke New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Originally marketed as a temperance bar, temperance drink and intended as a patent ...
/ Coca-Cola II (1985–2002) – An unpopular formula change, remained after the original formula quickly returned and was later rebranded as Coca-Cola II until its full discontinuation in 2002. In 2019, New Coke was re-introduced to the market to promote the third season of the
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.'' * Golden Coca-Cola (2001) was a limited edition produced by Beijing Coca-Cola company to celebrate Beijing's successful bid to host the
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. * Coca-Cola with Lemon (2001–05) – Coca-Cola with a lemon flavor. Available in: Australia,
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American Samoa
, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark,
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, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand,
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, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States and
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Coca-Cola Vanilla Coca-Cola Vanilla (commonly referred to as Vanilla Coke) is a vanilla-flavored version of Coca-Cola, introduced in 2002 but subsequently discontinued in North America and the United Kingdom in 2005, only remaining available as a fountain drink. I ...

Coca-Cola Vanilla
(2002–05; 2007–present) – Coca-Cola with a vanilla flavor. Available in: Austria, Australia, China, Czech Republic, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Malaysia, Slovakia, South-Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States. It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand. *
Coca-Cola with Lime Coca-Cola with Lime was a variation of the original Coca-Cola. It was introduced in North America in the first quarter of 2005, before being quietly discontinued in 2006. The formula is the same as regular Coke but with added Lime (fruit), lime fl ...
(2005–present) – Coca-Cola with a lime flavor. Available in Belgium, Lithuania, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. *
Coca-Cola Raspberry Coca-Cola Raspberry is a Coca-Cola drink with a raspberry flavor that was sold in New Zealand on a trial basis. A Diet Coke Raspberry version was also sold. Both were first introduced on June 1, 2005 and had been discontinued by the end of the yea ...
(2005; 2009–present) – Coca-Cola with a raspberry flavor. Originally only available in New Zealand. Available in: Australia, United States, and the United Kingdom in
Coca-Cola Freestyle Coca-Cola Freestyle is a touch screen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information ...
fountain since 2009. * Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla (2006–07) – Coca-Cola with a combination of black cherry and vanilla flavor. It replaced and was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007. * Coca-Cola Blāk (2006–08) – Coca-Cola with a rich coffee flavor, formula depends on the country. Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Lithuania * Coca-Cola Citra (2005–present) – Coca-Cola with a citrus flavor. Only available in Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand, and Japan. * Coca-Cola Orange (2007) – Coca-Cola with an orange flavor. Was available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar for a limited time. In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland it is sold under the label Mezzo Mix. Currently available in
Coca-Cola Freestyle Coca-Cola Freestyle is a touch screen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information ...
fountain outlets in the United States since 2009 and in the United Kingdom since 2014. * Coca-Cola Life (2013–2020) – A version of Coca-Cola with stevia and sugar as sweeteners rather than simply sugar. * Coca-Cola Ginger (2016–present) – A version that mixes in the taste of ginger beer. Available in Australia, New Zealand, and as a limited edition in Vietnam. * Coca-Cola Orange Vanilla (2019–present) – Coca-Cola with an orange vanilla flavor (intended to imitate the flavor of an orange Creamsicle). Made available nationwide in the United States on February 25, 2019. * Coca-Cola Energy (2019–present) – An energy drink with a flavor similar to standard Coca-Cola, with guarana, vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide, niacinamide), vitamin b6, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride), and extra caffeine. Introduced in 2019 in the United Kingdom, and released in the United States and Canada in January 2020. Also available in zero-sugar, cherry, and zero-sugar + cherry variants. In May 2021, the company announced they would discontinue the product in North America but it will remain available in other places and it will focus on its traditional beverages. * Coca-Cola Cinnamon (2019–present) – Coca-Cola with cinnamon flavor. Released in October 2019 in the United States as a limited release for the 2019 holiday season. Made available again in 2020 for the holiday season. * * * Coca-Cola Cherry Vanilla (2020–present) – Coca-Cola with cherry vanilla flavor. Released in the United States on February 10, 2020. *Coca-Cola with Coffee (2019–present) – Coca-Cola, with coffee. Introduced in 2019 in various European markets, and released in the United States and Canada in January 2021. Available in dark blend, vanilla and caramel versions, and also in zero-sugar dark blend and vanilla variants.


