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Kaaba
The KAABA (Arabic : ٱلْكَعْبَة‎‎ al-kaʿbah IPA: , "The Cube"), also referred as AL-KA`BAH AL-MUSHARRAFAH (The Holy Kaaba), is a building at the center of Islam
Islam
's most sacred mosque , that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic : الـمَـسـجِـد الـحَـرَام‎‎, The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
), in Mecca
Mecca
, Hejaz
Hejaz
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. It is the most sacred site in Islam
Islam
. It is considered by Muslims to be the bayt Allāh, the "House of God", and has a similar role to the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
and Holy of Holies in Judaism
Judaism
. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba when performing salat (prayer). From any point in the world, the direction facing the Kaaba
Kaaba
is called the qibla
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Cardinal Direction
The four CARDINAL DIRECTIONS or CARDINAL POINTS are the directions north , east , south , and west , commonly denoted by their initials, N, E, S, W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Points between the cardinal directions form the points of the compass . The INTERMEDIATE (INTERCARDINAL or ORDINAL) DIRECTIONS are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW). The intermediate direction of every set of intercardinal and cardinal direction is called a secondary-intercardinal direction, the eight shortest points in the compass rose that is shown to the right—i.e., NNE, ENE, ESE, etc
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Compass
A COMPASS is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points). Usually, a diagram called a compass rose shows the directions north , south , east , and west on the compass face as abbreviated initials. When the compass is used, the rose can be aligned with the corresponding geographic directions; for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points northward. Compasses often display markings for angles in degrees in addition to (or sometimes instead of) the rose. North
North
corresponds to 0°, and the angles increase clockwise , so east is 90° degrees, south is 180°, and west is 270°. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings , which are commonly stated in this notation. Among the Four Great Inventions , the magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since c
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Crucible
A CRUCIBLE is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass , and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes. While crucibles historically were usually made from clay, they can be made from any material that withstands temperatures high enough to melt or otherwise alter its contents. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Typology and chronology * 1.2 Chalcolithic * 1.3 Iron Age
Iron Age
* 1.4 Medieval period * 1.5 Post Medieval * 2 Modern-day uses * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Bibliography HISTORYTYPOLOGY AND CHRONOLOGYThe form of the crucibles has varied through time, with designs reflecting the process for which they are used, as well as regional variation. The earliest crucible forms derive from the sixth/fifth millennium B.C. in Eastern Europe and Iran
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Oil Lamp
An OIL LAMP is an object used to produce light continuously for a period of time using an oil-based fuel source. The use of oil lamps began thousands of years ago and continues to this day, although not commonly anymore. They are often associated with stories in which rubbing an oil lamp would summon a genie dwelling in it, like seen in Aladdin
Aladdin
. Oil lamps are a form of lighting , and were used as an alternative to candles before the use of electric lights. Starting in 1780, the Argand lamp quickly replaced other oil lamps still in their basic ancient form. These in turn were replaced by the kerosene lamp in about 1850. In small towns and rural areas the latter continued in use well into the 20th century, until such areas were finally electrified and light bulbs could be used
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Granite
GRANITE ( /ˈɡrænᵻt/ ) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar , although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Summer Solstice
The SUMMER SOLSTICE (or ESTIVAL SOLSTICE), also known as MIDSUMMER , occurs when a planet's rotational axis , or geographic pole on either its northern or its southern hemisphere , is most inclined toward the star that it orbits. On the summer solstice, Earth's maximum axial tilt toward the Sun
Sun
is 23.44°. (Likewise, the Sun's declination from the celestial equator is +23.44° in the Northern Sky and −23.44° in the Southern Sky .) This happens twice each year (once in each hemisphere), when the Sun
Sun
reaches its highest position in the sky as seen from the north or south pole . The summer solstice occurs during the hemisphere's summer . This is the northern solstice in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and the southern solstice in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere

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Winter Solstice
The WINTER SOLSTICE (or HIBERNAL SOLSTICE), also known as MIDWINTER, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year. In the Northern Hemisphere this is the December solstice and in the Southern Hemisphere this is the June solstice . The axial tilt of Earth and gyroscopic effects of its daily rotation mean that the two opposite points in the sky to which the Earth's axis of rotation points (axial precession ) change very slowly (making a complete circle approximately every 26,000 years). As the Earth follows its orbit around the Sun, the polar hemisphere that faced away from the Sun, experiencing winter, will, in half a year, face towards the Sun and experience summer. This is because the two hemispheres face opposite directions along Earth's axis, and so as one polar hemisphere experiences winter , the other experiences summer
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraq * جمهورية العراق ( Arabic
Arabic
) * کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms
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Prophet
In religion , a PROPHET is an individual who has claimed to have been contacted by a divine being, specifically a god or goddess, and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy , which transports – at least in Judaism
Judaism
– a message beyond mere pagan soothsaying , augury , divination , or forecasting , and, most prominently in the neviim of the Tanakh
Tanakh
, often comprises issues of social justice
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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar
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Yemen
Coordinates : 15°N 48°E / 15°N 48°E / 15; 48 Republic of Yemen
Yemen
(Yemeni Republic) الجمهورية اليمنية ( Arabic
Arabic
) al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah Flag Emblem MOTTO: الله، الوَطَن، الثَورة، ا
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Dua
In the terminology of Islam
Islam
, DUʿāʾ ( Arabic
Arabic
: دُعَاء‎‎ IPA: , plural: ʾadʿiyah أدْعِيَة ; archaically transliterated DOOWA ), literally meaning "invocation ", is an act of supplication . The term is derived from an Arabic
Arabic
word meaning to 'call out' or to 'summon', and Muslims regard this as a profound act of worship
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Judaism
JUDAISM (originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah "; via Latin
Latin
and Greek ) is an ancient, monotheistic , Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion , philosophy and culture of the Jewish people . Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel
Israel
. Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
Talmud

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Censer
A CENSER, INCENSE BURNER or PERFUME BURNER (these may be hyphenated ) is a vessel made for burning incense or perfume in some solid form. These vessels vary greatly in size, form, and material of construction, and have been in use since ancient times in many cultures, in both secular and religious contexts. They may consist of simple earthenware bowls or fire pots to intricately carved silver or gold vessels, small table top objects a few centimetres tall to as many as several metres high. Many designs use openwork to allow a flow of air. In many cultures, burning incense has spiritual and religious connotations, and this influences the design and decoration of the censer. Some types could also be used as pomanders , where the perfume diffuses slowly by evaporation rather than burning
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List Of Religions And Spiritual Traditions
Religion
Religion
is a collection of cultural systems , beliefs and world views that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes to moral values. While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz , who simply called it a "cultural system." A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives , symbols , traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality , ethics , religious laws , or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature . According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world
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