Logo design

The Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The writing style used, known as Spencerian Script, was developed in the mid-19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period. Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs. Coca-Cola came under Coke Fatwa, scrutiny in Egypt in 1951 because of a conspiracy theory that the Coca-Cola logo, when reflected in a mirror, spells out "No Mohammed no Mecca" in Arabic.


Contour bottle design

The Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean and Coca-Cola's general counsel, Harold Hirsch. In 1915, The Coca-Cola Company was represented by their general counsel to launch a competition among its bottle suppliers as well as any competition entrants to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was." Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the
kola nut The term kola nut usually refers to the seeds of certain species of plant of the genus ''Cola'', placed formerly in the cocoa family Sterculiaceae and now usually subsumed in the mallow family Malvaceae (as subfamily Sterculioideae). These c ...

kola nut
, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopædia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Root gave Dean his approval. Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for The Coca-Cola Company. A revised version was also patented in 1923. Because the Patent Office releases the ''Patent Gazette'' on Tuesday, the bottle was patented on December 25, 1923, and was nicknamed the "Christmas bottle." Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!". As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories. Raymond Loewy updated the design in 1955 to accommodate larger formats. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian fashion, Victorian Hoop skirt, hooped dress. In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for product liability, defective products. Traynor's concurring opinion in ''Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co.'' is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.


Examples

File:ContourBottleConceptSketch.jpg, Earl R. Dean's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca-Cola bottle File:1915 contour Coca-Cola contour bottle prototype.png, The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts File:Coca-Cola 1915 Contour bottle.jpg, Final production version with slimmer middle section File:6 Coca-Cola bottles.jpg, Numerous historical Coke bottles


Designer bottles

Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca-Cola Contour bottle. A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca-Cola Light soda have been created in the last few years, including Jean Paul Gaultier. In 2009, in Italy, Coca-Cola Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate 100 years of the recognizable contour bottle. Well known Italian designers Alberta Ferretti, Blufin, Blumarine, Etro, Fendi, Marni (fashion house), Marni, Missoni, Moschino, and Versace each designed limited edition bottles. In 2019, Coca-Cola shared the first beverage bottle made with ocean plastic.


Competitors

Pepsi Pepsi is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a form of m ...

Pepsi
, the flagship product of PepsiCo, The Coca-Cola Company's main rival in the soft drink industry, is usually second to Coke in sales, and outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. RC Cola, now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, the third-largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available. Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, also known as Big Cola, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. On the French island of
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra Brewery, Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season. In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales. In the former East Germany, Vita Cola, invented during Communist rule, is gaining popularity. In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993. , Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India. Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola are competitors to Coca-Cola in the Middle East. In Turkey, Cola Turka, in Iran and the Middle East, Zamzam Cola and Parsi Cola, in some parts of China, China Cola, in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Kofola, in Slovenia, Cockta, and the inexpensive Mercator Cola, sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator (retail), Mercator, are some of the brand's competitors. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions. In 2021, Coca-Cola petitioned to cancel registrations for the marks Thums Up and Limca issued to Meenaxi Enterprise, Inc. based on misrepresentation of source. The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board concluded that "Meenaxi engaged in blatant misuse in a manner calculated to trade on the goodwill and reputation of Coca-Cola in an attempt to confuse consumers in the United States that its Thums Up and Limca marks were licensed or produced by the source of the same types of cola and lemon-lime soda sold under these marks for decades in India."


Advertising

File:Ft Dodge ghost sign.jpg, Coca-Cola ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa. Older Coca-Cola ghosts behind Borax and telephone ads. April 2008. Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected Culture of the United States, American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was already common.See George McKa
'Consumption, Coca-colonisation, cultural resistance – and Santa Claus'
, in Sheila Whiteley, ed. (2008) ''Christmas, Ideology and Popular Culture''. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 50–70.
Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915. Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark (model), Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman. 1941 saw the first use of the nickname "Coke" as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that "Coke means Coca-Cola". In 1971, a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing", produced by Roquel Billy Davis, Billy Davis, became a hit single. During the 1950s the term "cola wars" emerged, describing the on-going battle between Coca-Cola and Pepsi for supremacy in the soft drink industry. Coca-Cola and Pepsi were competing with new products, global expansion, US marketing initiatives and sport sponsorships. Coke's advertising is pervasive, as one of Ernest Woodruff, Woodruff's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta, where Coke was born. Some Coca-Cola Television advertisement, television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta radio veteran Don Naylor (WGKA, WGST 1936–1950, WAGA (TV), WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Erickson advertising agency. Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes, and popular singers. During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke ''actually'' chose the Pepsi." Statisticians pointed out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, the taste tests showed that in blind tests, most people cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the ''cola wars''; one of Coke's ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two common chimpanzee, chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market. Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from 1989 until the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. During 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola's ownership, Columbia began to underperform, and the studio was sold to Sony in 1989. Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes", "I had like to buy the world a Coke", and "Coke is it". In 1999, The Coca-Cola Company introduced the Coke Card, a loyalty program that offered deals on items like clothes, entertainment and food when the cardholder purchased a Coca-Cola Classic. The scheme was cancelled after three years, with a Coca-Cola spokesperson declining to state why. The company then introduced another loyalty campaign in 2006, My Coke Rewards. This allows consumers to earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries. In Australia in 2011, Coca-Cola began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca-Cola logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names. Coca-Cola used the 150 most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles. The campaign was paired with a website page, Facebook page, and an online "share a virtual Coke". The same campaign was introduced to Coca-Cola, Diet Coke & Coke Zero bottles and cans in the UK in 2013. Coca-Cola has also advertised its product to be consumed as a breakfast beverage, instead of coffee or tea for the morning caffeine.


5 cents

From 1886 to 1959, the price of Coca-Cola was fixed at five cents, in part due to an advertising campaign.


Holiday campaigns

Throughout the years, Coca-Cola has released limited-time collector bottles for Christmas. The "Holidays are coming!" advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca-Cola name and decorated with Christmas lights, driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through. The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca-Cola company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2007, the company brought back the campaign after, according to the company, many consumers telephoned its information center saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas. The advertisement was created by U.S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company's global advertising campaign for many years. Keith Law, a producer and writer of commercials for Belfast CityBeat, was not convinced by Coca-Cola's reintroduction of the advertisement in 2007, saying that "I do not think there's anything Christmassy about Heavy Goods Vehicle, HGVs and the commercial is too generic." In 2001, singer Melanie Thornton recorded the campaign's advertising jingle as a single, "Wonderful Dream (Holidays are Coming)", which entered the pop-music charts in Germany at no. 9. In 2005, Coca-Cola expanded the advertising campaign to radio, employing several variations of the jingle. In 2011, Coca-Cola launched a campaign for the Indian holiday Diwali. The campaign included commercials, a song, and an integration with Shah Rukh Khan's film ''Ra.One''.


Sports sponsorship

Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor (commercial), sponsor of the Olympic Games, at the 1928 Summer Olympics, 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since. This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca-Cola has released localized commercials for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada's hockey heritage and was modified after Canada won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010, by changing the ending line of the commercial to say "Now they know whose game they're playing". Since 1978 FIFA World Cup, 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored the FIFA World Cup, and other competitions organized by FIFA. One FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA U-20 World Cup, FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 FIFA World Youth Championship, 1977 to Malaysia in 1997 FIFA World Youth Championship, 1997, was called "FIFA – Coca-Cola Cup". In addition, Coca-Cola sponsors NASCAR's annual Coca-Cola 600 and Coke Zero Sugar 400 at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida; since 2020, Coca-Cola has served as a premier partner of the NASCAR Cup Series, which includes holding the naming rights to the series' regular season championship trophy. Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball, the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League, as well as with many teams within those leagues. Coca-Cola has had a longtime relationship with the NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers, due in part to the now-famous Hey Kid, Catch!, 1979 television commercial featuring Joe Greene (American football), "Mean Joe" Greene, leading to the two opening the Coca-Cola Great Hall at Heinz Field in 2001 and a more recent Coca-Cola Zero commercial featuring Troy Polamalu. Coca-Cola is the official soft drink of many College football, collegiate football teams throughout the nation, partly due to Coca-Cola providing those schools with upgraded athletic facilities in exchange for Coca-Cola's sponsorship. This is especially prevalent at the high school level, which is more dependent on such contracts due to tighter budgets. Coca-Cola was one of the official sponsors of the 1996 Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent. Coca-Cola is also one of the associate sponsors of Delhi Daredevils in the Indian Premier League. In England, Coca-Cola was the main sponsor of The Football League between 2004 and 2010, a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League in association football, soccer (football). In 2005, Coca-Cola launched a competition for the 72 clubs of The Football League – it was called "Win a Player". This allowed fans to place one vote per day for their favorite club, with one entry being chosen at random earning £250,000 for the club; this was repeated in 2006. The "Win A Player" competition was very controversial, as at the end of the 2 competitions, Leeds United A.F.C. had the most votes by more than double, yet they did not win any money to spend on a new player for the club. In 2007, the competition changed to "Buy a Player". This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca-Cola or Coca-Cola Zero and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca-Cola website. This code could then earn anything from 50p to £100,000 for a club of their choice. This competition was favored over the old "Win a Player" competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money. Between 1992 and 1998, Coca-Cola was the title sponsor of the Football League Cup (Coca-Cola Cup), the secondary cup tournament of England. Starting in 2019–20 Premier League, 2019–20 season, Drinks giant Coca-Cola has agreed its biggest UK sponsorship deal by becoming Premier League football's seventh and final commercial partner for the UK and Republic of Ireland, Ireland, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Egyptian and the West African markets. Between 1994 and 1997, Coca-Cola was also the title sponsor of the Scottish League Cup, renaming it to the Coca-Cola Cup like its English counterpart. From 1998 to 2001, the company was the title sponsor of the Northern Ireland Football League Cup, Irish League Cup in Northern Ireland, where it was named the Coca-Cola League Cup. Coca-Cola is the presenting sponsor of the Tour Championship, the final event of the PGA Tour held each year at East Lake Golf Club in Atlanta, GA. Introduced March 1, 2010, in Canada, to celebrate the 2010 Winter Olympics, Coca-Cola sold gold colored cans in packs of 12 each, in select stores. Coca-Cola which has been a partner with UEFA since 1988.


In mass media

Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in many films and television programs. It was a major plot element in films such as One, Two, Three, The Coca-Cola Kid, and The Gods Must Be Crazy, among many others. In music, in the Beatles' song, "Come Together", the lyrics say, "He shoot Coca-Cola", he say.... The Beach Boys also referenced Coca-Cola in their 1964 song "All Summer Long" (i.e. Member when you spilled Coke all over your blouse?) The best selling solo artist of all time Elvis Presley, promoted Coca-Cola during his Elvis in Concert, last tour of 1977. The Coca-Cola Company used Elvis' image to promote the product. For example, the company used a song performed by Presley, A Little Less Conversation, in a Japanese Coca-Cola commercial. Other artists that promoted Coca-Cola include David Bowie, George Michael, Elton John, and Whitney Houston, who appeared in the Diet Coke commercial, among many others. Not all musical references to Coca-Cola went well. A line in "Lola (song), Lola" by the Kinks was originally recorded as "You drink champagne and it tastes just like Coca-Cola." When the British Broadcasting Corporation refused to play the song because of the commercial reference, lead singer Ray Davies re-recorded the lyric as "it tastes just like cherry cola" to get airplay for the song. Political cartoonist Michel Kichka satirized a famous Coca-Cola billboard in his 1982 poster "And I Love New York." On the billboard, the Coca-Cola wave is accompanied by the words "Enjoy Coke." In Kichka's poster, the lettering and script above the Coca-Cola wave instead read "Enjoy Cocaine."


Use as political and corporate symbol

Coca-Cola has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America, criticized as Cocacolonization. After World War II, this gave rise to the brief production of White Coke by the request of and for Soviet Union, Soviet Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal Georgy Zhukov, who did not want to be seen drinking a symbol of American imperialism. The bottles were given by the President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eisenhower during a conference, and Marshal Zhukov enjoyed the drink. The bottles were disguised as vodka bottles, with the cap having a red star design, to avoid suspicion of Soviet officials. The drink is also often a metonymy, metonym for the Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola was introduced to China in 1927, and was very popular until 1949. After the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949, the beverage was no longer imported into China, as it was perceived to be a symbol of decadent Western culture and the capitalism, capitalist lifestyle. Importation and sales of the beverage resumed in 1979, after diplomatic relations between the United States and China were restored. There are some consumer boycotts of Coca-Cola in Arab world, Arab countries due to Coke's early investment in Israel during the Arab League boycott of Israel (its competitor Pepsi stayed out of Israel). Mecca-Cola and Pepsi are popular alternatives in the Middle East. A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser (officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus or FGBA) was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water, and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation. FGBA-1 flew on STS-63 in 1995 and dispensed pre-mixed beverages, followed by FGBA-2 on STS-77 the next year. The latter mixed CO₂, water, and syrup to make beverages. It supplied 1.65 liters each of Coca-Cola and Diet Coke.


Medicinal application

Coca-Cola is sometimes used for the Coca-Cola treatment of phytobezoars, treatment of gastric phytobezoars. In about 50% of cases studied, Coca-Cola alone was found to be effective in gastric phytobezoar dissolution. Unfortunately, this treatment can result in the potential of developing small bowel obstruction in a minority of cases, necessitating surgical intervention.


Criticism

Criticism of Coca-Cola has arisen from various groups around the world, concerning a variety of issues, including health effects, environmental issues, and business practices. The drink's coca flavoring, and the nickname "Coke", remain a common theme of criticism due to the relationship with the illegal drug
cocaine Cocaine (from , from , ultimately from Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''kúka'') is a tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug obtained primarily from the leaves of two coca species native to South America, ''Erythroxylum coca'' and ''Erythroxylu ...

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. In 1911, the US government seized 40 barrels and 20 kegs of Coca-Cola syrup in
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Chattanooga, Tennessee
, alleging the caffeine in its drink was "injurious to health", leading to amended food safety legislation. Beginning in the 1940s, Pepsi started marketing their drinks to African Americans, a niche market that was largely ignored by white-owned manufacturers in the US, and was able to use its anti-racism stance as a selling point, attacking Coke's reluctance to hire blacks and support by the chairman of The Coca-Cola Company for segregationist Governor of Georgia Herman Talmadge. As a result of this campaign, Pepsi's market share as compared to Coca-Cola's shot up dramatically in the 1950s with African American soft-drink consumers three times more likely to purchase Pepsi over Coke. The Coca-Cola Company, its subsidiaries and products have been subject to sustained criticism by consumer groups, Environmental activists, environmentalists, and Consumer organization, watchdogs, particularly since the early 2000s. In 2019, BreakFreeFromPlastic named Coca-Cola the single biggest plastic polluter in the world. After 72,541 volunteers collected 476,423 pieces of plastic waste from around where they lived, a total of 11,732 pieces were found to be labeled with a Coca-Cola brand (including the Dasani, Sprite, and Fanta brands) in 37 countries across four continents. At the 2020 World Economic Forum in Davos, Coca-Cola's Head of Sustainability, Bea Perez, said customers like them because they reseal and are lightweight, and "business won't be in business if we don't accommodate consumers." Coca-Cola Classic is rich in sugars, especially
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sucrose
, which causes dental caries when consumed regularly. Besides this, the high caloric value of the sugars themselves can contribute to obesity. Both are major health issues in the developed world. In February 2021, Coca-Cola received criticism after a video of a training session, which told employees to "try to be less white", was leaked by an employee. The session also said in order to be "less white" employees had to be less "arrogant" and "defensive".


Colombian death-squad allegations

In July 2001, the Coca-Cola company was sued over its alleged use of political far-right wing death squads (the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia) to kidnap, torture, and kill Colombian bottler workers that were linked with trade union activity. Coca-Cola was sued in a US federal court in Miami by the Colombian food and drink union Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la Industria de Alimentos, Sinaltrainal. The suit alleged that Coca-Cola was indirectly responsible for having "contracted with or otherwise directed paramilitary security forces that utilized extreme violence and murdered, tortured, unlawfully detained or otherwise silenced trade union leaders". This sparked campaigns to boycott Coca-Cola in the UK, US, Germany, Italy, and Australia. Javier Correa, the president of Sinaltrainal, said the campaign aimed to put pressure on Coca-Cola "to mitigate the pain and suffering" that union members had suffered. Speaking from the Coca-Cola company's headquarters in Atlanta, company spokesperson Rafael Fernandez Quiros said "Coca-Cola denies any connection to any human-rights violation of this type" and added "We do not own or operate the plants".


See also

* Coca-Cola HBC AG * Coca-Cola treatment of phytobezoars * Colalife * Fanta * List of Coca-Cola brands * List of soft drink flavors * Mexican Coke * Neiman Marcus#History, Neiman Marcus * OpenCola (drink) * Premix and postmix


References


Further reading

* Allen, Frederick. ''Secret Formula: How Brilliant Marketing and Relentless Salesmanship Made Coca-Cola the Best-Known Product in the World''. New York: Harper Business, 1994. * Blanding, Michael. ''The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink.'' New York: Avery, 2010. * Elmore, Bartow J. "Citizen Coke: An Environmental and Political History of the Coca-Cola Company," ''Enterprise & Society'' (2013) 14#4 pp 717–73
online
* * * Hays, Constance L. ''The Real Thing: Truth and Power at the Coca-Cola Company.'' New York: Random House, 2004. * Kahn, Ely J., Jr. ''The Big Drink: The Story of Coca-Cola.'' New York: Random House, 1960. * Louis, Jill Chen and Harvey Z. Yazijian. ''The Cola Wars.'' New York: Everest House Publishers, 1980. * Oliver, Thomas. ''The Real Coke, The Real Story.'' New York: Random House, 1986. * Pendergrast, Mark. ''For God, Country, and Coca-Cola: The Unauthorized History of the Great American Soft Drink And the Company That Makes It.'' New York: Basic Books, 2000.


Primary sources

* Isdell, Neville. ''Inside Coca-Cola: A CEO's Life Story of Building the World's Most Popular Brand. With the assistance of David Beasley.'' New York: St. Martin's Press, 2011.


External links

*
Kinescope of a live 1954 TV commercial for Coca-Cola (Internet Archive)

Coca-Cola Advertising History

The Contour Bottle

Coca-Cola: Refreshing Memories
– slideshow by ''Life magazine''
China Advisory: Avoiding the Wax Tadpole – Effective Chinese Language Trademark Strategy
Chinese language trademark for Coca-Cola {{Authority control 1886 establishments in Georgia (U.S. state) American drinks American inventions Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola brands Cola brands Kosher drinks Patent medicines Products introduced in 1886 Caffeinated soft drinks